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See detailLearning to Grasp on the Moon from 3D Octree Observations with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Orsula, Andrej UL; Bøgh, Simon; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Proceedings of 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2022, October 23)

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time ... [more ▼]

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time that rovers can spend gathering scientific data and collecting samples. This work investigates the applicability of deep reinforcement learning for vision-based robotic grasping of objects on the Moon. A novel simulation environment with procedurally-generated datasets is created to train agents under challenging conditions in unstructured scenes with uneven terrain and harsh illumination. A model-free off-policy actor-critic algorithm is then employed for end-to-end learning of a policy that directly maps compact octree observations to continuous actions in Cartesian space. Experimental evaluation indicates that 3D data representations enable more effective learning of manipulation skills when compared to traditionally used image-based observations. Domain randomization improves the generalization of learned policies to novel scenes with previously unseen objects and different illumination conditions. To this end, we demonstrate zero-shot sim-to-real transfer by evaluating trained agents on a real robot in a Moon-analogue facility. [less ▲]

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See detailNvidia Omniverse for Active Space Debris Removal Missions, an Overview
Li, Xiao UL; Richard, Antoine UL; Loumpasefski, Olga-Orsalia UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 13)

Earth orbits have an increasingly worrying space debris pollution problem caused by millions of human-made objects left in space. These are becoming a hazard for current and future space missions. Many ... [more ▼]

Earth orbits have an increasingly worrying space debris pollution problem caused by millions of human-made objects left in space. These are becoming a hazard for current and future space missions. Many solutions to deal with space debris problems have been proposed, including Active Space Debris Removal (ASDR) methods. In this thriving field, various technologies are under development, among them, systems based on tethers, nets, lasers, or robotic arms can be found. However, testing such systems on earth is challenging, recreating space-like conditions, such as accurate contact dynamics under microgravity, is particularly difficult. Nonetheless, it is of paramount importance to offer testing environments for clean space technologies, as space is unforgiving, and space devices must go through thorough evaluation processes to ensure peak efficiency. The HELEN project aims at fulfilling this very need. Building on one of the most advanced simulation frameworks, it will provide photo-realistic rendering, an accurate physical simulation of the space environment, and eventually, through Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL), simulation of microgravity in ground facilities. This project is the result of the collaboration between SpaceR (University of Luxembourg), and Spacety (Industry). This simulation will be used to test FlexeS, an ASDR capturing system, which is under development. In HELEN, the accuracy of the physics is particularly important, as FlexeS will be validated through simulated HIL scenarios. Hence, a lifelike depiction of the microgravity environment, as well as the collisions, is critical. Moreover, to intercept and grab the debris FlexeS will rely on computer vision algorithms, thus photo-realistic graphics, allowing for lifelike visualizations are required. Furthermore, for future HIL testing, the ROS bridge and real-time communication capacity are crucial to connect the virtual world with the Zero-G robotic facility of the University of Luxembourg. In such a manner, FlexeS will be visualized in the space surroundings while simultaneously undergoing hardware experiments. With all these constraints in mind, Nvidia's Issac Sim was selected to create on-orbit dynamic scenarios. It not only meets all the requirements above but also provides a variety of sensors. Consequently, HELEN is creating on-orbit simulations featuring a CubeSat embedded with FlexeS, and debris circling the Earth. The scenarios showcase the digital twin of the capturing system intercepting debris, corresponding to the approaching phase in ASDR missions. Visually speaking, the RTX render engine allows for photo-realistic image generation. Regarding the motion of these objects, force-based astrodynamics is implemented into the simulation following the gravitational equation. Faithful velocities, position, and contacts are inferred by Nvidia's physics engine, PhysX. Scaled real-life values are used for the mass, as well as the orbital velocity and altitude. Thus, accurate simulations of contact dynamics between the system and the debris can be achieved. In the future, using a ROS bridge, the simulation will be connected to the HIL testing system of the Zero-G facility, amounting to a wholesome ASDR testing framework. Overall, the realistic simulations created with Isaac Sim are promising for analyzing clean space technologies. They combine photo-realistic scenes, accurate physics, and in the future, a means to test real hardware systems. [less ▲]

