References of "Murdock, Elke 50002709"
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See detailUnemployment at 50+: economic and psychosocial consequences
Murdock, Elke UL; Filbig, Marceline; Borges Neves, Rita

in Wanka, Anna; Walsh, Kieran; Scharf, Thomas (Eds.) et al Social Exclusion in Later Life: Interdisciplinary and Policy Perspectives. International Perspectives on Aging (in press)

Throughout the lifespan, unemployment has severe consequences in terms of economic exclusion, and overall social exclusion, but is compounded in older age. Within the EU, a growing number of older adults ... [more ▼]

Throughout the lifespan, unemployment has severe consequences in terms of economic exclusion, and overall social exclusion, but is compounded in older age. Within the EU, a growing number of older adults (50+) are affected by joblessness. Job loss at a later stage in a professional career may determine an early and permanent exit from the labour market with significant psychosocial consequences. Herein lies the age-specific risk for older unemployed adults: once becoming unemployed they are at greater risk at staying unemployed. As a result, older unemployed people may face income cuts, deprivation of a central adulthood role and their mental and physical health may suffer. In this chapter, we draw attention to the latent functions of work, and the psychosocial consequences of job loss in later life. Applying a life-course perspective, the aim of this chapter is to explore how job loss can be framed as a form of acute economic exclusion, and how this exclusion can have significant implications for poor mental health. In a context of rising retirement ages, and the lack of preparedness of the labour market to deal with an ageing workforce, it is essential to understand these dynamics to guide policy development. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring multicultural ideology: Scale development and validation in different languages and contexts
Stogianni, Maria UL; Schmidt, Lea Marie; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive ... [more ▼]

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive intercultural relations: a) Diversity: the presence of ethnocultural diversity in the population and b) Equity: the right for equal participation of all cultural groups in the society. Both diversity and equity are necessary conditions for the success of multicultural policies. Culturally heterogeneous communities that do not support inclusion and equitable participation of all groups face the negative consequences of segregation and marginalization. In line with this notion, an international research consortium is developing a revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale to assess the endorsement of multicultural ideology in different national contexts. The scale aims to distinguish various attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the acceptance of diversity and social inclusion of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Social Interaction, Equity/Inclusion, Extent of Differences, Conflictual Relations, Essentialistic Boundaries. We present the first assessment of the new scale in the German language. The survey was administered online to a sample of native German citizens (N = 382) with different demographic characteristics. Our aim was to understand the attitude of native citizens towards cultural diversity and their willingness to have members of ethnic minority groups be included in the larger society. We investigated the factor structure of the scale, its psychometric properties, and the relationship between multicultural ideology and some individual difference variables, such as ethnic group attachment and social dominance orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of the Revised Multicultural Ideology Scale in Germany and Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL; Berry, John; Grigoryev, Dmitry et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The ... [more ▼]

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The current study, which is part of this cross-cultural research project, presents the first assessment of the rMCI scale in the German language. The measure aims to cover several attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the integration of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, Essentialistic Boundaries, Extent of Differences, and Consequences of Diversity. Two independent datasets were acquired from Germany (N = 382) and Luxembourg (N = 148) to estimate the factor structure of the rMCI using different confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The findings suggest that a 4-factor solution, including Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, and Consequences of Diversity, was the best fit for the data. Most of these subscales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity). The 4-factor model of the rMCI was partially invariant across the two ethnic groups and full measurement invariance was established across gender. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of immigration to Iceland: The host country perspective
Murdock, Elke UL

Report (2020)

With 35.5 immigrants per 1000 inhabitants, Iceland had the third highest number of immigrants per inhabitants in Europe in 2018. Until the turn of the century, the foreign population percentage in Iceland ... [more ▼]

