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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration and mobility of third-country national labour workers to and inside Europe during the Covid-19 pandemic – a legal analysis
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Comparative Migration Studies (2021), 9(22), 17

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was asymmetrical, individualistic and significantly slow. The first measures taken were to close down the internal borders. The European Union's response was even slower, and it was not until 17th March 2020 that the external borders were closed. These actions affected legal migration into the European Union from four perspectives: it affected 1) the mobility of those third-country nationals who were on a temporary stay in the EU Member States; 2) the entry of third-country nationals to do seasonal work; 3) legal migrants entering and staying; and 4) the status of the third-country nationals already residing in the EU Member States, especially those experiencing a loss of income. This article will deal with the EU Member States' measures to manage the immigration services, as a case study how Luxembourg dealt to avoid that temporary staying migrants and regular migrants fall into irregularity. Finally, we will focus on the vulnerability of third-country nationals with the rising risk of unemployment and the risk of being returned to their country of origin. The article will also analyse access to healthcare and unemployment benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailDetention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg. Luxembourgish legislation, namely the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on Free Movement of Persons and Immigration (Immigration Law) and the Law of 18 December 2015 on International Protection and Temporary Protection (Asylum Law), foresees three alternatives to detention: - Alternative 1: Reporting obligations, which includes the obligation to surrender a passport, travel document or identity document; - Alternative 2: Home custody (+ electronic monitoring, if necessary); - Alternative 3: Deposition of a financial guarantee of 5.000€. In principle, the assessment between detention or alternatives to detention is made at the same time as when the grounds for detention are considered, as long as the Directorate of Immigration, as the responsible authority, has all the necessary information to decide if an alternative to detention can be ordered. Furthermore, the possibility to impose an alternative to detention is in principle systemically considered, as both relevant laws foresee that the detention decision is ordered in writing by the Minister on the basis of a case-by-case assessment, where necessary and if other less coercive measures cannot be effectively applied. Grounds for detention are generally rejected in favour of an alternative to detention if the person concerned falls within the category of vulnerable groups and if person is able to proof effective guarantees of representation to prevent the risk of absconding. This latter obligation on the third-country national to revert the legal presumption that there is a risk of absconding remains the main challenge because effective guarantees of representation are not defined by law. This is particularly challenging in the context of return procedures, where this legal presumption exists in nearly all cases where a third-country national has no valid identity, travel or residence documents. In the absence of such effective guarantees of representation, the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum generally does not make the decision to apply an alternative to detention. Consequently, the research in the context of this study has shown that alternatives to detention are only rarely used in Luxembourg, with the important exception of home custody in the Emergency Housing Structure of Kirchberg (‘Structure d’hébergement d’urgence Kirchberg’ – SHUK). The SHUK serves as a semi-open return facility for applicants for international protection and irregularly staying third-country nationals whose fingerprints have already been registered in Eurodac by another Member State and are therefore likely to be transferred to that Member State, in accordance with the Dublin III Regulation. A placement at the SHUK corresponds to home custody. The rare use of alternatives to detention also results in the fact that there is generally not much data available in this regard, with the important exception of home custody in the SHUK, which is more widely used. [less ▲]

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See detailThird-country National Labour Workers' Mobility to and inside Europe during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nienaber, Birte UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 15)

This presentation analyses the situation generated by the Covid-19 pandemic crisis regarding border closures and the reintroduction of temporary border controls at the internal borders in the EU and the ... [more ▼]

This presentation analyses the situation generated by the Covid-19 pandemic crisis regarding border closures and the reintroduction of temporary border controls at the internal borders in the EU and the impact that this border closures and the pandemic had on third-country nationals living or visiting the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailNOWHERELAND REVISITED IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC 2020
Trummer, Ursula; Novak-Zezula, Sonja; Dauvrin, Marie et al

Report (2021)

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence ... [more ▼]

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence base to guide policy making. The Center for Health and Migration, Vienna, has initiated a stock-taking of national regulations concerning access to health and social care for UDM. The initiative aims to create a landscape of policy frameworks to inform policy making and practice development. National experts on health and migration are contacted and asked to provide information on the respective legal frameworks in the following categories: work, housing, compulsory education, social welfare, and health. A validated template is used for data collection. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationalisation (at Home) of the Non-Mobile Youth in Europe outside formal Education
Nienaber, Birte UL; Díaz-Catalán, Celia; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the ... [more ▼]