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See detailConcept of an Active Debris Removal 2-step capturing system for small satellites in Low Earth Orbit
Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 12)

Space debris brings up two main critical issues: not only a non-sustainable space environment for satellite missions, with orbit saturation, but also the creation of an unsafe place for human-related ... [more ▼]

Space debris brings up two main critical issues: not only a non-sustainable space environment for satellite missions, with orbit saturation, but also the creation of an unsafe place for human-related space missions. Despite being extremely challenging, catching autonomously and harmlessly an uncooperative object tumbling at high velocity demand reliability, compliance, and robustness. Grasping an object in microgravity means having control during the impact, but also keeping the link between the chaser satellite and the debris secure enough to handle the deorbiting phase. Supposing that the GNC installed tackles the synchronization with the debris rotation, so that only a linear translation is necessary to capture, three main problems can occur. The first problem can occur at the impact between the servicer and the debris. Due to the motion-reaction law, the debris could be pushed away if the capturing system does not prevent that motion. Besides, a high stiffness of the system, added to an unexpected strong impact, could damage either the servicer and/or the debris, resulting in a mission failure. Moreover, the need for a secure attach is required to go-on with the deorbit phase without losing the debris. That’s why, thanks to the fruitful collaboration between industry and academia (Spacety Luxembourg - SpaceR research group at the University of Luxembourg), a cutting-edge concept of a two-step capturing mechanism is being designed. Data analysis of trackable objects in LEO reveals an abundant number of CubeSat-shaped satellites, that future constellations might also take advantage of. Consequently, the concept presented is focusing on capturing these, at their end of life. A first ‘soft capture’ ensures that the debris is received softly while dampening any vibrations generated. A gecko-inspired adhesive surface will first receive the debris, preventing it from being pushed away. The property of such dry adhesive is that they do not require a high preload to stick to the surface, while having a very strong adhesion. To absorb most of the vibrations or movements due to the first impact, a compliant mechanism will be integrated behind the adhesive part. To that extent, if the alignment is not perfect, the system has some degrees of freedom, so that no damage can be generated. This compliant and sticky system would prevent the first main two issues of capturing an uncooperative target in microgravity. Then, a ‘hard capture’ secures the debris so that it would be deorbited without being released on the way. This part of the system would either gently squeeze the debris, using controlled adhesive flexible arms, or encircle it, and would be designed in compliance of ESA guidelines for demise. A two-step capturing mechanism is here proposed, taking advantage of bio-inspired dry adhesive technology, and compliant mechanisms, while having ESA guidelines in mind. Bringing the advantage of removing a vast range of objects in orbit, it also allows a reliable capturing, removing risks of generating more debris. Later works would bring attention to architecture that would fit more than a box shape. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Rover Teleoperation on the Moon With Proprioceptive Sensors and Machine Learning Techniques
Coloma Chacon, Sofia UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2022)

Geological formations, environmental conditions, and soil mechanics frequently generate undesired effects on rovers’ mobility, such as slippage or sinkage. Underestimating these undesired effects may ... [more ▼]

Geological formations, environmental conditions, and soil mechanics frequently generate undesired effects on rovers’ mobility, such as slippage or sinkage. Underestimating these undesired effects may compromise the rovers’ operation and lead to a premature end of the mission. Minimizing mobility risks becomes a priority for colonising the Moon and Mars. However, addressing this challenge cannot be treated equally for every celestial body since the control strategies may differ; e.g. the low latency EarthMoon communication allows constant monitoring and controls, something not feasible on Mars. This letter proposes a Hazard Information System (HIS) that estimates the rover’s mobility risks (e.g. slippage) using proprioceptive sensors and Machine Learning (supervised and unsupervised). A Graphical User Interface was created to assist human-teleoperation tasks by presenting mobility risk indicators. The system has been developed and evaluated in the lunar analogue facility (LunaLab) at the University of Luxembourg. A real rover and eight participants were part of the experiments. Results demonstrate the benefits of the HIS in the decision-making processes of the operator’s response to overcome hazardous situations. [less ▲]

