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See detailRegulation of Neutrophil Degranulation and Cytokine Secretion: A Novel Model Approach Based on Linear Fitting
Naegelen, Isabelle UL; Beaume, Nicolas UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL et al

in Journal of Immunology Research (2015), 2015

Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion in the initiation, exacerbation, and resolution of inflammatory responses. Because the release of neutrophil-derived products orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and, thus, can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatiotemporal regulation of neutrophil-mediated release mechanisms of proinflammatory mediators. Purified human neutrophils were stimulated for different time points with lipopolysaccharide. Cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry techniques and used to establish secretion profiles of granules and cytokines. To analyze the link between cytokine release and degranulation time series, we propose an original strategy based on linear fitting, which may be used as a guideline, to (i) define the relationship of granule proteins and cytokines secreted to the inflammatory site and (ii) investigate the spatial regulation of neutrophil cytokine release. The model approach presented here aims to predict the correlation between neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion and degranulation and may easily be extrapolated to investigate the relationship between other types of time series of functional processes. [less ▲]

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See detailFibroblast growth factor receptor 4: a putative key driver for the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma
Gauglhofer, Christine; Paur, Jakob; Schrottmaier, Waltraud C. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2014), 35(10), 2331-2338

Recently, we found upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR4-mediated ... [more ▼]

Recently, we found upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR4-mediated signalling for the aggressive behaviour of HCC cells. To overexpress FGFR4, hepatoma/hepatocarcinoma cells were transfected with a construct coding for FGFR4. For downmodulation of endogenous FGFR4, we used small interfering RNA or adenoviral infection with dominant-negative FGFR4 constructs being either kinase dead (kdFGFR4) or coding for the autoinhibitory soluble domain (solFGFR4). FGFR4 overexpression in non-tumourigenic hepatocarcinoma cells significantly reduced cell-matrix adhesion, enabled cells to grow anchorage-independently in soft agar, to disintegrate the lymph-/blood-endothelial barrier for intra-/extravasation of tumour cells and to form tumours in SCID mice. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell-matrix interactions. Conversely, in highly tumourigenic cell lines, kdFGFR4 or solFGFR4 lowered the proportion of cells in S phase of the cell cycle, enhanced the G0/G1 and G2/M-phase proportions, reduced anchorage-independent growth in vitro and attenuated disintegration of the lymph-/blood-endothelium and tumour formation in vivo. These findings were confirmed by altered expression profiles of genes being important for late stages of cell division. Deregulated FGFR4 expression appears to be one of the key drivers of the malignant phenotype of HCC cells. Accordingly, blockade of FGFR4-mediated signalling by soluble dominant-negative constructs, like solFGFR4, may be a feasible and promising therapeutic approach to antagonize aggressive behaviour of hepatoma/hepatocarcinoma cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. [less ▲]

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