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See detailAn Empirical Study on Data Distribution-Aware Test Selection for Deep Learning Enhancement
Hu, Qiang UL; Guo, Yuejun UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution ... [more ▼]

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution shift in a new environment for deployment. However, it is labor-intensive to manually label all the collected test data. Test selection solves this problem by strategically choosing a small set to label. Via retraining with the selected set, DNNs will achieve competitive accuracy. Unfortunately, existing selection metrics involve three main limitations: 1) using different retraining processes; 2) ignoring data distribution shifts; 3) being insufficiently evaluated. To fill this gap, we first conduct a systemically empirical study to reveal the impact of the retraining process and data distribution on model enhancement. Then based on our findings, we propose a novel distribution-aware test (DAT) selection metric. Experimental results reveal that retraining using both the training and selected data outperforms using only the selected data. None of the selection metrics perform the best under various data distributions. By contrast, DAT effectively alleviates the impact of distribution shifts and outperforms the compared metrics by up to 5 times and 30.09% accuracy improvement for model enhancement on simulated and in-the-wild distribution shift scenarios, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailCDA: Characterising Deprecated Android APIs
li, li; Gao, Jun UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2020), 24(118), 1-41

Because of functionality evolution, or security and performance-related changes, some APIs eventually become unnecessary in a software system and thus need to be cleaned to ensure proper maintainability ... [more ▼]

Because of functionality evolution, or security and performance-related changes, some APIs eventually become unnecessary in a software system and thus need to be cleaned to ensure proper maintainability. Those APIs are typically marked first as deprecated APIs and, as recommended, follow through a deprecated-replace-remove cycle, giving an opportunity to client application developers to smoothly adapt their code in next updates. Such a mechanism is adopted in the Android framework development where thousands of reusable APIs are made available to Android app developers. In this work, we present a research-based prototype tool called CDA and apply it to different revisions (i.e., releases or tags) of the Android framework code for characterising deprecated APIs. Based on the data mined by CDA, we then perform an empirical study on API deprecation in the Android ecosystem and the associated challenges for maintaining quality apps. In particular, we investigate the prevalence of deprecated APIs, their annotations and documentation, their removal and consequences, their replacement messages, developer reactions to API deprecation, as well as the evolution of the usage of deprecated APIs. Experimental results reveal several findings that further provide promising insights related to deprecated Android APIs. Notably, by mining the source code of the Android framework base, we have identified three bugs related to deprecated APIs. These bugs have been quickly assigned and positively appreciated by the framework maintainers, who claim that these issues will be updated in future releases. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterising Deprecated Android APIs
Li, Li; Gao, Jun UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 15th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2018) (2018, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 188 (9 UL)