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See detailIL-1beta mediates MMP secretion and IL-1beta neosynthesis via upregulation of p22phox and NOX4 activity in human articular chondrocytes
Rousset, F.; Hazane-Puch, F.; Pinosa, C. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2015), 23(11), 1972-1980

Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a progressive alteration of the biochemical properties of the articular cartilage. Inflammation plays a major role in OA, particularly through the ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a progressive alteration of the biochemical properties of the articular cartilage. Inflammation plays a major role in OA, particularly through the cytokine Interleukine-1β, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) synthesis by the chondrocytes, orchestrating matrix proteolysis. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are membrane enzymes dedicated to the production of ROS. Role of oxidative stress is well established in OA; however, contribution of NOX in this process is still poorly documented. In this study, we addressed the role of NOX in primary human articular chondrocytes (HAC) upon inflammatory conditions - namely IL-1β and OA. Design: HAC were collected from patients undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β and NOX inhibitors Diphenylene Iodonium, GKT136901, Tiron and Heme oxygenase-1 before MMP expression and NOX activity assessment. Finally, NOX4 expression was compared between OA and non OA parts of hip cartilage (n = 14). Results: This study establishes for the first time in human that NOX4 is the main NOX isoform expressed in chondrocytes. We found a significant upregulation of NOX4 mRNA in OA chondrocytes. Expression of NOX4/p22phox as well as ROS production is enhanced by IL-1β. On the other hand, the use of NOX4 inhibitors decreased IL-1β-induced collagenase synthesis by chondrocytes. Moreover, our study support the existence of a redox dependant loop sustaining pro-catabolic pathways induced by IL-1β. Conclusions: This study points out NOX4 as a new putative target in OA and suggests that NOX-targeted therapies could be of interest for the causal treatment of the pathology. © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. [less ▲]

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See detailCNP/cGMP signaling regulates axon branching and growth by modulating microtubule polymerization
Xia, Caihong; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Garrison, Amy K. et al

in Developmental Neurobiology (2013), 73(9), 673-687

The peptide hormone CNP has recently been found to positively regulate axon branching and growth via activation of cGMP signaling in embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but the cellular ... [more ▼]

The peptide hormone CNP has recently been found to positively regulate axon branching and growth via activation of cGMP signaling in embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but the cellular mechanisms mediating the regulation of these developmental processes have not been established. In this study, we provide evidence linking CNP/cGMP signaling to microtubule dynamics via the microtubule regulator CRMP2. First, phosphorylation of CRMP2 can be suppressed by cGMP activation in embryonic DRG neurons, and non-phosphorylated CRMP2 promotes axon branching and growth. In addition, real time analysis of growing microtubule ends indicates a similar correlation of CRMP2 phosphorylation and its activity in promoting microtubule polymerization rates and durations in both COS cells and DRG neuron growth cones. Moreover, direct activation of cGMP signaling leads to increased assembly of dynamic microtubules in DRG growth cones. Finally, low doses of a microtubule depolymerization drug nocodazole block CNP/cGMP-dependent axon branching and growth. Taken together, our results support a critical role of microtubule dynamics in mediating CNP/cGMP regulation of axonal development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailHeme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP-1 Secretion and Chondrocyte Cell Death via Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Activity in Chondrocytes
Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Grange, Laurent et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22phox heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. © 2013 Rousset et al. [less ▲]

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See detailOligodendrocyte lineage cells contribute unique features to rett syndrome neuropathology
Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Felice, Christy A.; Du, Fang et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2013), 33(48), 18764-18774

Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene, Mecp2, affect primarily the brain and lead to a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly Rett syndrome (RTT). Although the neuropathology ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene, Mecp2, affect primarily the brain and lead to a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly Rett syndrome (RTT). Although the neuropathology of RTT is well understood, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s), which lead to the disease initiation and progression, has yet to be elucidated. RTT was initially attributed only to neuronal dysfunction, but our recent studies and those of others show that RTT is not exclusively neuronal but rather also involves interactions between neurons and glia. Importantly, studies have shown that MeCP2-restored astrocytes and microglia are able to attenuate the disease progression in otherwise MeCP2-null mice. Here we show that another type of glia, oligodendrocytes, and their progenitors are also involved in manifestation of specific RTT symptoms. Mice that lost MeCP2 specifically in the oligodendrocyte lineage cells, although overall normal, were more active and developed severe hindlimb clasping phenotypes. Inversely, restoration of MeCP2 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, in otherwise MeCP2-null mice, although only mildly prolonging their lifespan, significantly improved the locomotor deficits and hindlimb clasping phenotype, both in male and female mice, and fully restored the body weight in male mice. Finally, we found that the level of some myelin-related proteins was impaired in the MeCP2-null mice. Expression of MeCP2 in oligodendrocytes of these mice only partially restored their expression, suggesting that there is a non-cell-autonomous effect by other cell types in the brains on the expression of myelin-related proteins in oligodendrocytes. © 2013 the authors. [less ▲]

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See detailQuinone compounds regulate the level of ROS production by the NADPH oxidase Nox4
Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Lardy, Bernard; Rousset, Francis et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2013), 85(11), 1644-1654

NADPH oxidase Nox4 is expressed in a wide range of tissues and plays a role in cellular signaling by providing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intracellular messengers. Nox4 oxidase activity is thought ... [more ▼]