With 35.5 immigrants per 1000 inhabitants, Iceland had the third highest number of immigrants per inhabitants in Europe in 2018. Until the turn of the century, the foreign population percentage in Iceland was around 2%. In the last 5 years, this percentage has risen steadily to nearly 14% in 2020. How is this rapid rise in immigration experienced by the host country population? How are immigrants perceived and what are expectations in terms of behavior? The Inclusive Societies – Iceland project investigated both, the immigrants’ situation in Iceland, but also the native populations’ attitude towards immigration and immigrants. It is important to take the host country perspective into consideration, as diversity ideologies will also determine the acculturation options for minorities. A quantitative survey was conducted among 3630 native Icelanders (51.1% women, MAge = 50.8, SD = 15.6), spread across all regions of Iceland. The questions covered a range of domains pertinent to life in Iceland. In this Chapter only the questions pertaining directly to immigration and immigrants are analyzed. The results indicate that culture contact takes place – with, over two thirds of participants indicating that they have invited immigrants to their home and slightly under two thirds having been invited to immigrants’ homes. Overall, the perception is that immigrants have made a positive impact to communities. The vast majority of participants expect immigrants to learn Icelandic. The greatest divergence of views was found concerning the question, if immigrants should adopt Icelandic customs and values. The findings will be discussed in light of policy implications. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentität im Spannungsfeld der Migrationsbewegung
Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2020, September 21)

Die Rahmenbedingungen bei der Migration von deutschen Staatsangehöriger können – v. a. im Vergleich zu den meisten Migrantengruppen, die in der Forschung betrachtet werden – als privilegiert und günstig ... [more ▼]

Die Rahmenbedingungen bei der Migration von deutschen Staatsangehöriger können – v. a. im Vergleich zu den meisten Migrantengruppen, die in der Forschung betrachtet werden – als privilegiert und günstig beschrieben werden. Die deutsche Staatsangehörigkeit garantiert zum Beispiel einen leichten Zugang zu den meisten Ländern der Welt (Visa-Germany 2020). Zudem ist die Entscheidung zur Ausreise meist freiwillig, auf Basis ganz unterschiedlicher Beweggründe getroffen und die Möglichkeit zur Rückreise zumeist auch gegeben. Selbst wenn „Deutsch sein“ für die Auswanderer kein identitätsbestimmendes Merkmal war, werden sie im Ausland über die Kategorie „Deutsch“ wahrgenommen. Auf der einen Seite wird also über diese kategoriale Zuschreibung von außen eine Auseinandersetzung mit eignen Herkunftsland angeregt, auf der anderen Seite werden auch erst in der Kulturkontakterfahrung, wenn Selbstverständlichkeiten im alltäglichen Leben nicht mehr greifen, eigene Vorstellungen, Erwartungen und Werte bewusst und können reflektiert werden. Es gibt interindividuelle Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Bereitschaft sich mit solchen Unterschieden auseinanderzusetzen, einen Perspektivenwechsel einzunehmen und den eigenen Standpunkt zu hinterfragen (Tadmor und Tetlock, 2006). Die Bewertung dieser Erfahrung als bereichernd oder belastend ist ebenfalls sehr unterschiedlich. Die Frage der Konsequenzen der Mobilitätserfahrung für die eigene Identität und das Gefühl der Zugehörigkeit zu Deutschland bzw. dem Gastland lässt sich mit Hilfe der „German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study“ (GERPS) empirisch untersuchen. Die Determinanten dieses Zugehörigkeitsgefühls sowohl zum Gastland als auch zum Heimatland sollen im Verlaufe der Mobilitätserfahrung näher beleuchtet werden. Erste Resultate der Auswertung der ersten Welle zeigen, dass etwa die Hälfte der Auswanderer sich mit ihrem Auswanderungsland verbunden fühlen, wobei die Bleibeperspektive ein wichtiger Prädiktor ist. Ebenso wie der Migrationsprozess selbst, wird auch die Identitätsbildung als lebenslanger, dynamischer, unabgeschlossener und mehrdimensionaler Prozess verstanden. Aufbauend auf dieser Annahme und dem Akkulturationsrahmenmodell von Arends-Tóth und van de Vijver (2006) wird ein theoretisches Modell vorgestellt, mit Hilfe dessen Identität im Spannungsfeld der Migration untersucht werden kann. [less ▲]