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the post- COVID19- era, mobility might remain limited and immobility becomes the rule. Therefore, internationalisation at home plays an important role in times of restricted mobility. To what extent are non-mobile people internationalised? Which factors favour this internationalisation amongst the non-mobiles? We develop a comprehensive index which empirically tests whether and to what extent non-mobiles, become internationalised at home. The answers of 3431 non-mobiles respondents be-tween 18 and 29 years old from six EU countries are analysed. First, we review the concept “internationalisation at home”. We present an empirical measure of internationalisation at home consisting of three dimensions 1) foreign language skills i.e. Eng-lish; 2) multicultural way of living; 3) information about foreign countries. Linear regression models are used to empirically explain which factors influence the internationalisation at home of the non-mobiles on the individual level, using their socio-demographic and social embed-dedness, as well as controlling for the country level. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning in transition: Erasmus+ as an opportunity for internationalization
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

in Cairns, David (Ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Youth Mobility and Educational Migration (2021)

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young ... [more ▼]

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young people (aged between 18-29) in Luxembourg, Norway and Romania. Firstly, these young people feel that their identity changes as they internationalise and they travel more after the Erasmus+ experience. Hence, Erasmus+ is an eye opener. Secondly, employment, volunteering or training activities under Erasmus+ become a door-opener increasing young people’s chances of finding jobs. Thirdly, Erasmus+ does not end when the mobility ends: a new life style is adopted and nostalgia with the Erasmus+ leads to feeling at “home” in international environments. All these three aspects can be defined as Erasmus-isation encapsulated within a life-long perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-border vocational training as processes of cross-border learning
Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter

in Europa Regional (2021), 26(4), 17-30

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped ... [more ▼]

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped by bilateral cross-border formal learning agreements in a border region. Therefore, we build our own model of regional learning in border regions on WELLBROCK et al. (2012) following an integrated conceptual perspective and focusing on the actor’s perspective. The development of this transboundary VET by a variety of actors can be considered to form an intra- und interregional learning process. The interpretation of the structures regarding the conceptual findings reveals that the learning processes in the Saarland-Lorraine border region are dynamic and depend on key actors with expert knowledge as well as advantageous regional characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailSklaverei war gestern? Menschenhandel im Europa des 21. Jahrhunderts
Veit, Charlotte UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Binsfeld, Andrea; Ghetta, Marcello (Eds.) Sklaverei und Identitäten (2021)

This book chapter deals with human trafficking in the 21st century around the world. It gives first a definition, global and European perspectives, before explaining case studies of Romanian women in ... [more ▼]

This book chapter deals with human trafficking in the 21st century around the world. It gives first a definition, global and European perspectives, before explaining case studies of Romanian women in Italian agriculture and victims of human trafficking in Sweden. The book chapter shows clearly that slavery and human trafficking are not only historical, but also recent phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport final Projet 2020: Le capital social dans l'intégration des jeunes migrants au Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Oliveira, José UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The SOCAMI project focuses on the importance of social ties in the integration pathways of young migrants from third countries in Luxembourg. Youth is a period rich in learning where social identities and ... [more ▼]

The SOCAMI project focuses on the importance of social ties in the integration pathways of young migrants from third countries in Luxembourg. Youth is a period rich in learning where social identities and feelings of belonging to a social group are developed. In this sense, the analysis of the role of social ties in the integration of young migrants is essential. In particular, the ties that young migrants establish with residents of their host country may endure in the future and should therefore be considered relevant in the formation of their social relationships. However, young migrants often find themselves in vulnerable situations linked to job insecurity or, more broadly, marginalisation within the host society. Thus, it is mainly the relationships fostered by youth organisations, governmental or non-governmental, formal or informal, that play a central role in the preparation of young migrants for adult life. The overall aim of this study is to understand, investigate, explain and scientifically formulate the role of social capital in the integration of young migrants residing in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy Brief – Le Capital Social : les Facilitateurs et les Obstacles à l’Intégration des Jeunes Migrants au Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Oliveira, José UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The Policy Brief opposite is based on the results of the SOCAMI project, which was drawn up on the basis of secondary analysis of European and national data concerning the socio-professional integration ... [more ▼]

