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See detailMaGrid: A Language-Neutral Early Mathematical Training and Learning Application
Pazouki, Tahereh UL; Cornu, Véronique UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL et al

in International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (2018), 13(08), 4-18

Given that the use of educational technologies is increasingly popular in kindergarten and among young students, these technologies have been shown to be able to solve the difficulties (existing in school ... [more ▼]

Given that the use of educational technologies is increasingly popular in kindergarten and among young students, these technologies have been shown to be able to solve the difficulties (existing in school) that are either not possible to be solved in traditional schooling or cost a lot of time and resources. In this paper, we present a pedagogical training and learning application called MaGrid (Math on Grid), which has been developed to foster early mathematical skills in pre-schoolers. MaGrid is a tablet-based application, which provides a wide range of training tasks targeting fundamental mathematical concepts for the preschool level. The language-neutral property of MaGrid is an innovative aspect that makes MaGrid different from existing mathematical training applications. This property may reduce the barrier of language from mathematical education for second language learners encountered in multilingual school settings. MaGrid allows individual learning in an interactive way and provides real-time feedback. Moreover, MaGrid is capable of recording students’ activities while working on the training tasks, which can help teachers and parents keep track of a student’s progress in different tasks and observe potential training-related improvements over time. Finally, we describe a series of experiments carried out using the MaGrid application during special training and assessment sessions in several preschools in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking Language out of the Equation: The Assessment of Basic Math Competence Without Language
Greisen, Max UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2018)

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5–7% of children suffer from mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) that need to be assessed early to ensure successful ... [more ▼]

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5–7% of children suffer from mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) that need to be assessed early to ensure successful remediation. Universally employable diagnostic tools are yet lacking, as current test batteries for basic mathematics assessment are based on verbal instructions. However, prior research has shown that performance in mathematics assessment is often dependent on the testee’s proficiency in the language of instruction which might lead to unfair bias in test scores. Furthermore, language-dependent assessment tools produce results that are not easily comparable across countries. Here we present results of a study that aims to develop tasks allowing to test for basic math competence without relying on verbal instructions or task content. We implemented video and animation-based task instructions on touchscreen devices that require no verbal explanation. We administered these experimental tasks to two samples of children attending the first grade of primary school. One group completed the tasks with verbal instructions while another group received video instructions showing a person successfully completing the task.We assessed task comprehension and usability aspects both directly and indirectly. Our results suggest that the non-verbal instructions were generally well understood as the absence of explicit verbal instructions did not influence task performance. Thus we found that it is possible to assess basic math competence without verbal instructions. It also appeared that in some cases a single word in a verbal instruction can lead to the failure of a task that is successfully completed with non-verbal instruction. However, special care must be taken during task design because on rare occasions non-verbal video instructions fail to convey task instructions as clearly as spoken language and thus the latter do not provide a panacea to non-verbal assessment. Nevertheless, our findings provide an encouraging proof of concept for the further development of non-verbal assessment tools for basic math competence. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercoming language barriers in early mathematics instruction with “MaGrid” - a language-neutral training tool for multilingual school settings
Cornu, Véronique UL; Pazouki, Tahereh UL; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (2018, April 08)

Mathematical knowledge at the onset of formal schooling paves the way for children’s achievement in formal mathematics (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Watts et al., 2014). Hence, it is crucial to equip ... [more ▼]

Mathematical knowledge at the onset of formal schooling paves the way for children’s achievement in formal mathematics (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Watts et al., 2014). Hence, it is crucial to equip children with sound basic mathematical competencies by deploying effective teaching interventions during preschool years. However, multilingual school settings, such as Luxembourg (65% of the pupils are second language learners) pose a special challenge for instruction. Non-native pre-schoolers perform lower on early mathematics tests than their age-matched peers (Bonifacci et al., 2016; Kleemans et al., 2011). This gap is most likely due to missing out on learning opportunities, as a result of lower proficiency in the language of instruction. To provide equal access to early mathematics education for all children, we developed a language-neutral early mathematics training tool, the “MaGrid”-app. This innovative training tool has been evaluated, so far, in two studies in multilingual Luxembourg. In a first study, children from five classrooms (N = 68) used the tool to train visuo-spatial abilities, an important predictor of mathematical abilities (see e.g. Mix et al., 2016), over ten weeks (2x20min/week). At post-test, significant gains in the visuo-spatial domain were observed, compared to children from “teaching-as-usual” classrooms (N = 57). In a second study, we elaborated a comprehensive language-neutral early mathematics intervention, with “MaGrid” at its core. Findings from both training studies will be presented in detail and the importance of domain-specific versus domain-general precursors, as well as practical implications, will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailUsability testing in large-scale assessments
Greiff, Samuel UL; Martin, Romain UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