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See detailCrossing borders – feeling connected? Exploring the sense of belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2020, July 02)

Migrants find themselves living in a society with different practices, norms and values to their culture of origin. Migration is a life transition that entails changes in social and emotional belonging ... [more ▼]

Migrants find themselves living in a society with different practices, norms and values to their culture of origin. Migration is a life transition that entails changes in social and emotional belonging. This panel focuses on the question how migrants establish bonds in their receiving country. How do migrants negotiate their sense of belonging to the host and / or home country? What determines the strength of attachment to either of both? The present panel brings together researchers from three different countries who focus on the sense of belonging of different migrant populations. First, Isabelle Albert presents findings from a research project that examined intergenerational value transmission and cultural attachment to Portugal and Luxembourg among first and second-generation migrants in Luxembourg. Intergenerational relationships and migration are also the focus of Carlos Barros’ presentation. He presents findings from a qualitative study on intergenerational solidarity and maps solidarity patterns for different migrant groups. Jean Décieux presents identity constructions of international mobiles. The German Emigration and Remigration Panel study (GERPS) covers the migration trajectories of about 11,000 individuals. Patterns of belonging will be highlighted and discussed. Débora Maehler presents insights from a meta-analysis on the sense of belonging of young immigrants in Germany. Factors determining the strength of belonging to either their country of origin or Germany will be explored. The panel closes with a contribution by Elke Murdock on the host country perspective. She presents results from a quantitative study on criteria and predictors for the acceptance of new citizens as belonging by natives. [less ▲]

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See detailDo they belong? Perception of new citizens – a host country perspective
Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2020, July 02)

In 30 years, Luxembourg’s population grew from 500,000 in 2010 to 614,000 in 2019. This growth is largely due to immigration. The foreign population percentage reached 47,5% on 1st of January 2019 – a ... [more ▼]

In 30 years, Luxembourg’s population grew from 500,000 in 2010 to 614,000 in 2019. This growth is largely due to immigration. The foreign population percentage reached 47,5% on 1st of January 2019 – a slight decline (-0.4%) on the previous year. This decline is in fact due to the rise in naturalizations. Since the reform of the citizenship law in 2008, Luxembourg has experienced a steady rise in naturalizations – which amounted to 684 in 2000, 4311 in 2010 and reached 11,876 in 2018. In terms of formal criteria, these new citizens belong to Luxembourg. They have to take part in parliamentary elections and can stand themselves as candidates. Yet how are these new Luxembourgish citizens perceived by the native population? Are they perceived as part of the in-group? To investigate this question, we conducted a quantitative study among 253 native Luxembourgers (65% women, Mage= 34.6, SD = 15.6) – all of whom held Luxembourgish citizenship and the majority (97%) were born in Luxembourg. We assessed the attitude towards a diverse society in general and Luxembourg in particular, adapted the allophilia scale to measure the positive attitude towards the outgroup new-Luxembourgers and assessed the perceived degree of overlap between native and new Luxembourgers. Just over half of the participants (57%) perceive a degree of overlap – which is in turn predicted by openness towards diversity and acceptance of new Luxembourgers. Implications of these findings for inclusive societies will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailImmigration - the host country perspective
Murdock, Elke UL; Sölvason, Ómar

Scientific Conference (2020, July 01)

With 35.5 immigrants per 1000 inhabitants, Iceland had the third highest number of immigrants/ inhabitants in Europe in 2017. Until the turn of the century, the foreign population percentage in Iceland ... [more ▼]