The Policy Brief opposite is based on the results of the SOCAMI project, which was drawn up on the basis of secondary analysis of European and national data concerning the socio-professional integration of young migrants, as well as qualitative data collected as part of this study. Indeed, twelve biographical interviews were conducted by the researchers involved in the project with young migrants who had been living in Luxembourg for more than five years. This analysis was completed by eight expert interviews with representatives of organisations working with young people and/or migrants in various fields. These different analyses made it possible, on the one hand, to develop relevant indicators to measure the acquisition of social capital by young migrants and, on the other hand, to identify the structural obstacles to the social integration of this group. Based on these results, this document makes a number of recommendations for governmental and non-governmental organisations working with young people and/or migrants. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2020
Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2021)

The Annual Report on Migration and Asylum provides an overview of the main developments and debates in Luxembourg in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic strongly impacted migratory movements to and from ... [more ▼]

The Annual Report on Migration and Asylum provides an overview of the main developments and debates in Luxembourg in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic strongly impacted migratory movements to and from Luxembourg. In 2020, there was a significant decrease in the number of residence permits, applications for temporary authorisation of stay and visas (short stay visas and D-visas), a reduction of around 50% on the number of applications for international protection and a decline in Dublin transfers and returns. Public health measures in response to the pandemic significantly impacted migration policies. For instance, Luxembourg temporarily closed its borders to third-country nationals and automatically regularized the stay of third-country nationals whose legal residence status ended during the state of crisis. Moreover, personal interviews with applicants of international protection (AIPs) and Dublin transfers were suspended. Lastly, irregular migrants were granted access to healthcare, free of charge, regardless of their social security coverage without being issued a return order or being placed in detention during the pandemic. Outside of the COVID-19 context, the following developments can be highlighted: The introduction of Bill n°7682 foresees the extension of the time limit from three to six months available to beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) to apply for family reunification after the granting of their status, as well as the simplification of administrative procedures, concerning the elimination of the requirement to provide integral copies of travel documents for family members of the third-country national applying for family reunification. At the procedural level, Bill n°7682 aims to amend the appeal procedure against a Dublin transfer decision to increase their effectiveness while guaranteeing maximum legal security for the applicant for international protection. It proposes to amend the Asylum Law by introducing “extraordinary” remedies against a final decision to close proceedings and against a decision to withdraw international protection. The Grand Ducal Regulation of 4 November 2020 entered into force, establishing the Commission on the evaluation of the best interest of unaccompanied minors in return decisions. However, this commission continues to generate debates and criticism, especially from fundamental rights organisations, regarding its composition. In view of the high occupancy rate in the ONA’s accommodation structures, efforts to promote the construction of new accommodation structures continued in 2020. A new emergency reception facility was set up for newcomers. Strengthening the fight against trafficking in human beings was another priority of the Luxembourgish government. As a result, the composition of the Monitoring Committee on the Fight Against the Trafficking in Human Beings was implemented by Grand Ducal Regulation. Other strategic developments were implemented, such as the elaboration of a second National Action Plan on Human Trafficking and an enhanced collaboration at the Benelux and EU level. In terms of integration, several major developments should be noted: The creation of a communication service within the Department of Integration The first interministerial committee on integration open to civil society took place on 16 December 2020 The launch of a large consultation including all key actors on the future of integration policies The selection of several municipalities to take part in a pilot phase regarding a new approach to the Communal Plan on Integration (PCI) A discussion in Parliament on the issue of racism and discrimination, which resulted in the adoption of two motions and a resolution. One of the motions provided for a study on racism and ethno-racial discrimination and the resolution aims to strengthen the resources of the Centre for Equal Treatment (CET). The Minister of Education, Children and Youth is planning to set up a service specifically responsible for the integration and reception of children of foreign origin and to review the procedures for taking care of newly arrived pupils [less ▲]

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See detailUsing cross-border mobility in vocational education and training in the Greater Region SaarLorLux region
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter; Funk, Ines et al

in Cairns, David (Ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Youth Mobility and Educational Migration (2021)

High unemployment rates on one side of a border and training opportunities on the other, the lack of training programmes for specialised jobs on the one side of the border and well defined vocational ... [more ▼]