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See detailFourth-graders' competence beliefs in mathematics
Villanyi, Denise UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

Poster (2018, February 15)

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See detailSurmonter les barrières linguistiques avec « MaGrid » - un outil de formation de pré-mathématiques pour un contexte scolaire multilingue
Cornu, Véronique UL; Pazouki, Tahereh UL; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, January 11)

Le contexte scolaire luxembourgeois est caractérisé par le multilinguisme et une population scolaire hétérogène, ce qui nécessite la mise en place de pratiques pédagogiques qui prennent en compte ... [more ▼]

Le contexte scolaire luxembourgeois est caractérisé par le multilinguisme et une population scolaire hétérogène, ce qui nécessite la mise en place de pratiques pédagogiques qui prennent en compte l’hétérogénéité des élèves. Dans le domaine des mathématiques, qui semble être non-verbal à première vue, des résultats scientifiques montrent que les enfants dont la langue maternelle est différente de la langue d’instruction, atteignent sur des tests d’aptitudes pré-mathématiques des résultats significativement inférieurs à ceux de leurs camarades natifs. Ceci est d’autant plus inquiétant, sachant que ces aptitudes pré-mathématiques sont prédictives des apprentissages ultérieurs. Par conséquent, nous avons développé l’outil de formation de pré-mathématiques non-verbale « MaGrid ». « MaGrid » permet à chaque enfant de bénéficier pleinement d’une instruction préscolaire en mathématiques, indépendamment de ses compétences langagières. Cet outil se caractérise par sa nature visuelle et il est implémenté sur tablette tactile. Jusqu’à présent, nous avons implémenté et évalué « MaGrid » lors de deux études scientifiques. Les résultats quantitatifs des évaluations empiriques sont prometteurs, comme ils montrent des effets positifs sur les habilités entraînées chez les enfants ayant utilisé cet outil comparé à un groupe contrôle. Dans une première étude, l’outil a été utilisé auprès de cinq classes durant 10 semaines, comprenant deux séances de 20 minutes par semaine. Les résultats lors de petites épreuves spécifiques ont été comparés aux résultats d’élèves de cinq classes n’ayant pas d’entraînement spécifique, et des effets d’intervention ont été observés. Dans une deuxième étude, nous nous sommes focalisés sur un groupe d’enfants de langue minoritaire (le portugais). « MaGrid » a été utilisé lors d’un programme d’intervention de pré-mathématiques s’étendant sur les deux années scolaires de l’école préscolaire. Les analyses préliminaires ont abouti à des résultats positifs. Des effets bénéfiques se sont manifestés sur différentes mesures de pré-mathématiques chez les enfants ayant suivi notre programme par rapport aux enfants du groupe contrôle. [less ▲]

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See detailUn outil sur tablette tactile facilitant l'autuévaluation à l'école primaire
Villanyi, Denise UL; Martin, Romain UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, January 11)

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See detailLEARN Newsletter - Édition 2018
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Book published by LEARN (2018)

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See detailStudents' exploration strategies in computer-simulated complex problem environments: A latent class approach
Greiff, Samuel UL; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Computers & Education (2018), 126

Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered an important educational achievement indicator. Previous research has indicated that CPS performance depends to a substantial extent on the way students explore ... [more ▼]

Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered an important educational achievement indicator. Previous research has indicated that CPS performance depends to a substantial extent on the way students explore problem environments. In this study, we investigated qualitative differences in the way students interact with such environments. In a sample of N = 2226 Hungarian students in Grades 6 to 8, we applied a latent class approach to investigate the use of the principle of isolated variation as an exploration strategy across six CPS tasks that were developed within the MicroDYN approach. Six qualitatively different class profiles emerged: proficient explorers, intermediate explorers, low-performing explorers, rapid learners, emerging explorers, and nonpersisting explorers. We further validated the profiles by comparing the latent classes with regard to students' overall CPS performance and additional indicators of task exploration. In analyzing age-related and gender differences on a cross-sectional level, we found only a small progression toward better performing class profiles from Grade 6 to Grade 8 (e.g., 14.6% of students in Grade 6 were proficient explorers vs. 24.6% in Grade 8; 27.1% of students in Grade 6 were low-performing explorers vs. 25.8% in Grade 8), and there were no substantial gender differences. This study contributes to the understanding of how students interact with complex problems and is the first to address whether variations in these behaviors indicate qualitatively different levels of strategic behavior. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings and potential of identifying class profiles of students' exploration behavior in the field of educational psychology. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des capacités cognitives dans le système scolaire luxembourgeois
Muller, Claire UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ... [more ▼]