With 35.5 immigrants per 1000 inhabitants, Iceland had the third highest number of immigrants/ inhabitants in Europe in 2017. Until the turn of the century, the foreign population percentage in Iceland was around 2%. In the last 5 years, this percentage has risen steadily to over 10% in 2018. How is this rapid rise in immigration experienced by the host country population? What is the attitude towards this increasingly plurally composed society? The Inclusive Societies – Iceland project investigated both, the immigrants’ situation in Iceland, but also the native populations’ attitude towards immigration and immigrants. It is important to take the host country perspective into consideration, as diversity ideologies will also determine the acculturation options for minorities. A quantitative survey was conducted among 3630 native Icelanders (51.1% women, Mean Age = 50.8, SD = 15.6), spread across all regions of Iceland. The questions covered satisfaction with life in Iceland in different domains but included also specific questions about the attitudes towards immigrants and enquired about contact with immigrants. The results indicate that this culture contact takes place – with over two thirds of participants indicating that they have invited immigrants to their home a few (34.4%) or many times (34.4%). Slightly less participants have been invited to immigrants’ homes (few times 33.6%, often 27.9%). Predictors for openness towards multiculturalism will be presented and discussed. We will also outline the domains with little and considerable variance among respondents concerning cultural practice and attitude to immigration and close with a discussion of policy implications. [less ▲]

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See detailAttitudes towards Multiculturalism in Luxembourg: Measurement Invariance and Factor Structure of the Multicultural Ideology Scale
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL; He, Jia et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The present study examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI; Berry & Kalin, 1995), and mean differences across different cultural groups within ... [more ▼]

The present study examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI; Berry & Kalin, 1995), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual, multicultural context of Luxembourg. With 47% of the citizens being non-nationals, minority and majority are increasingly difficult to define and Luxembourg becomes a unique context to study attitudes towards diversity. Our sample included 1488 participants from diverse ethnic backgrounds who completed the survey in German, French or English. In contrast to previous findings, our analyses revealed a two-dimensional structure, distinguishing between positive and negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. The factor structure was partially invariant across ethnocultural groups: Configural and metric invariance were established across natives and non-natives, scalar invariance only across gender groups. Natives and male participants reported more negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. We discuss the importance of assessing measurement invariance and provide recommendations to improve the assessment of psychological multiculturalism. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Cultural Identity in a Multicultural Context—the Special Case of Luxembourg
Bichler, Samantha; Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL et al

in Human Arenas (2020), online first

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural ... [more ▼]

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural identity of immigrants, less is known about the identity constructions of non-immigrants and receiving country nationals living in a multicultural setting. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg with a foreign population of 48% provides an excellent example case here. The present study examined the cultural identity of two generations of native Luxembourgers, drawing on a content analysis of qualitative interviews with N = 18 participants belonging to nine family dyads, each composed of one (young) adult child and one parent. As Luxembourg’s cultural diversity has increased continuously in the last decades, we focussed here on similarities and differences between (young) adults and their parents in order to find out in how far age (i.e., different points in the individual life span) or generation (i.e., growing up in different times and historical contexts) might be highlighted in their cultural identity constructions. Five main domains pertaining to Luxembourger’s cultural identity were found through qualitative content analysis: ‘the Luxembourgish language’, ‘Belongingness to Luxembourg and the love for Luxembourg as a homeland’, ‘Europeanization and multiculturalism in Luxembourg’, ‘Representing Luxembourg as a native in international contexts’ and ‘Luxembourgish traditions and history’. While the older generation focused more on the feeling of belongingness to their home country, the younger generation made more specific links to Europe and multiculturalism. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAccommodation of non-nationals in Luxembourg
Wronska, Iwona; Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 05)

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg within its current borders was established in the end of 19th century. In the space of less than 150 years the population of this state more than doubled - largely ... [more ▼]