High unemployment rates on one side of a border and training opportunities on the other, the lack of training programmes for specialised jobs on the one side of the border and well defined vocational programmes on the other side: cross-border vocational education and training (VET) is an increasingly used tool to accommodate the differing needs inside the European Union in recent years. This paper will present, explain and analyse the diverse approaches and concepts of tailor-made as well as more standardized cross-border VET programmes in the Greater Region SaarLorLux (DE, FR, LUX, BE) and explain the different mobility types (from short-time exchange programmes, to internships as well as a formalised division of mobility between days of apprenticeship in one country and days of practical training in another country). This cross-border region is the largest transboundary commuting area and therefore the largest transboundary labour market in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailRAPPORT ANNUEL SUR LES MIGRATIONS ET L'ASILE Luxembourg 2020
Hallack, Florence UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2021)

This report traces the main developments and debates related to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2020. Apart from the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on migration movements and policy, three key ... [more ▼]

This report traces the main developments and debates related to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2020. Apart from the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on migration movements and policy, three key changes have taken place in 2020: 1) The creation of the National Office for Reception (ONA) and the Department of Integration, which replace the Luxembourg Office for Reception and Integration (OLAI). 2) Bill n°7682 has been tabled in the Chamber of Deputies. It aims to strengthen the security of identity cards issued to European Union (EU) citizens and family members exercising their right to free movement, to simplify administrative procedures, and to amend certain provisions concerning family reunification, intra-corporate transfers (ICT) and trainees. 3) Bill No. 7681 aims to amend the procedure for appealing against a Dublin transfer decision in order to increase its effectiveness while ensuring maximum legal certainty for the applicant for international protection. It also proposes to amend the Asylum Act by introducing "extraordinary" remedies against a final decision to close a procedure and against a decision to withdraw international protection. [less ▲]

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See detailDer grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmarkt der Großregion- Der Einfluss der COVID-19-Pandemie
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL et al

in Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (2021), (2), 74-85

This article analyzes the impact of the COVID19 pandemic related border closures on the cross-border labour market and vocational and educational training in the Greater region SaarLorLux.

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See detailNOWHERELAND REVISITED IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC 2020: LUXEMBOURG POLICY BRIEF
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Vukovich, Lilla; Hallack, Florence UL et al

Report (2021)

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence ... [more ▼]

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence base to guide policy making. The Center for Health and Migration, Vienna, initiated a stock-taking of national regulations concerning access to health and social care for UDM. The initiative aims to create a landscape of policy frameworks to inform policy making and practice development. This Policy Brief provides information on the respective legal frameworks in the following categories: work, housing, compulsory education, social welfare, and health in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate, timely, interoperable? Data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish Asylum Law foresees a centralised and streamlined asylum system with one single national authority for registering, lodging and examining applications for international protection, namely the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, implemented by the Directorate of Immigration. The Asylum Law clearly distinguishes the phases of making, registering and lodging an application for international protection. In practice, however, the three phases generally occur on the same day or within a few working days if the claim is not directly made to the Directorate of Immigration. Furthermore, the asylum system does not differentiate between the different types of entry routes to Luxembourgish territory. As a consequence, applicants for international protection have a swift access to the asylum procedure once they express their wish to apply for international protection in Luxembourg. In addition to the tracks foreseen in the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU), Luxembourg operates a fourth track in the form of the ultra-accelerated procedure, which was introduced in 2017 as a practical acceleration of the accelerated procedure for applicants stemming from safe countries of origin from the Western Balkan countries and Georgia. The study provides an detailed overview of what data is collected from applicants of international protection, at what stage of the procedure this data is collected and by whom, as well as where and how this data is stored. Lastly, the study has shown that, despite the increase of applications since 2015 and a consistent high number of applications since then, the processing times have decreased significantly, in particular since 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailResponses to long-term irregularly staying migrants: practices and challenges in EU Member States and Norway
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

This study analyses the legal and factual situation in which long-term irregular staying migrants are in Luxembourg.