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ausgelegt. Nicht alle Schüler sind dieser Herausforderung gewachsen. Daten aus dem luxemburgischen Schulmonitoring (Épreuves standardisées) zeigen, dass vor allem Grundschüler, die zuhause keine der Landessprachen nutzen, Probleme haben eine richtige Erstsprache zu entwickeln. In diesem Fall ist es nicht weiter verwunderlich, wenn auch andere Kompetenzen nur schleppend ausgebildet werden. Leider wird die Sprachenvielfalt – so sinnvoll und nützlich sie für den Einen auch ist – für so Manche zum Hindernis. Das System produziert unweigerlich Schüler, deren akademische Leistungen unter ihrem Potential bleiben: die sogenannten „Underachiever“. Bevor wir uns allerdings überlegen können wie diesem Problem zu begegnen ist, muss kognitives Potential überhaupt evaluiert werden können. Bislang existieren jedoch keine Tests, die an die Luxemburgische Schülerpopulation angepasst sind. Um diesen Mangel zu beheben, wurde am LUCET der Test of Cognitive Potential (TCP) entwickelt. Der TCP ermöglicht es, kognitive Kompetenzen weitestgehend sprach- und kulturfrei zu erfassen, womit er den Bedürfnissen des luxemburgischen Schulsystems optimal entspricht. Im Verlauf des Kapitels wird der TCP kurz vorgestellt, um folgend erste Beobachtungen hinsichtlich der Problematik des „Underachievements“ anzustellen. Anschließend wird aufgezeigt, wie universal der Nutzen einer systematischen Evaluation von kognitiven Fähigkeiten im schulischen Kontext ist: von der Diagnose spezifischer Lernschwierigkeiten auf Individualniveau bis hin zur Beurteilung der Passung von Lernprogrammen und Fördermaßnahmen auf Systemniveau. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation kognitiver Fähigkeiten im luxemburgischen Schulsystem
Muller, Claire UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ... [more ▼]

Das Erlernen von Fremdsprachen hat sich über die Jahre hinweg als zentral für die soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung der Schüler Luxemburgs erwiesen. Die sprachlichen Kurrikula sind entsprechend komplex ausgelegt. Nicht alle Schüler sind dieser Herausforderung gewachsen. Daten aus dem luxemburgischen Schulmonitoring (Épreuves standardisées) zeigen, dass vor allem Grundschüler, die zuhause keine der Landessprachen nutzen, Probleme haben eine richtige Erstsprache zu entwickeln. In diesem Fall ist es nicht weiter verwunderlich, wenn auch andere Kompetenzen nur schleppend ausgebildet werden. Leider wird die Sprachenvielfalt – so sinnvoll und nützlich sie für den Einen auch ist – für so Manche zum Hindernis. Das System produziert unweigerlich Schüler, deren akademische Leistungen unter ihrem Potential bleiben: die sogenannten „Underachiever“. Bevor wir uns allerdings überlegen können wie diesem Problem zu begegnen ist, muss kognitives Potential überhaupt evaluiert werden können. Bislang existieren jedoch keine Tests, die an die Luxemburgische Schülerpopulation angepasst sind. Um diesen Mangel zu beheben, wurde am LUCET der Test of Cognitive Potential (TCP) entwickelt. Der TCP ermöglicht es, kognitive Kompetenzen weitestgehend sprach- und kulturfrei zu erfassen, womit er den Bedürfnissen des luxemburgischen Schulsystems optimal entspricht. Im Verlauf des Kapitels wird der TCP kurz vorgestellt, um folgend erste Beobachtungen hinsichtlich der Problematik des „Underachievements“ anzustellen. Anschließend wird aufgezeigt, wie universal der Nutzen einer systematischen Evaluation von kognitiven Fähigkeiten im schulischen Kontext ist: von der Diagnose spezifischer Lernschwierigkeiten auf Individualniveau bis hin zur Beurteilung der Passung von Lernprogrammen und Fördermaßnahmen auf Systemniveau. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tablet-Computer-Based Tool to Facilitate Accurate Self-Assessments in Third- and Fourth-Graders
Villanyi, Denise UL; Martin, Romain UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL et al

in International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (2018), 13(10), 225-251

