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See detailIntrospective duration estimation of reactive and proactive motor responses.
Gorea, Andrei; Mamassian, Pascal; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL

in Acta psychologica (2010), 134(2), 142-53

The metajudgment of motor responses refers to our ability to evaluate the accuracy of our own actions. Can humans metajudge the duration of their Reaction Times (RTs) to a light-flash and the accuracy of ... [more ▼]

The metajudgment of motor responses refers to our ability to evaluate the accuracy of our own actions. Can humans metajudge the duration of their Reaction Times (RTs) to a light-flash and the accuracy of their reproduction of a reference time interval bounded by two light flashes (Anticipatory Response Time, ART)? A series of four distinct experiments shows that RT_Meta and ART_Metajudgments are possible but with accuracies about x2.4 and x3 poorer than the corresponding RT and ART ones. In order to reveal the origin of this drop in performance, we ask whether a visual feedback synchronous with subjects' key-presses could improve performance. We show that overall the presence of a visual feedback does not significantly improve metajudgment accuracy although such a trend is noticeable in ART_Meta. We then compare these performances with the passive perceptual estimation of the played back (Pb) RT and ART time intervals when bounded by two (RT_Pb) and three (ART_Pb) light flashes. We show that RT_Meta and RT_Pb accuracies are close to equal, but that ART_Meta is about x2 less accurate than ART_Pb which in turn is x1.5 less accurate than ART. The latter observation fails however to reach statistical significance hence not sustaining proposals that active time estimation is more reliable than passive one. The whole dataset is accounted for by a clock-type model where duration estimation performance is limited by four noise sources (visual, clock-count, motor and proprioceptive+efference copy) plus one proper to ART_Meta task. It is proposed that the latter reflects the impossibility for the time-counting system to use the same time origin more than once. [less ▲]

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See detailA new look at sensory attenuation. Action-effect anticipation affects sensitivity, not response bias.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Mamassian, Pascal; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone et al

in Psychological science (2010), 21(12), 1740-5

The systematic association of an action that a person performs with its sensory effects is thought to attenuate that person's perception of the effect of the action. However, whether learned sensorimotor ... [more ▼]

The systematic association of an action that a person performs with its sensory effects is thought to attenuate that person's perception of the effect of the action. However, whether learned sensorimotor contingencies truly affect perception, rather than just inducing a response bias, has yet to be determined. The experiment presented in this article comprised two parts: an action-effect association phase and a test phase, during which the actions' perceptual effects were tested. During the association phase, specific actions (left-key and right-key presses) were associated with specific visual effects (tilted Gabor patches). In the test phase, participants' left-key presses and right-key presses triggered the onset of a low-contrast tilted Gabor patch in 50% of trials (no stimulus was presented on the remaining 50% of trials). Participants were required to report the presence or absence of this tilted Gabor patch. Our results showed that participants' sensitivity (d') to the Gabor patches was reduced by 10% when the patches were triggered by the action they had previously been associated with. This finding indicates that a person's action does not induce a response bias (c), but changes the perception (d') of the learned action effect. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of perceptual and motor latencies via anticipatory and reactive response times.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Mamassian, Pascal; Gorea, Andrei

in Attention, perception & psychophysics (2009), 71(1), 82-94

To compare the timing of perceptual and motor decisions, distinct tasks have been designed, all of which have yielded systematic differences between these two moments. These observations have been taken ... [more ▼]

To compare the timing of perceptual and motor decisions, distinct tasks have been designed, all of which have yielded systematic differences between these two moments. These observations have been taken as evidence of a sensorimotor dissociation. Inasmuch as the distinction between perceptual and motor decision moments is conceptually warranted, this conclusion remains debatable, since the observed differences may reflect the dissimilarity between the stimulations/tasks used to assess them. Here, we minimize such dissimilarities by comparing response time (RT) and anticipatory RT (ART), an alternative technique with which to infer the relative perceptual decision moments. Observers pressed a key either in synchrony with the third of a sequence of three stimuli appearing at a constant pace (ART) or in response to the onset of this third stimulus presented at a random interval after the second (RT). Hence, the two stimulation sequences were virtually identical. Both the mean and the variance of RT were affected by stimulus intensity about 1.5 times more than were the mean and the variance of ART. Within the framework of two simple integration-to-bound models, these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that perceptual and motor decisions operate on the same internal signal but are based on distinct criteria, with the perceptual criterion lower than the motor one. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal order judgment and simple reaction times: evidence for a common processing system.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Gorea, Andrei; Mamassian, Pascal

in Journal of vision (2007), 7(6), 11

We present a simple reaction time (RT) versus temporal order judgment (TOJ) experiment as a test of the perception-action relationship. The experiment improves on previous ones in that it assesses for the ... [more ▼]

We present a simple reaction time (RT) versus temporal order judgment (TOJ) experiment as a test of the perception-action relationship. The experiment improves on previous ones in that it assesses for the first time RT and TOJ on a trial-by-trial basis, hence allowing the study of the two behaviors within the same task context and, most importantly, the association of RT to "correct" and "incorrect" TOJs. RTs to pairs of stimuli are significantly different depending on the associated TOJs, an indication that perceptual and motor decisions are based on the same internal response. Simulations with the simplest one-system model (J. Gibbon & R. Rutschmann, 1969) using the means and standard deviations of the RT to stimuli presented in isolation yield excellent fits of the mean RT to these increments when presented in sequence and moderately good fits of the RT when classified according to the TOJ categories. The present observation that the point of subjective simultaneity for stimulus pairs is systematically smaller than the difference in RT to each of the two increments in the same pairs pleads, however, in favor of distinct decision criteria for perception and action with the former below the latter. For such a case, standard one-system race models require that the internal noise associated with the TOJ be less than the one associated with the RT to the same stimulus pair. The present data show the reverse state of affairs. In short, data and simulations comply with "one-system-two-decision" models of perceptual and motor behaviors, while prompting further testing and modeling to account for the apparent discrepancy between the ordering of the two decisions. [less ▲]

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