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See detailHardware-in-the-loop Proximity Operations in Cislunar Space
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Makhdoomi, Mohatashem Reyaz UL; Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September 20)

Space missions to Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) in the Earth-Moon system are upcoming. A rendezvous technique in the cislunar space is proposed in this investigation, one that leverages coupled ... [more ▼]

Space missions to Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) in the Earth-Moon system are upcoming. A rendezvous technique in the cislunar space is proposed in this investigation, one that leverages coupled orbit and attitude dynamics in the Circular Restricted Three-body Problem (CR3BP). An autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technique is demonstrated in which a chaser spacecraft approaches a target spacecraft in the southern 9:2 synodic-resonant L2 Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit (NRHO), one that currently serves as the baseline for NASA's Gateway. A two-layer control approach is contemplated. First, a nonlinear optimal controller identifies an appropriate baseline rendezvous path, both in position and orientation. As the spacecraft progresses along the pre-computed baseline path, optical sensors measure the relative pose of the chaser relative to the target. A Kalman filter processes these observations and offers precise state estimates. A linear controller compensates for any deviations identified from the predetermined rendezvous path. The efficacy of the GNC technique is tested by considering a complex scenario in which the rendezvous operation is conducted with a non-cooperative tumbling target. Hardware-in-the-loop laboratory experiments are conducted as proof-of-concept to validate the guidance algorithm, with observations supplemented by optical navigation techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous control for satellite rendezvous in near-Earth orbits
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Zinys, Augustinas et al

Scientific Conference (2022, July)

CubeSats are being deployed for a number of activities including Earth observation, telecommunications, scientific experiments, and due to their low cost and flexibility, more often than not, they are ... [more ▼]

CubeSats are being deployed for a number of activities including Earth observation, telecommunications, scientific experiments, and due to their low cost and flexibility, more often than not, they are even being considered for use in On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) and debris removal missions. This investigation focuses on using the CubeSat technology to perform autonomous proximity operations with passive target bodies including satellites or space debris. The nonlinear coupled attitude and orbit dynamics for the chaser and the target bodies are modelled and simulated. A nonlinear optimal controller identifies an appropriate rendezvous path. A vision-based navigation system on the chaser satellite records the pose of the target body. The pose observations with stochastic uncertainties are processed using a Kalman filter, and offer state feedback along the satellite path. Such observations in conjunction with the postulated linear control algorithm anchor the chaser to approach the target by maintaining appropriate relative configuration. The linear controller delivers regular maneuvers to compensate for any deviations from the identified reference path. A close-range rendezvous operation is illustrated in a Mission Design Simulator (MDS) tool. [less ▲]

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See detailEmulating Active Space Debris Removal Scenarios in Zero-G Lab
Li, Xiao UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

Presentation (2022, June 02)

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See detailThe Best Space Resource is the One You Can Catch and Reuse
Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL et al

Poster (2022, May 03)

From the beginning of space exploration more than 60 years ago, only a few in-orbit objects have been removed or reused. In fact, the Kessler Syndrome states that the number of space debris is growing ... [more ▼]