Although student self-assessment is positively related to achievement, skepticism about the accuracy of students’ self-assessments remains. A few studies have shown that even elementary school students ... [more ▼]

Although student self-assessment is positively related to achievement, skepticism about the accuracy of students’ self-assessments remains. A few studies have shown that even elementary school students are able to provide accurate self-assessments when certain conditions are met. We developed an innovative tablet-computer-based tool for capturing self-assessments of mathematics and reading comprehension. This tool integrates the conditions required for accurate self-assessment: (1) a non-competitive setting, (2) items formulated on the task level, and (3) limited reading and no verbalization required. The innovation consists of using illustrations and a language-reduced rating scale. The correlations between students’ self-assessment scores and their standardized test scores were moderate to large. Independent of their proficiency level, students’ confidence in completing a task decreased as task difficulty increased, but these findings were more consistent in mathematics than in reading comprehension. We conclude that third- and fourth-graders have the ability to provide accurate self-assessments of their competencies, particularly in mathematics, when provided with an adequate self-assessment tool. [less ▲]

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See detailVisuo-spatial abilities are key for young children’s verbal number skills
Cornu, Véronique UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2018), 166C

Children’s development of verbal number skills (i.e, counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and ... [more ▼]

Children’s development of verbal number skills (i.e, counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and verbal abilities have been discussed to contribute to the development of these foundational skills. To understand the cognitive nature of verbal number skills in young children, the present study assessed the relation of preschoolers’ verbal and visuo-spatial abilities to their verbal number skills. In total, 141 children aged between five and six years participated in the present study. Verbal number skills were regressed on vocabulary, phonological awareness and visuo-spatial abilities, as well as verbal and visuo-spatial working memory in a structural equation model. Only visuo-spatial abilities emerged as a significant predictor of verbal number skills in the estimated model. Our results suggest that visuo-spatial abilities contribute to a larger extent to children’s verbal number skills than verbal abilities. From a theoretical point of view, these results suggest a visuo-spatial, rather than a verbal, grounding of verbal number skills. These results are potentially informative for the conception of early mathematics assessments and interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation du potentiel cognitif sur tablette tactile : L’exemple du « TCP »
Muller, Claire UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Martin, Romain UL

in Demeuse, Marc; Milmeister, Marianne; Weis, Christiane (Eds.) L’évaluation en éducation et en formation face aux transformations des sociétés contemporaines. Actes du colloque. (2018)

Les tablettes tactiles offrent une toute nouvelle gamme de possibilités dans le domaine de l’éducation. L’intuitivité de cet outil inspire des approches innovatrices pour l’évaluation de compétences, qui ... [more ▼]

Les tablettes tactiles offrent une toute nouvelle gamme de possibilités dans le domaine de l’éducation. L’intuitivité de cet outil inspire des approches innovatrices pour l’évaluation de compétences, qui sont mieux adaptées aux besoins spécifiques des étudiants que les tests conventionnels. Dans la présente communication nous présenterons le « Test of cognitive potential » (TCP), un test de raisonnement développé au sein du Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET). Avec ses instructions non verbales, présentées par vidéo, ce test donne la possibilité de mesurer le raisonnement logique indépendamment de toute langue, ce qui pourra contribuer à une réduction d’inégalités dans le système scolaire. Le TCP répond donc à une demande très concrète du terrain. Dans un contexte langagier complexe, comme celui du Luxembourg, la distinction entre troubles de l’apprentissage et simples retards dans la compréhension de la langue d’instruction est cruciale pour trouver le soutien scolaire optimal pour chaque élève. Pour cela, le potentiel cognitif, sans biais de langue, doit être évalué en même temps que la performance scolaire. En utilisant des données recueillies auprès d’élèves luxembourgeois du cycle 3.2 (âge moyen de 10 ans, N = 280), nous montrerons que la performance d’élèves ayant eu des instructions non verbales (n = 136) est similaire à celle d’élèves ayant eu des instructions verbales (n = 144) sur une série de tâches de raisonnement logique. De plus, nous présenterons des observations sur la comparabilité de la version tablette tactile du test (n = 104) et de la version papier crayon (n = 176). Nous terminerons avec une réflexion critique des avantages et défis à relever dans l’utilisation de tablettes tactiles en situation de test. [less ▲]

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See detailLEARN Newsletter - Editioun 2018
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Book published by LEARN (2018)

