References of "Linster, Carole 50002220"
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See detailApproaches for completing metabolic networks through metabolite damage and repair discovery
Griffith, Corey UL; Walvekar, Adhish UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2021), 28

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites ... [more ▼]

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites that can be toxic, are mended by dedicated “metabolite repair enzymes.” Deficiencies in the latter can cause severe disease in humans, whereas inclusion of repair enzymes in metabolically engineered systems can improve the production yield of value-added chemicals. The metabolite damage and repair loops are typically not yet included in metabolic reconstructions and it is likely that many remain to be discovered. Here, we review strategies and associated challenges for unveiling non-canonical metabolites and metabolite repair enzymes, including systematic approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolome-wide side-activity prediction, as well as high-throughput substrate and phenotypic screens. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaches for completing metabolic networks through metabolite damage and repair discovery
Griffith, Corey UL; Walvekar, Adhish UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2021), 28

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites ... [more ▼]

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites that can be toxic, are mended by dedicated “metabolite repair enzymes.” Deficiencies in the latter can cause severe disease in humans, whereas inclusion of repair enzymes in metabolically engineered systems can improve the production yield of value-added chemicals. The metabolite damage and repair loops are typically not yet included in metabolic reconstructions and it is likely that many remain to be discovered. Here, we review strategies and associated challenges for unveiling non-canonical metabolites and metabolite repair enzymes, including systematic approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolome-wide side-activity prediction, as well as high-throughput substrate and phenotypic screens. [less ▲]

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See detailThe metalloprotein YhcH is an anomerase providing N-acetylneuraminate aldolase with the open form of its substrate
Kentache, Takfarinas; Thabault, Leopold; Deumer, Gladys et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2021)

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See detailMolecular ruler mechanism and interfacial catalysis of the integral membrane acyltransferase PatA
Anso, Itxaso; Basso, Luis G. M.; Wang, Lei et al

in Science Advances (2021), 7(42),

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is ... [more ▼]

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is an essential acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), key structural elements and virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrate by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance that PatA is an integral membrane acyltransferase tightly anchored to anionic lipid bilayers, using a two-helix structural motif and electrostatic interactions. PatA dictates the acyl chain composition of the glycolipid by using an acyl chain selectivity “ruler.” We established this by a combination of structural biology, enzymatic activity, and binding measurements on chemically synthesized nonhydrolyzable acyl–coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives. We propose an interfacial catalytic mechanism that allows PatA to acylate hydrophobic PIMs anchored in the inner membrane of mycobacteria, through the use of water-soluble acyl-CoA donors. [less ▲]

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See detailReply: NAD(P)HX dehydratase protein-truncating mutations are associated with neurodevelopmental disorder exacerbated by acute illness
Van Bergen, Nicole J.; Linster, Carole UL; Christodoulou, John

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2020), 143(7), 55

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See detailPhenotypic assays in yeast and zebrafish reveal drugs that rescue ATP13A2 deficiency
Heins Marroquin, Ursula UL; Jung, Paul UL; Cordero Maldonado, Maria Lorena UL et al

in Brain Communications (2019), 1(1), 2-17

Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) are causally linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorders Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, hereditary spastic paraplegia and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. This suggests that ATP13A2 ... [more ▼]

Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) are causally linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorders Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, hereditary spastic paraplegia and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. This suggests that ATP13A2, a lysosomal cation-transporting ATPase, plays a crucial role in neuronal cells. The heterogeneity of the clinical spectrum of ATP13A2-associated disorders is not yet well understood and currently these diseases remain without effective treatment. Interestingly, ATP13A2 is widely conserved among eukaryotes, and the yeast model for ATP13A2 deficiency was the first to indicate a role in heavy metal homeostasis, which was later confirmed in human cells. Here we show that deletion of YPK9 (the yeast ortholog of ATP13A2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to growth impairment in the presence of Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+, with the strongest phenotype being observed in the presence of zinc. Using the ypk9 mutant, we developed a high-throughput growth rescue screen based on the Zn2+ sensitivity phenotype. Screening of two drug libraries identified 11 compounds that rescued growth. Subsequently, we generated a zebrafish model for ATP13A2 deficiency and found that both partial and complete loss of atp13a2 function led to increased sensitivity to Mn2+. Based on this phenotype, we validated two of the FDA-approved drugs found in the yeast screen to also exert a rescue effect in zebrafish – N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, and furaltadone, a nitrofuran antibiotic. This study further supports that combining the high-throughput screening capacity of yeast with rapid in vivo drug testing in zebrafish can represent an efficient drug repurposing strategy in the context of rare inherited disorders involving conserved genes. This work also deepens the understanding of the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal detoxification and provides a new in vivo model for investigating ATP13A2 deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailConnecting environmental exposure and neurodegeneration using cheminformatics and high resolution mass spectrometry: potential and challenges
Schymanski, Emma UL; Baker, Nancy C.; Williams, Antony J et al

in Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts (2019)

Connecting chemical exposures over a lifetime to complex chronic diseases with multifactorial causes such as neurodegenerative diseases is an immense challenge requiring a long-term, interdisciplinary ... [more ▼]

Connecting chemical exposures over a lifetime to complex chronic diseases with multifactorial causes such as neurodegenerative diseases is an immense challenge requiring a long-term, interdisciplinary approach. Rapid developments in analytical and data technologies, such as non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (NT-HR-MS), have opened up new possibilities to accomplish this, inconceivable 20 years ago. While NT-HR-MS is being applied to increasingly complex research questions, there are still many unidentified chemicals and uncertainties in linking exposures to human health outcomes and environmental impacts. In this perspective, we explore the possibilities and challenges involved in using cheminformatics and NT-HR-MS to answer complex questions that cross many scientific disciplines, taking the identification of potential (small molecule) neurotoxicants in environmental or biological matrices as a case study. We explore capturing literature knowledge and patient exposure information in a form amenable to high-throughput data mining, and the related cheminformatic challenges. We then briefly cover which sample matrices are available, which method(s) could potentially be used to detect these chemicals in various matrices and what remains beyond the reach of NT-HR-MS. We touch on the potential for biological validation systems to contribute to mechanistic understanding of observations and explore which sampling and data archiving strategies may be required to form an accurate, sustained picture of small molecule signatures on extensive cohorts of patients with chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we reflect on how NT-HR-MS can support unravelling the contribution of the environment to complex diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure to eliminate a phosphorylated glucose analog leads to neutropenia in patients with G6PT and G6PC3 deficiency
Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Chevalier, Nathalie; Stephenne, Xavier et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2019), 116(4), 1241-1250

Neutropenia presents an important clinical problem in patients with G6PC3 or G6PT deficiency, yet why neutropenia occurs is unclear. We discovered that G6PC3 and G6PT collaborate to dephosphorylate a ... [more ▼]

Neutropenia presents an important clinical problem in patients with G6PC3 or G6PT deficiency, yet why neutropenia occurs is unclear. We discovered that G6PC3 and G6PT collaborate to dephosphorylate a noncanonical metabolite (1,5anhydroglucitol-6-phosphate; 1,5AG6P) which is produced when glucose-phosphorylating enzymes erroneously act on 1,5-anhydroglucitol, a food-derived polyol present in blood. In patients or mice with G6PC3 or G6PT deficiency, 1,5AG6P accumulates and inhibits the first step of glycolysis. This is particularly detrimental in neutrophils, since their energy metabolism depends almost entirely on glycolysis. Consistent with our findings, we observed that treatment with a 1,5anhydroglucitol-lowering drug treats neutropenia in G6PC3deficient mice. Our findings highlight that the elimination of noncanonical side products by metabolite-repair enzymes makes an important contribution to mammalian physiology. [less ▲]

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See detailNAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) deficiency: a novel neurodegenerative disorder exacerbated by febrile illnesses
Van Bergen, Nicole; Guo, Yiran; Rankin, Julia et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2019), 142(1), 50-58

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX ... [more ▼]