From the beginning of space exploration more than 60 years ago, only a few in-orbit objects have been removed or reused. In fact, the Kessler Syndrome states that the number of space debris is growing exponentially [1], leaving unused uncooperative objects orbiting at high velocities at several altitudes, especially in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). In other words, the situation brings up two main critical issues: not only a non-sustainable space environment for satellite missions, with orbit saturation, but also the creation of an unsafe place for future human-related space exploration missions. Active Debris Removal is a possible solution for tackling the problem of space debris. Despite being extremely challenging, catching autonomously and harmlessly an uncooperative object tumbling at high velocity demands reliability, compliance and robustness. The fruitful collaboration between industry and academia (Spacety Luxembourg - SnT-SpaceR research group at the University of Luxembourg), is leading to the cutting-edge concept of a two-step capturing mechanism. A first ‘soft capture’ ensures that the debris is received softly while dampening any vibrations generated during the contact. Then, a ‘hard capture’ secures the debris so that it would be deorbited or safely shipped for other orbits or space stations for reuse. Capturing debris and decommissioned in-orbit objects for recycling or reusing can be the anchor of new opportunities in space and beyond. Most of the objects in orbit can have aluminum parts, besides other beneficial materials among their subsystems, such as solar panels, antennas or electronics which can be reused. To maximize space resources reusability, it is important to not harm the target. Capturing solutions such as harpoons or rigid interfaces can cause damage to the targets, resulting in hardly exploitable resources, and even more smaller debris tumbling in orbit [2]. An application of the proposed capturing technology would be to collect defunct satellites and debris, thus contributing to a more sustainable environment in space, gathering those on a possible recycling orbit or to any future Space Station for recycling. References [1] Drmola J. and Hubik T., Kessler Syndrome: System Dynamics Model (2018), In-Space Policy, 44–45, 29–39 [2] Zhao P., Liu J. and Wu C., Survey on Research and Development of On-Orbit Active Debris Removal Methods (2020), Sci China Tech Sci, 63: 2188–2210 [less ▲]

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See detailExploring NVIDIA Omniverse for Future Space Resources Missions
Li, Xiao UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Christidi-Loumpasefski, Olga-Orsalia UL et al

Poster (2022, May 03)

The resources of space offer a means to enable sustainable exploration of the Moon and Solar System beyond, thus developing space resource technologies is becoming a major topic for space-related activity ... [more ▼]

The resources of space offer a means to enable sustainable exploration of the Moon and Solar System beyond, thus developing space resource technologies is becoming a major topic for space-related activity internationally. However, verifying and validating such systems on Earth conditions is challenging due to the difficulty of filling the sim2reality gap by creating the exact environment. We hypothesize that having on-ground experimental facilities that integrate high-fidelity simulation and physical systems will enable close-to-real testing, speeding up the transition between space technology development and deployment stages. NVIDIA Omniverse recently gained interest to create photorealistic environments, and it is a promising tool to simulate space-related scenarios with high fidelity. Physically accurate and faithful on-orbit scenarios could be generated in Omniverse Create by integrating PhysX physics core and Pixar Universal Scene Description. Omniverse also includes a robotic simulator that connects to physical robotic systems. Various connectors between Omniverse and other platforms such as Unreal Engine, Blender, Autodesk, ParaView, and online collaboration capacity offer the possibility of importing models of space mission components, space scenes, and scientific data into Omniverse. NVIDIA Omniverse seems auspicious in terms of developing high-fidelity photorealistic simulations. In the HELEN project between SpaceR and Spacety, we are developing a close-to-real testing environment for validating debris removal technology. Within this project, we will explore the potential of Omniverse to integrate virtual and physical components, i.e., high-fidelity photorealistic on-orbit simulations with the Zero-G lab facility, for creating reliable testing conditions to reduce the sim2reality gap. SIL and HIL testing architectures for space systems will be developed using software such as MATLAB/Simulink. Moreover, the robotic systems of the Zero-G lab can be linked to the Omniverse’s robotic simulator using its ROS & ROS2 bridge. The figure presents an overview of Omniverse under the scope of the HELEN project. HELEN will show the combination of photorealistic simulations using Omniverse, SIL, and HIL with the Zero-G lab creates a high-fidelity testing environment for future space resources technology. We also believe that the number of human-made objects orbiting the Earth constitutes a great potential for the recovery of their resources. Most of those include valuable materials (Aluminum, Gold, Silver). Therefore, in the future, debris mitigation efforts can target the recovery of such resources, as pointed out in [1]. Reference:[1] Frank Koch, The Value of Space Debris (2021), 8th European Conference on Space Debris [less ▲]