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See detailGeneral and Specific Contributions of RAN to Reading and Arithmetic Fluency in First Graders: A Longitudinal Latent Variable Approach
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017)

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a general cognitive perspective. We investigated whether rapid naming measures (e.g., digit RAN and color RAN) reflect a mainly domain-general factor or domain-specific factors. In a second step, we examined how the best fitting RAN model was related to reading and arithmetic outcomes, assessed several months later. Finally in a third step we took a clinical perspective and investigated specific contributions of RAN measures to reading and arithmetic outcomes. While RAN has emerged as a promising predictor of reading, the relationship between RAN and arithmetic has been less examined in the past. Hundred and twenty-two first graders completed seven RAN tasks, each comprising visually familiar stimuli such as digits, vowels, consonants, dice, finger-numeral configurations, objects, and colors. Four months later the same children completed a range of reading and arithmetic tasks. From a general descriptive perspective, structural equation modeling supports a one-dimensional RAN factor in 6- to -7-year-old children. However, from a clinical perspective, our findings emphasize the specific contributions of RANs. Interestingly, alphanumeric RANs (i.e., vowel RAN) were most promising when predicting reading skills and number-specific RANs (i.e., finger-numeral configuration RAN) were most promising when predicting arithmetic fluency. The implications for clinical and educational practices will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProject NUMTEST: Assessing basic number competence without language
Greisen, Max UL; Hornung, Caroline; Martin, Romain UL et al

Poster (2017, September 08)

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5-7% of children suffer from a mathematical learning disorder, called developmental dyscalculia (DD). Nevertheless, universally ... [more ▼]

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5-7% of children suffer from a mathematical learning disorder, called developmental dyscalculia (DD). Nevertheless, universally valid diagnostic instruments are still lacking, as all current DD test batteries are based on language instructions. Consequently, their measurements are tightly linked to the specific language context of test administration and thus their results cannot easily be compared across countries. Here we are showing results of the first two pilot studies of a research project that aims to develop a test for basic math abilities that does not rely on language instruction and minimizes language use. To this aim, video and animation based instructions were implemented on touchscreen devices. A first version of the tasks has been tested with two samples of first grade children in Luxembourg’s fundamental schools, of which half completed the same tasks with traditional verbal instructions. Our results indicate that performance in the experimental group was similar or better than the control group using verbal instructions. Relationships between linguistic background and the sample’s performance on one hand and qualitative usability aspects of nonverbal task instruction and tablet-pc use with young children will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relevance of verbal and visuo-spatial abilities for verbal number skills – what matters in 5 to 6 year olds?
Cornu, Véronique UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

Poster (2017, September)

The acquisition of verbal number skills, as defined by the meaningful use of number words, marks a milestone in numerical development. In the present study, we were particularly interested in the question ... [more ▼]

The acquisition of verbal number skills, as defined by the meaningful use of number words, marks a milestone in numerical development. In the present study, we were particularly interested in the question, whether verbal number skills are primarily verbal in nature, or if they call upon visuo-spatial processes, reflecting a spatial grounding of verbal number skills. 141 five- to six-year old children were tested on a range of verbal (i.e. vocabulary, phonological awareness and verbal working memory) and visuo-spatial abilities (i.e. spatial perception, visuo-motor integration and visuo-spatial working memory). We were particularly interested in the predictive role of these abilities for children’s verbal number skills (as measured by different counting and number naming tasks). In a latent regression model, basic visuo-spatial abilities, measured by spatial perception and visuo-motor integration, emerge as the most important predictor of verbal number skills. This gives raise to the assumption, that verbal number skills are, despite their verbal nature, spatially grounded in young children. [less ▲]

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See detailThe power of vowels: Contributions of vowel, consonant and digit RAN to clinical approaches in reading development
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2017), 57

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading outcomes in first and second grade. Previous studies have shown that RAN is an independent and robust predictor for reading skills in children. Less research investigated the incremental contributions of distinct RAN measures to reading skills in beginning readers. Ninety-three children from kindergarten and first grade completed four different RAN measures involving color, digit, vowel, and consonant naming at the end of the school year. Six months later these children were either in first or in second grade and completed several reading measures. The results emphasize that vowel RAN was a strong and unique predictor for reading accuracy in first grade. Vowel RAN and digit RAN were both significant predictors for reading speed in second grade. The current findings underline that vowel RAN is a promising predictor for reading outcomes (i.e., accuracy and speed) at the beginning of elementary school. RAN performance did however not significantly predict second grade reading comprehension. Results and practical implications will be discussed. [less ▲]

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