References of "Mathivanan, Karthik 50030393"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailPrediction of Cu-Al weld status using convolutional neural network
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 21)

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu ... [more ▼]

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu composition in the joint. To implement this without the destruction of the sample is a challenge. For this purpose, high-resolution images of the weld zone are utilized after welding. With the image processing technique, the presence of (Al/Cu) material melted is distinguished. Therefore, the different weld type/status like insufficient melt, optimum melt, and excessive melt is detected from the images. This paper analyses the weld images and applies the convolutional neural network technique to predict the weld type. The microstructure and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the fusion zone for each weld type are correlated to the weld images. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCorrelation of Optical Signal During Laser Fusion Welding of Copper to Aluminum
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Journal of Laser Applications (2021, January 05), 33(1),

Laser joining of dissimilar metals, copper and aluminum, allows for the precise delivery of laser energy and high process speed. The keyhole-based process is very efficient for welding Al–Cu, considering ... [more ▼]

Laser joining of dissimilar metals, copper and aluminum, allows for the precise delivery of laser energy and high process speed. The keyhole-based process is very efficient for welding Al–Cu, considering the high reflectivity and thermal conductivity of the materials joined. For the Al–Cu system, the formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds is the main issue. Fusion welding with laser as a heat source involves the melting of metals. However, the high speed of the laser welding process is advantageous for terminating the excessive melting of Al and Cu and eventually controlling the detrimental intermetallic phases. Therefore, information pertaining to melted material is an important criterion for achieving joint strength. In this paper, the photodiode signal measured during the laser welding of Cu to Al is investigated as a process monitoring technique. In welding from Cu to Al, the melting of Al (bottom sheet) is very critical for joint strength. The amount of Al material that can be intermixed in Cu depends on the solubility limit of the Al–Cu system. The plasma plume emission during laser welding is used to extract the rapid melting of Al. This study shows the correlation of the Al characteristic peak at a wavelength of 396 nm with the shear strength of the joint. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (9 UL)
Full Text
See detailWELDING COPPER TO ALUMINIUM WITH GREEN LASER WAVELENGTH OF 515 NM
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2020, October 19)

Joining copper and aluminum sheets is difficult because of brittle intermetallic phases (IMP) formed in the joint, which results in reduced performance. The traditional approach to overcome this issue is ... [more ▼]

Joining copper and aluminum sheets is difficult because of brittle intermetallic phases (IMP) formed in the joint, which results in reduced performance. The traditional approach to overcome this issue is to irradiate the laser beam from Aluminum (Al) to control the weld depth and mixing of Cu in Al. The laser welding approach from the copper side (Cu on top) to Al is very sparse in the literature. In this paper, the welding approach from copper (top sheet) to aluminum is studied with green laser (515 nm) due to improved absorption at this wavelength. The objective of irradiating the laser beam from the copper side (Cu on top) is to exploit the higher solubility of Al in Cu (about 18%), which is significantly higher than Cu in Al. Therefore more Cu and Al can be melted and mixed in the joint for copper sheet placed on the top. From the tensile shear test, a strong joint is obtained with a fracture on the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Al. Detailed microstructure and composition of Al and Cu in the joint is performed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the composition in the joint. The EDS analysis indicates that a large amount of beneficial Cu solid solution and Al-rich phases is formed in the joint. The detrimental phases are intermixed in between the ductile phase composition i.e Al-rich and Cu solid solution. Therefore the effect of detrimental intermetallic phases is mitigated by intermixing with large ductile phases. With this paper, the fusion welding approach for joining Cu and Al system with a significant level of Cu and Al melting is shown. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (20 UL)
Full Text
See detailLaser overlap joining from copper to aluminum and analysis of failure zone
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 26)

Joining of copper and aluminum sheets are very crucial for battery application. When joining from copper sheet, keyhole mode of welding is essential to overcome the reflectivity and melting threshold of ... [more ▼]

Joining of copper and aluminum sheets are very crucial for battery application. When joining from copper sheet, keyhole mode of welding is essential to overcome the reflectivity and melting threshold of copper. However, in dissimilar material interaction the resulting intermetallic (IMC) phases are brittle, which result in reduced performance.This paper analyses the joint with laser beam irradiated from the copper side (Cu on top). The idea is to distribute the intermetallic compounds inside the joint to obtain a ductile behavior. The zones of failure and the distribution of the intermetallic phase is studied. The microstructural analysis of the fusion zone and mechanical strength of the joint are presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (14 UL)
Full Text
See detailLaser beam joining of copper to aluminum sheet
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Poster (2019, April 04)