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See detailImage features for quality analysis of thick blood smears employed in malaria diagnosis.
Fong Amaris, W. M.; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Cortés-Cortés, Liliana J. et al

in Malaria journal (2022), 21(1), 74

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) provides protocols for the diagnosis of malaria. One of them is related to the staining process of blood samples to guarantee the correct parasite ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) provides protocols for the diagnosis of malaria. One of them is related to the staining process of blood samples to guarantee the correct parasite visualization. Ensuring the quality of the staining procedure on thick blood smears (TBS) is a difficult task, especially in rural centres, where there are factors that can affect the smear quality (e.g. types of reagents employed, place of sample preparation, among others). This work presents an analysis of an image-based approach to evaluate the coloration quality of the staining process of TBS used for malaria diagnosis. METHODS: According to the WHO, there are different coloration quality descriptors of smears. Among those, the background colour is one of the best indicators of how well the staining process was conducted. An image database with 420 images (corresponding to 42 TBS samples) was created for analysing and testing image-based algorithms to detect the quality of the coloration of TBS. Background segmentation techniques were explored (based on RGB and HSV colour spaces) to separate the background and foreground (leukocytes, platelets, parasites) information. Then, different features (PCA, correlation, Histograms, variance) were explored as image criteria of coloration quality on the extracted background information; and evaluated according to their capability to classify images as with Good or Bad coloration quality from TBS. RESULTS: For background segmentation, a thresholding-based approach in the SV components of the HSV colour space was selected. It provided robustness separating the background information independently of its coloration quality. On the other hand, as image criteria of coloration quality, among the 19 feature vectors explored, the best one corresponds to the 15-bins histogram of the Hue component with classification rates of > 97%. CONCLUSIONS: An analysis of an image-based approach to describe the coloration quality of TBS was presented. It was demonstrated that if a robust background segmentation is conducted, the histogram of the H component from the HSV colour space is the best feature vector to discriminate the coloration quality of the smears. These results are the baseline for automating the estimation of the coloration quality, which has not been studied before, but that can be crucial for automating TBS's analysis for assisting malaria diagnosis process. [less ▲]

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See detailET-Class, an Energy Transfer-based Classification of Space Debris Removal Methods and Missions
Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL et al

in Frontiers in Space Technologies (2022)

Space debris is positioned as a fatal problem for current and future space missions. Many e ective space debris removal methods have been proposed in the past decade, and several techniques have been ... [more ▼]

Space debris is positioned as a fatal problem for current and future space missions. Many e ective space debris removal methods have been proposed in the past decade, and several techniques have been either tested on the ground or in parabolic ight experiments. Nevertheless, no uncooperative debris has been removed from any orbit until this moment. Therefore, to expand this research eld and progress the development of space debris removal technologies, this paper reviews and compares the existing technologies with past, present, and future methods and missions. Moreover, since one of the critical problems when designing space debris removal solutions is how to transfer the energy between the chaser/de-orbiting kit and target during the rst interaction, this paper proposes a novel classi cation approach, named ET-Class (Energy Transfer Class). This classi cation approach provides an energy-based perspective to the space debris phenomenon by classifying how existing methods dissipate or store energy during rst contact. [less ▲]

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See detailVision-Based Safety System for Barrierless Human-Robot Collaboration
Amaya-Mejía, Lina María; Duque-Suárez, Nicolás; Jaramillo-Ramírez, Daniel et al

in 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2022)

