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See detailCalcGraph: taming the high costs of deep learning using models
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas UL; Moawad, Assaad UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2022)

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising ... [more ▼]

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising interest to introduce this flexible modeling to solve real-world problems. A major challenge when moving from research to application is the strict constraints on computational resources (memory and time). It is difficult to determine and contain the resource requirements of differential models, especially during the early training and hyperparameter exploration stages. In this article, we address this challenge by introducing CalcGraph, a model abstraction of differentiable programming layers. CalcGraph allows to model the computational resources that should be used and then CalcGraph’s model interpreter can automatically schedule the execution respecting the specifications made. We propose a novel way to efficiently switch models from storage to preallocated memory zones and vice versa to maximize the number of model executions given the available resources. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach by showing that it consumes less resources than state-of-the-art frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch for single-model and multi-model execution. [less ▲]

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See detailProfiling the real world potential of neural network compression
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas; Moawad, Assaad et al

in 2022 IEEE International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent Systems (COINS), Barcelona 1-3 August 2022 (2022, August 01)

Abstract—Many real world computer vision applications are required to run on hardware with limited computing power, often referred to as ”edge devices”. The state of the art in computer vision continues ... [more ▼]

Abstract—Many real world computer vision applications are required to run on hardware with limited computing power, often referred to as ”edge devices”. The state of the art in computer vision continues towards ever bigger and deeper neural networks with equally rising computational requirements. Model compression methods promise to substantially reduce the computation time and memory demands with little to no impact on the model robustness. However, evaluation of the compression is mostly based on theoretic speedups in terms of required floating-point operations. This work offers a tool to profile the actual speedup offered by several compression algorithms. Our results show a significant discrepancy between the theoretical and actual speedup on various hardware setups. Furthermore, we show the potential of model compressions and highlight the importance of selecting the right compression algorithm for a target task and hardware. The code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://hub.datathings.com/papers/2022-coins. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining Defect Detection with Saliency Maps
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas; Moawad, Assaad et al

in 34th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2021, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 26–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part II (2021, July 19)

The rising quality and throughput demands of the manufacturing domain require flexible, accurate and explainable computer-vision solutions for defect detection. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) reach state-of ... [more ▼]

The rising quality and throughput demands of the manufacturing domain require flexible, accurate and explainable computer-vision solutions for defect detection. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) reach state-of-the-art performance on various computer-vision tasks but wide-spread application in the industrial domain is blocked by the lacking explainability of DNN decisions. A promising, human-readable solution is given by saliency maps, heatmaps highlighting the image areas that influence the classifier’s decision. This work evaluates a selection of saliency methods in the area of industrial quality assurance. To this end we propose the distance pointing game, a new metric to quantify the meaningfulness of saliency maps for defect detection. We provide steps to prepare a publicly available dataset on defective steel plates for the proposed metric. Additionally, the computational complexity is investigated to determine which methods could be integrated on industrial edge devices. Our results show that DeepLift, GradCAM and GradCAM++ outperform the alternatives while the computational cost is feasible for real time applications even on edge devices. This indicates that the respective methods could be used as an additional, autonomous post-classification step to explain decisions taken by intelligent quality assurance systems. [less ▲]

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