Dissimilar metal joining plays a very important role in the battery connections, especially copper and aluminum sheets. The existing literatures for laser research mostly focused on joining from the less ... [more ▼]

Dissimilar metal joining plays a very important role in the battery connections, especially copper and aluminum sheets. The existing literatures for laser research mostly focused on joining from the less reflective aluminum side to bond with copper. In the current research, we explore the joining process from copper side.Finally the optical emission of Cu-Al joint is presented with 394 nm peak as an indication to study the melting of Al. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLaser welding of dissimilar copper and aluminum sheets by shaping the laser pulses
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Procedia Manufacturing (2019), 36

Dissimilar metal joining of thin copper and aluminum sheets is very important in the battery connections. The main problem while joining this dissimilar combination is formation of brittle intermetallic ... [more ▼]

Dissimilar metal joining of thin copper and aluminum sheets is very important in the battery connections. The main problem while joining this dissimilar combination is formation of brittle intermetallic phases that degrade the electrical and mechanical properties of the joint. For joining copper and aluminum sheet with laser, very high intensity in the range of 10^7 W/cm^2 is required. Intermixture of copper and aluminum is vital for joint ductility. In this paper, the effect of combined oscillation and shaping of the laser pulses on the overlap welding of copper-aluminum is studied. Precise control of intermixing can be achieved by modifying the laser pulse i.e. the percentage of power with respect to the pulse time. Investigation on different pulse shapes with ramp up and ramp down profile is conducted by cross-section and microstructural analysis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 130 (13 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMetallographic Studies of Dissimilar Al-Cu Laser-Welded Joints Using Various Etchants
Schmalen, Pascal Guy UL; Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis (2018)

The welding of Al and Cu is considered as difficult due to the formation of intermetallic compounds, which cause a brittle joint with increased electrical resistance. This paper investigates etching ... [more ▼]

The welding of Al and Cu is considered as difficult due to the formation of intermetallic compounds, which cause a brittle joint with increased electrical resistance. This paper investigates etching techniques that were used to contrast the intermetallic compounds for optical microscope analysis. A 0.5 mm AA-1050 sheet was welded to a 0.5 mm SF-Cu sheet in overlap configuration. The cross sections were etched by using 17 different reagents, including common Al-grade 2xxx etchants, Al-bronze etchants, and specific IMC etchants. A complete microstructural characterization, including the formation of intermetallic compounds, is presented. The experimental result showed that a clear distinction of metallurgic structures is possible, thus enabling a more detailed analysis of Al-Cu welds. It was found that etchants #09, #14, and #16 revealed best the four different intermetallic compounds θ-Al2Cu, η-AlCu, ζ-Al3Cu4, and γ-Al4Cu9. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (6 UL)
Full Text
See detailAutogenous Laser welding of copper to aluminium
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Poster (2018, September 13)

This work investigates laser joining of copper sheets to aluminium in overlap configuration. Dissimilar Cu-Al connections are widely used in the electrical and electronics applications e.g. battery and ... [more ▼]

This work investigates laser joining of copper sheets to aluminium in overlap configuration. Dissimilar Cu-Al connections are widely used in the electrical and electronics applications e.g. battery and solar panels.Joining these materials is a very critical assembly process. The laser welding from the aluminium surface to copper (Al-Cu) is well described in the literature .But there is no data concerning the laser seam welding from the copper side to join with aluminium i.e Cu-Al.The selection of aluminium surface to irradiate is mainly because of poor absorption of copper to laser in IR region.But high intensities of about 100 MW/cm2 allow for initial vaporization of copper surface.Once the keyhole is generated, absorption of laser light is improved.Thereby high power lasers allow for successful penetration of copper surface to produce a joint with aluminium. The main objective is to investigate the approach of dissimilar laser welding starting from the copper surface to aluminium.The effect of process parameters on the shear force, microstructure and weld pool dimensions are studied.An experimental design is realized to see the effect of laser irradiation of copper surface (Cu-Al) in contrast to aluminium surface(Al-Cu). The selection of aluminium or copper surface is mainly dependent on the laser power.With the high power disk laser the possibility of joining from the copper side was evident and results of joining copper to aluminium and aluminium to copper are comparable.Therefore welding from a highly reflective surface to achive a comparable shear strength is demonstrated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 193 (23 UL)