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See detailDeep Learning for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration
Duque, Nicolas; Mejia, Lina; Martinez Luna, Carol UL et al

in Advances in Automation and Robotics Research (2021, November 21)

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See detailHow to catch a space debris
Yalcin, Baris Can UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL et al

Poster (2021, November 18)

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage ... [more ▼]

The partnership between SpaceR and Spacety Luxembourg aims to develop cutting edge active space debris removal solutions that can be implemented into small cube sats The solution will take the advantage of latest advancements in many tech domains, such as gecko like sticky adhesives and energy efficient shape memory alloy materials. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar-Aerodynamic Formation Flight for 5G Experiments
Thoemel, Jan UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Bokal, Zhanna UL et al

in Proceedings of the 12th European CubeSatSymposium (2021, November 15)

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See detailTowards incremental autonomy framework for on-orbit vision-based grasping
Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Dentler, Jan et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC-2021 (2021, October 29)

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and ... [more ▼]

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and built for a narrow time/complexity domain. In domains like On-orbit Servicing Assembly and Manufacturing (OSAM), this prevents scalability and generalizability, motivating a more consistent approach for the incremental development of robotic autonomy. For this purpose, the problem of vision-based grasping is described as a building block for high autonomy of dexterous space robots. Subsequently, the need for a framework is highlighted to enable bottom-up development of general autonomy with vision-based grasping as the starting point. The preliminary framework presented here comprises three components. First, an autonomy level classification provides a clear description of the autonomous behavior of the system. The stack abstraction provides a general classification of the development layers. Finally, the generic execution architecture condenses the flow of translating a high-level task description into real-world sense-planact routines. Overall, this work lays down foundational elements towards development of general robotic autonomy for scalablity in space application domains like OSAM. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning for surgical time prediction
Martinez, Oscar; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Parra, Carlos et al

in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine (2021)

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See detail5G-SpaceLab
Querol, Jorge UL; Abdalla, Abdelrahman UL; Bokal, Zhanna UL et al

Poster (2021, April 19)

The new phase of space exploration involves a growing number of human and robotic missions with varying communication and service requirements. Continuous, maximum coverage of areas where activities are ... [more ▼]

The new phase of space exploration involves a growing number of human and robotic missions with varying communication and service requirements. Continuous, maximum coverage of areas where activities are concentrated and orbiting missions (single spacecraft or constellations) around the Earth, Moon or Mars will be particularly challenging. The standardization of the 5G Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN) has already begun [1], and nothing prevents 5G from becoming a common communications standard supporting space resource missions [2]. The 5G Space Communications Lab (5G-SpaceLab) is an interdisciplinary experimental platform, funded by the Luxembourg Space Agency and is part of the Space Research Program of SnT. The lab allows users to design and emulate realistic space communications and control scenarios for the next-generation of space applications. The capabilities of the 5G-SpaceLab testbed combine the experience of different disciplines including space communications, space and satellite mission design, and space robotics. The most relevant include the demonstration of SDR 5G NTN terminals including NB-IoT, emulation of space communications channel scenarios (e.g. link budget, delay, Doppler…), small satellite platform and payload design and testing, satellite swarm flight formation, lunar rover and robotic arm control and AI-powered telerobotics. Earth-Moon communications is one of the scenarios demonstrated in the 5G-SpaceLab. Bidirectional communication for the teleoperation of lunar rovers for near real-time operations including data collection and sensors feedback will be tested. AI-based approaches for perception and control will be developed to overcome communication delays and to provide safer, trustworthy, and efficient remote control of the rovers. [1] 3GPP Release 17 Timeline. [Online]. Available: https://www.3gpp.org/release-17 [2] Nokia, Nokia selected by NASA to build first ever cellular network on the Moon. [Online]. Available: https://www.nokia.com/about-us/news/releases/2020/10/19/nokia-selected-by-nasa-to-build-first-ever-cellular-network-on-the-moon/ [less ▲]

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