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg within its current borders was established in the end of 19th century. In the space of less than 150 years the population of this state more than doubled - largely attributable to immigration. Today, 48% of the population are foreigners. We would like to argue that the current immigration policy of Luxembourg is based on the strategy of accommodation. We can identify three major pillars of this strategy. The first pillar creates welcome conditions to adaptation within the host society. The second pillar brings liberal provisions for naturalization and the third pillar offers open and generous admission of refugees. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural societies - and the disappearance of culture?
Murdock, Elke UL; Stogianni, Maria UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 01)

Vertovec (2007) describes countries with a heterogeneous population in terms of origin and migration status as super-diverse. Within these plurally composed societies the boundaries between minority and ... [more ▼]

Vertovec (2007) describes countries with a heterogeneous population in terms of origin and migration status as super-diverse. Within these plurally composed societies the boundaries between minority and majority become blurred and norms, values and symbols may be negotiated dependent on context. For people growing up in such a multicultural context it is the norm to be with people of different cultural backgrounds and language skills. Reinders (2006) has introduced the term co-culturation, as distinct from enculturation and acculturation, to describe the process of engagement with cultural diversity by both, natives and those with migration background. In a sample of adolescents growing up in multicultural Luxembourg, we highlight the interplay between migration status, friendship patterns, family relations, well-being and identity. Students (N = 85) attending a Luxembourgish secondary school participated in this questionnaire study (Mage = 16.45, SD = 1.09, 46 male, 39 female). The majority (n = 68) of the students were born in Luxembourg, 17 are natives (born to two Luxembourgish parents), 43 are second generation, 17 first generation and 6 are of mixed parentage. We assessed language competence and use, friendship patterns and family relationships. Measures also included the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS) which assesses satisfaction with life in different domains and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale. The results indicate that friendship patterns are formed on the basis of the characteristics of the individual rather than based on the country of origin. Few statistically significant differences could be found in terms of country of origin/ migration status and various outcome measures. The results can be interpreted in the co-culturation framework. For this cohort of adolescents, culture contact is the norm and salience of cultural background appears to weaken as a result. However, the Luxembourgish language plays an important unifying role. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between perceived discrimination and life satisfaction: An ecological momentary assessment pilot study of adolescents
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL

Poster (2019, August 31)

Perceived discrimination is an important predictor of life satisfaction in ethnic minority groups (Villegas-Gold & Hyung Chol Yoo, 2014). Discriminatory practices are related to lower levels of subjective ... [more ▼]

Perceived discrimination is an important predictor of life satisfaction in ethnic minority groups (Villegas-Gold & Hyung Chol Yoo, 2014). Discriminatory practices are related to lower levels of subjective well-being and greater anxiety (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams, 1999). The present study aims to extend these findings by assessing the affective consequences of perceived discrimination with the use of experience sampling methodology. We are interested in within person changes in subjective well-being that occur as a result of perceived discrimination. International high-school students (N = 30) attending at European school of Luxembourg were recruited to participate in an e-diary study for a period of 10 days. Participants were first and second generation immigrants (Mage = 14.63, SD = .62) from different European and non-European countries, growing up in multicultural Luxembourg. Perceptions of discrimination by peers and teachers were assessed with a self-report questionnaire daily after school. Our measures captured different experiences of discrimination including discrimination based on gender, social status, ethnic origin, and physical appearance. Each evening, participants completed the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS), which assesses satisfaction with life in general and satisfaction in five domains that are considered important for adolescents: self, family, friends, living environment, and school context. The findings suggest that experiences of discrimination were associated with lower levels of subjective well-being. Participants were less satisfied with themselves, their relationships, and their school environment during the days they reported higher levels of discrimination experiences. With this pilot study using ecological momentary assessment, we develop a more dynamic understanding of the within-person variability of different facets of well-being among first and second generation adolescent immigrants and their discrimination experiences in different domains. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an understanding of biculturalism: The dynamic tension of being bicultural
Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, August 22)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly diverse composition – a consequence of accelerated movement of people across the globe. There is a growing number of individuals who are living ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly diverse composition – a consequence of accelerated movement of people across the globe. There is a growing number of individuals who are living with more than one cultural influence. This requires new theoretical understanding of biculturalism. How do individuals with significant and prolonged second culture exposure negotiate their cultural identities? Past research has relied on additive models, which conceptualize biculturalism simply as the sum of their cultural experiences, emphasizing the relative influence of each culture. The transformative theory of biculturalism goes beyond this model by focusing on the process of negotiation (hybridization, integrating and frame switching) recognizing that this process itself is already transforming the cultural experience. I will present a theory of biculturalism as a self-stabilizing tensegrity network. Previous models fall short in understanding the process of bicultural identity construal. Building on Dialogical Self theory and the idea of tensional integrity or tensegrity (Marsico & Tateo, 2017) I will show how applying such a framework captures the everyday reality of those living in a boundary-crossing world. Human beings are involved in constant positioning and counter-positioning the forms of which go beyond simple dual systems views – a co-genetic logic being more appropriate allowing for a third way. Tension may lead to a dialectical synthesis—a concept that will be elaborated in concrete ways. Tension is viewed as a positive force, stabilizing the self and at the same time dynamic allowing for the emergence of a qualitatively new whole. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Demography and Resulting Changes in Citizenship Law: The Case Study of Luxembourg
Wronska, Iwona; Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 27)