NADPH oxidase Nox4 is expressed in a wide range of tissues and plays a role in cellular signaling by providing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intracellular messengers. Nox4 oxidase activity is thought to be constitutive and regulated at the transcriptional level; however, we challenge this point of view and suggest that specific quinone derivatives could modulate this activity. In fact, we demonstrated a significant stimulation of Nox4 activity by 4 quinone derivatives (AA-861, tBuBHQ, tBuBQ, and duroquinone) observed in 3 different cellular models, HEK293E, T-REx™, and chondrocyte cell lines. Our results indicate that the effect is specific toward Nox4 versus Nox2. Furthermore, we showed that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) may participate in this stimulation. Interestingly, Nox4 activity is also stimulated by reducing agents that possibly act by reducing the disulfide bridge (Cys226, Cys270) located in the extracellular E-loop of Nox4. Such model of Nox4 activity regulation could provide new insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the electron transfer through the enzyme, i.e., its potential redox regulation, and could also define new therapeutic targets in diseases in which quinones and Nox4 are implicated. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMeCP2 is critical for maintaining mature neuronal networks and global brain anatomy during late stages of postnatal brain development and in the mature adult brain
Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Du, Fang; Felice, Christy A. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2012), 32(29), 10021-10034

Mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), underlie a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly, Rett Syndrome (RTT), a severe autism spectrum disorder that ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), underlie a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly, Rett Syndrome (RTT), a severe autism spectrum disorder that affects approximately one in 10,000 female live births. Because mutations in the Mecp2 gene occur in the germ cells with onset of neurological symptoms occurring in early childhood, the role of MeCP2 has been ascribed to brain maturation at a specific developmental window. Here, we show similar kinetics of onset and progression of RTT-like symptoms in mice, including lethality, if MeCP2 is removed postnatally during the developmental stage that coincides with RTT onset, or adult stage. For the first time, we show that brains that lose MeCP2 at these two different stages are actively shrinking, resulting in higher than normal neuronal cell density. Furthermore, we show that mature dendritic arbors of pyramidal neurons are severely retracted and dendritic spine density is dramatically reduced. In addition, hippocampal astrocytes have significantly less complex ramified processes. These changes accompany a striking reduction in the levels of several synaptic proteins, including CaMKII α/β, AMPA, and NMDA receptors, and the synaptic vesicle proteins Vglut and Synapsin, which represent critical modifiers of synaptic function and dendritic arbor structure. Importantly, the mRNA levels of these synaptic proteins remains unchanged, suggesting that MeCP2 likely regulates these synaptic proteins post-transcriptionally, directly or indirectly. Our data suggest a crucial role for MeCP2 in post-transcriptional regulation of critical synaptic proteins involved in maintaining mature neuronal networks during late stages of postnatal brain development. © 2012 the authors. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombinant Nox4 cytosolic domain produced by a cell or cell-free base systems exhibits constitutive diaphorase activity
Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Zhang, Leilei; Lhomme, Stanislas et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2012), 419(3), 453-458

The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 ... [more ▼]

The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 which needs a stimulus to be active. Although the precise mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species by Nox2 is well characterized, the electronic transfer throughout Nox4 remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the initial electronic transfer step (diaphorase activity) of the cytosolic tail of Nox4. For this purpose, we developed two different approaches to produce soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins. We synthesized soluble recombinant proteins either by in vitro translation or by bacteria induction. While proteins obtained by bacteria induction demonstrate an activity of 4.4 ± 1.7. nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 20.5 ± 2.8. nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c, the soluble proteins produced by cell-free expression system exhibit a diaphorase activity with a turn-over of 26 ± 2.6. nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 48 ± 20.2. nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c. Furthermore, the activity of the soluble proteins is constitutive and does not need any stimulus. We also show that the cytosolic tail of the isoform Nox4B lacking the first NADPH binding site is unable to demonstrate any diaphorase activity pointing out the importance of this domain. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular interface of S100A8 with cytochrome b558 and NADPH oxidase activation
Berthier, Sylvie; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Baillet, Athan et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(7),

S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation ... [more ▼]

S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the precise mechanism of their interaction remains elusive. We had for aim (i) to evaluate the impact of S100 proteins on NADPH oxidase activity; (ii) to characterize molecular interaction of either S100A8, S100A9, or S100A8/S100A9 heterocomplex with cytochrome b558; and (iii) to determine the S100A8 consensus site involved in cytochrome b558/S100 interface. Recombinant full length or S100A9-A8 truncated chimera proteins and ExoS-S100 fusion proteins were expressed in E. coli and in P. aeruginosa respectively. Our results showed that S100A8 is the functional partner for NADPH oxidase activation contrary to S100A9, however, the loading with calcium and a combination with phosphorylated S100A9 are essential in vivo. Endogenous S100A9 and S100A8 colocalize in differentiated and PMA stimulated PLB985 cells, with Nox2/gp91phox and p22phox. Recombinant S100A8, loaded with calcium and fused with the first 129 or 54 N-terminal amino acid residues of the P. aeruginosa ExoS toxin, induced a similar oxidase activation in vitro, to the one observed with S100A8 in the presence of S100A9 in vivo. This suggests that S100A8 is the essential component of the S100A9/S100A8 heterocomplex for oxidase activation. In this context, recombinant full-length rS100A9-A8 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 90 chimera proteins as opposed to rS100A9-A8 truncated 86 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 57 chimeras, activate the NADPH oxidase function of purified cytochrome b558 suggesting that the C-terminal region of S100A8 is directly involved in the molecular interface with the hemoprotein. The data point to four strategic 87HEES90 amino acid residues of the S100A8 C-terminal sequence that are involved directly in the molecular interaction with cytochrome b558 and then in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation. © 2012 Berthier et al. [less ▲]

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