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) is essential for intracellular repair of NAD(P)HX. Here we present a series of infants and children who suffered episodes of febrile illness-induced neurodegeneration or cardiac failure and early death. Whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing identified recessive NAXD variants in each case. Variants were predicted to be potentially deleterious through in silico analysis. Reverse-transcription PCR confirmed altered splicing in one case. Subject fibroblasts showed highly elevated concentrations of the damaged cofactors S-NADHX, R-NADHX and cyclic NADHX. NADHX accumulation was abrogated by lentiviral transduction of subject cells with wild-type NAXD. Subject fibroblasts and muscle biopsies showed impaired mitochondrial function, higher sensitivity to metabolic stress in media containing galactose and azide, but not glucose, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recombinant NAXD protein harbouring two missense variants leading to the amino acid changes p.(Gly63Ser) and p.(Arg608Cys) were thermolabile and showed a decrease in Vmax and increase in KM for the ATP-dependent NADHX dehydratase activity. This is the first study to identify pathogenic variants in NAXD and to link deficient NADHX repair with mitochondrial dysfunction. The results show that NAXD deficiency can be classified as a metabolite repair disorder in which accumulation of damaged metabolites likely triggers devastating effects in tissues such as the brain and the heart, eventually leading to early childhood death. [less ▲]

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See detail3‑Phosphoglycerate Transhydrogenation Instead of Dehydrogenation Alleviates the Redox State Dependency of Yeast de Novo L‑Serine Synthesis
Paczia, Nicole UL; Becker-Kettern, Julia UL; Conrotte, Jean-François UL et al

in Biochemistry (2019)

The enzymatic mechanism of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate oxidation, which forms the first step of the main conserved de novo serine synthesis pathway, has been revisited recently in ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic mechanism of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate oxidation, which forms the first step of the main conserved de novo serine synthesis pathway, has been revisited recently in certain microorganisms. While this step is classically considered to be catalyzed by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (e.g., PHGDH in mammals), evidence has shown that in Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PHGDH homologues act as transhydrogenases. As such, they use α-ketoglutarate, rather than NAD+, as the final electron acceptor, thereby producing D-2-hydroxyglutarate in addition to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate during 3-phosphoglycerate oxidation. Here, we provide a detailed biochemical and sequence−structure relationship characterization of the yeast PHGDH homologues, encoded by the paralogous SER3 and SER33 genes, in comparison to the human and other PHGDH enzymes. Using in vitro assays with purified recombinant enzymes as well as in vivo growth phenotyping and metabolome analyses of yeast strains engineered to depend on either Ser3, Ser33, or human PHGDH for serine synthesis, we confirmed that both yeast enzymes act as transhydrogenases, while the human enzyme is a dehydrogenase. In addition, we show that the yeast paralogs differ from the human enzyme in their sensitivity to inhibition by serine as well as hydrated NADH derivatives. Importantly, our in vivo data support the idea that a 3PGA transhydrogenase instead of dehydrogenase activity confers a growth advantage under conditions where the NAD+:NADH ratio is low. The results will help to elucidate why different species evolved different reaction mechanisms to carry out a widely conserved metabolic step in central carbon metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailBSA4Yeast: Web-based quantitative trait locus linkage analysis and bulk segregant analysis of yeast sequencing data
Zhang, Zhi; Jung, Paul; Groues, Valentin UL et al

in GigaScience (2019), 8(6), 060

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping using bulk segregants is an effective approach for identifying genetic variants associated with phenotypes of interest in model organisms. By exploiting next ... [more ▼]

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping using bulk segregants is an effective approach for identifying genetic variants associated with phenotypes of interest in model organisms. By exploiting next-generation sequencing technology, the QTL mapping accuracy can be improved significantly, providing a valuable means to annotate new genetic variants. However, setting up a comprehensive analysis framework for this purpose is a time-consuming and error prone task, posing many challenges for scientists with limited experience in this domain. Findings: Here, we present BSA4Yeast, a comprehensive web-application for QTL mapping via bulk segregant analysis of yeast sequencing data. The software provides an automated and efficiency-optimized data processing, up-to-date functional annotations, and an interactive web-interface to explore identified QTLs. Conclusion: BSA4Yeast enables researchers to identify plausible candidate genes in QTL regions efficiently in order to validate their genetic variations experimentally as causative for a phenotype of interest. BSA4Yeast is freely available at https://bsa4yeast.lcsb.uni.lu. [less ▲]