The vast majority of democratic theory assumes the need for widespread political participation. The right to vote constitutes the most essential political right but in the era of migration the idea of ... [more ▼]

The vast majority of democratic theory assumes the need for widespread political participation. The right to vote constitutes the most essential political right but in the era of migration the idea of universal suffrage is far from being realized. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg within its current borders is the result of 19th century diplomacy. In the space of less than 150 years the population of this state more than doubled - largely attributable to immigration. Today, 48% of the population are foreigners. The history of the creation of the Grand Duchy and the Law on Luxembourg Nationality are closely intertwined – the latter having undergone several changes – reflecting historic circumstances. The evolution of the Law on Luxembourgish Nationality and the discussions around “what constitutes a Luxembourger” illustrate the changes in perception of “Luxembourg nationality”. The underlying fundamental question is whether naturalization is the mid – or endpoint of successful integration into the host society. In this paper we will outline the different phases of the Luxembourg Law on Nationality, starting with the period of the French civil Code and ending with the current amendments of the naturalization law. This paper reflects the relation between migration and changes in the naturalization law in Luxembourg. The authors show how successive Luxembourgish governments have accommodated citizenship rights of foreign nationals, but are constrained by political groups defending national preferences. Overall, Luxembourg can be described as an immigration success story, facing the future challenge of accommodating all groups living in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural society - multiple ways to negotiate identity
Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, April 30)

The 21st century has been called the “age of migration” (Castles & Miller, 2009). International migration is a growing phenomenon, both in terms of scope and complexity and affects virtually all countries ... [more ▼]

The 21st century has been called the “age of migration” (Castles & Miller, 2009). International migration is a growing phenomenon, both in terms of scope and complexity and affects virtually all countries in the world (United Nations, 2009). The global migration system has changed over recent decades with regard to origins and destinations for migration. In the 20th century, Europe was a major area for emigration, but has now become a target for immigration, with most European countries, including Iceland, hosting significant minority immigrant populations. In Luxembourg, nearly half of the population is foreign – the foreign population percentage currently stands at 48%. Within this context majority and minority become fluid with the migration process itself being fluid, ranging from daily migration (transnational commuters), to medium-term stays, return visits and permanent immigration including uptake of citizenship. Within such a plurally composed society, culture contact is a permanent feature in daily life. Nationality becomes a salient feature as culture contact tends to prompt reflection, resulting in questioning and (re-)negotiation of national identity. This affects both the native and the diverse immigrant population – with diversity going beyond the level of country of origin as many individuals have very complex biographies. Using multicultural, multilingual Luxembourg as a case study example, I will present examples for the construal process of national identity for different groups, illustrating how (national) identity is negotiated at individual level. As can be expected, the identity construal process becomes more complex within a multicultural context. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving within a multicultural society: Implications for en – and acculturation processes
Murdock, Elke UL

