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See detailShort- and long-term outcome of chronic pallidal neurostimulation in monogenic isolated dystonia
Bruggemann, N.; Kuhn, A.; Schneider, S. A. et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(9), 895-903

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum (GPi-DBS) is an established therapeutic option in treatment-refractory dystonia, and the identification of factors predicting surgical outcome ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum (GPi-DBS) is an established therapeutic option in treatment-refractory dystonia, and the identification of factors predicting surgical outcome is needed to optimize patient selection. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, GPi-DBS outcome of 8 patients with DYT6, 9 with DYT1, and 38 with isolated dystonia without known monogenic cause (non-DYT) was assessed at early (1-16 months) and late (22-92 months) follow-up using Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) scores. RESULTS: At early follow-up, mean reduction of dystonia severity was greater in patients with DYT1 (BFMDRS score: -60%) and non-DYT dystonia (-52%) than in patients with DYT6 dystonia (-32%; p = 0.046). Accordingly, the rate of responders was considerably lower in the latter group (57% vs >90%; p = 0.017). At late follow-up, however, GPi-DBS resulted in comparable improvement in all 3 groups (DYT6, -42%; DYT1, -44; non-DYT, -61%). Additional DBS of the same or another brain target was performed in 3 of 8 patients with DYT6 dystonia with varying results. Regardless of the genotype, patients with a shorter duration from onset of dystonia to surgery had better control of dystonia postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term GPi-DBS is effective in patients with DYT6, DYT1, and non-DYT dystonia. However, the effect of DBS appears to be less predictable in patients with DYT6, suggesting that pre-DBS genetic testing and counseling for known dystonia gene mutations may be indicated. GPi-DBS should probably be considered earlier in the disease course. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term GPi-DBS improves dystonia in patients with DYT1, DYT6, and non-DYT dystonia. [less ▲]

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See detailMyoclonus-dystonia: significance of large SGCE deletions.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Djarmati, A.; Lohmann-Hedrich, K. et al

in Human mutation (2008), 29(2), 331-2

Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in SGCE. We investigated the frequency and type of SGCE mutations with emphasis on gene dosage alterations and ... [more ▼]

Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in SGCE. We investigated the frequency and type of SGCE mutations with emphasis on gene dosage alterations and explored the associated phenotypes. We tested 35 M-D index patients by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing. Mutations were found in 26% (9/35) of the cases, all but three with definite M-D. Two heterozygous deletions of the entire SGCE gene and flanking DNA and a heterozygous deletion of exon 2 only were detected, accounting for 33% (3/9) of the mutations found. Both large deletions contained COL1A2 and were additionally associated with joint problems. Further, we discovered one novel small deletion (c.771_772delAT, p.C258X) and four recurrent point mutations (c.289C>T, p.R97X; c.304C>T, p.R102X; c.709C>T, p.R237X; c.1114C>T, p.R372X). A Medline search identified 22 articles on SGCE mutational screening. Sixty-four unrelated M-D patients were described with 41 different mutations. No genotype-phenotype association was found, except in patients with deletions encompassing additional genes. In conclusion, a rigorous clinical preselection of patients and careful accounting for non-motor signs should precede mutational tests. Gene dosage studies should be included in routine SGCE genetic testing. [less ▲]

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