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG Système d’observation permanente des migrations (OCDE)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette croissance contre 40,9 % de nationalités étrangères. L’immigration nette reste le principal facteur expliquant l’augmentation de la population. Le solde migratoire est largement positif pour les ressortissants de nationalité étrangère (12 142) alors qu’il est négatif pour les ressortissants luxembourgeois (-1 067). Le deuxième élément explicatif réside dans le solde naturel global positif (1 947). Si ce solde est largement positif chez les ressortissants étrangers, il est négatif chez les Luxembourgeois. Le regroupement familial reste le principal motif d’immigration pour les ressortissants de pays tiers. Ce type de migration devance l’immigration pour motifs économiques et la migration basée sur la recherche d’une protection internationale. Le nombre de personnes sollicitant une protection internationale est resté à un niveau élevé en 2019 avec 2 047 demandes, même si ce nombre constitue une diminution de 7,1 % par rapport à l’année précédente. En 2019, plusieurs évolutions majeures dans le domaine de l’immigration légale sont à noter. Parmi ces évolutions figurent notamment : l’introduction d’un visa de longue durée visant à simplifier l’entrée et le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans devoir solliciter l’obtention d’un titre de séjour, ainsi que l’adoption de quatre lois tendant à clarifier le statut des ressortissants britanniques résidant au Luxembourg. La loi sur l’immigration a connu d’autres modifications importantes dans le domaine de la lutte contre la migration irrégulière et la rétention et le retour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans droit de séjour. La coopération internationale s’est poursuivie en matière de réadmission, comme le montre l’entrée en vigueur du protocole entre les États du Benelux et le gouvernement de la République de Serbie sur la mise en œuvre de l’accord conclu entre l’UE et la République de Serbie concernant la réadmission des personnes en situation de séjour irrégulier. -Ainsi, l’adoption des projets de loi portant approbation des protocoles en matière de réadmission avec l’Arménie et l’Ukraine. Un changement institutionnel significatif a eu lieu en matière de protection internationale : la loi du 4 novembre 2019 portant création de l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) a opéré le transfert des compétences relatives à l’accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale du Ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région vers le ministère ayant l’Immigration dans ses attributions. Avec l'entrée en vigueur de la loi au 1er janvier 2020, l'ONA s'est substitué à l'Office luxembourgeois de l'accueil et de l'intégration (OLAI) et a été rattaché au Secrétariat général du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. L’intégration demeure une compétence du ministère de la Famille, de l'Intégration et à la Grande Région. Le 1er janvier 2019, la loi sur le revenu d’inclusion sociale (REVIS) est entrée en vigueur. Une des nouvelles dispositions est que tous les bénéficiaires d’une protection internationale âgés de 25 ans ou plus, de même que les membres de leur famille, peuvent bénéficier du REVIS, sans devoir remplir la condition des 5 ans de résidence au Luxembourg au cours des 20 dernières années. L’hébergement des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) reste un défi de taille et les taux d’occupation dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA continuent à se situer à des niveaux très élevés. Ceci est notamment dû au fait que la crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement privé et à se loger en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. Sur le plan de la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains les structures d’accueil et de consultation ont été élargies en 2019, notamment pour les hommes victimes de traite. Au niveau international, une déclaration d’intention concernant les nouvelles étapes dans leur coopération transfrontalière pour combattre la traite des êtres humains a été signé le 10 décembre 2019 par les pays du Benelux. Sur le plan des politiques d’intégration, les autorités ont continué à mettre en œuvre le Plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration à travers des appels à projets. Les actions visant à promouvoir l’intégration au niveau local ont également été renforcées, comme en témoignent la promotion du développement de plans communaux d’intégration et le soutien financier apporté aux communes par les pouvoirs publics. Le débat parlementaire sur le racisme a conduit à l’adoption d’une motion invitant le gouvernement à réaliser une étude sur le racisme et les discriminations au Luxembourg et d’une résolution dans laquelle la Chambre des Députés s'engage à renforcer les moyens du Centre d’Egalite de Traitement (CET). L’année 2020 a été marquée par la crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19. La crise sanitaire et les mesures mises en place par les gouvernements, ont fortement impacté la mobilité et les migrations. Contrairement à la France, la Belgique et, surtout, l'Allemagne, le Luxembourg n'a jamais fermé ses frontières. Dans ce contexte le Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes a été contraint de négocier des accords avec ses homologues des pays voisins afin d’assurer la continuité du travail des frontaliers, notamment pour ceux travaillant dans le secteur de la santé. [less ▲]

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See detailTerritorial patterns and relations in Austria
Szendrei, Greta UL; Evrard, Estelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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