Presentation (2019, April 04)

In Luxembourg, nearly half of the population is foreign – the foreign population percentage currently stands at 48%. Within this context majority and minority become fluid with the migration process ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, nearly half of the population is foreign – the foreign population percentage currently stands at 48%. Within this context majority and minority become fluid with the migration process itself being fluid, ranging from daily migration (transnational commuters), to medium-term stays, return visits and permanent immigration including uptake of citizenship. Second generation immigrants live alongside new arrivals. This heterogeneity has been described as super-diverse by Vertovec (2007). Diversity also goes beyond the level of country of origin as many individuals have very complex biographies. Culture contact is a permanent feature in daily life. Such a plurally composed society presents a challenge also for value transmission processes. The boundaries between enculturation and acculturation become blurred and norms, values, symbols and language may be negotiated dependent on context. The multicultural society of Luxembourg has provided different experiential contexts for different generations. Whereas the older generation grew up in a more homogeneous context, for the current cohort growing up with people of different cultural backgrounds and language skills is the norm. Reinders (2006) has introduced the term co-culturation, as distinct from enculturation and acculturation, to describe the process of engagement with cultural diversity by both, natives and those with migration background. This concept of co-culturation encapsulates the skill of negotiating different cultural contexts and cultural frame-switching – key skills in modern societies characterized by high mobility and migration. There is some evidence that nationality becomes more salient in multicultural contexts, but at the same time the importance of cultural origins may be weakened. As results from a pilot study among secondary school children (N = 85) suggests, friendship patterns are formed on the basis of characteristics of the individual rather than origin. In the sense of the individualist marginal as described by Bourhis et al. (1997), the findings suggest that young people want to be recognized by who they are rather than what they represent. Implications for cultural value transmission will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAkkulturation als Integrationsressource
Maehler, Débora; Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL

in Pickel, Gert; Decker, Oliver; Kailitz, Steffen (Eds.) et al Handbuch Integration (2019)

Akkulturation ist ein breit gefasstes Konzept, das Veränderungen in Folge eines interkulturellen Kontaktes beschreibt. Im Beitrag werden Modelle sowie der Bezugsahmen der Akkulturation dargestellt. Dabei ... [more ▼]

Akkulturation ist ein breit gefasstes Konzept, das Veränderungen in Folge eines interkulturellen Kontaktes beschreibt. Im Beitrag werden Modelle sowie der Bezugsahmen der Akkulturation dargestellt. Dabei können verschiedene Facetten des individuellen Akkulturationsprozesses betrachtet werden. Hierzu zählen die Einstellung zur Akkulturation, kognitive Kompetenzen, die soziale Interaktion, die Identität, das Verhaltensrepertoire und die strukturelle Platzierung. Basierend auf dem bidimensionalen Modell war die Akkulturationsforschung im letzten Jahrzehnt stark auf Typologien zentriert, die die Beziehung zwischen der Herkunftskultur und der Aufnahmegeschalt auf Individualebene beschreibt. Dabei wurde vorwiegend von einer Defizitperspektive ausgegangen. In Anbetracht einer globalisierten Welt sollte Akkulturation jedoch aus einer Ressourcenperspektive verstanden werden, da das Wissen um und über verschiedene Kulturen das Verhaltensrepertoire von Individuen erweitert. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicies of Crises in the European Union Youth Field: How a Political Agenda Shapes the Concept of Youth.
Heinen, Andreas UL; Décieux, Jean Philippe; Willems, Helmut UL et al

in Grimm, Marc; Bauer, Ullrich; Ertugrul, Baris (Eds.) Children and Adolescents in Times of Crises in Europe (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (18 UL)