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See detailNAD(P)HX repair deficiency causes central metabolic perturbations in yeast and human cells
Becker-Kettern, Julia UL; Paczia, Nicole UL; Conrotte, Jean-François UL et al

in FEBS Journal (2018)

NADHX and NADPHX are hydrated and redox inactive forms of the NADH and NADPH cofactors, known to inhibit several dehydrogenases in vitro. A metabolite repair system that is conserved in all domains of ... [more ▼]

NADHX and NADPHX are hydrated and redox inactive forms of the NADH and NADPH cofactors, known to inhibit several dehydrogenases in vitro. A metabolite repair system that is conserved in all domains of life and that comprises the two enzymes NAD(P)HX dehydratase and NAD(P)HX epimerase, allows reconversion of both the S- and R-epimers of NADHX and NADPHX to the normal cofactors. An inherited deficiency in this system has recently been shown to cause severe neurometabolic disease in children. Although evidence for the presence of NAD(P)HX has been obtained in plant and human cells, little is known about the mechanism of formation of these derivatives in vivo and their potential effects on cell metabolism. Here, we show that NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency in yeast leads to an important, temperature-dependent NADHX accumulation in quiescent cells with a concomitant depletion of intracellular NAD+ and serine pools. We demonstrate that NADHX potently inhibits the first step of the serine synthesis pathway in yeast. Human cells deficient in the NAD(P)HX dehydratase also accumulated NADHX and showed decreased viability. In addition, those cells consumed more glucose and produced more lactate, potentially indicating impaired mitochondrial function. Our results provide first insights into how NADHX accumulation affects cellular functions and pave the way for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying the rapid and severe neurodegeneration leading to early death in NADHX repair deficient children. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural variation of chronological aging in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species reveals diet-dependent mechanisms of life span control
Jung, Paul UL; Zhang, Zhi UL; Paczia, Nicole UL et al

in npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease (2018), 4(3),

Aging is a complex trait of broad scientific interest, especially because of its intrinsic link with common human diseases. Pioneering work on aging-related mechanisms has been made in Saccharomyces ... [more ▼]

Aging is a complex trait of broad scientific interest, especially because of its intrinsic link with common human diseases. Pioneering work on aging-related mechanisms has been made in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mainly through the use of deletion collections isogenic to the S288c reference strain. In this study, using a recently published high-throughput approach, we quantified chronological life span (CLS) within a collection of 58 natural strains across seven different conditions. We observed a broad aging variability suggesting the implication of diverse genetic and environmental factors in chronological aging control. Two major Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) were identified within a biparental population obtained by crossing two natural isolates with contrasting aging behavior. Detection of these QTLs was dependent upon the nature and concentration of the carbon sources available for growth. In the first QTL, the RIM15 gene was identified as major regulator of aging under low glucose condition, lending further support to the importance of nutrient-sensing pathways in longevity control under calorie restriction. In the second QTL, we could show that the SER1 gene, encoding a conserved aminotransferase of the serine synthesis pathway not previously linked to aging, is causally associated with CLS regulation, especially under high glucose condition. These findings hint toward a new mechanism of life span control involving a trade-off between serine synthesis and aging, most likely through modulation of acetate and trehalose metabolism. More generally it shows that genetic linkage studies across natural strains represent a promising strategy to further unravel the molecular basis of aging. [less ▲]

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See detailMillifluidic culture improves human midbrain organoid vitality and differentiation
Berger, Emanuel UL; Magliaro, Chiara; Paczia, Nicole UL et al

in Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology (2018)

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See detailConfronting the catalytic dark matter encoded by sequenced genomes
Ellens, Kenneth W.; Christian, Nils; Satagopam, Venkata UL et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2017), 45(20), 11495-11514

The post-genomic era has provided researchers with a deluge of protein sequences. However, a significant fraction of the proteins encoded by sequenced genomes remains without an identified function. Here ... [more ▼]

The post-genomic era has provided researchers with a deluge of protein sequences. However, a significant fraction of the proteins encoded by sequenced genomes remains without an identified function. Here, we aim at determining how many enzymes of uncertain or unknown function are still present in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human proteomes. Using information available in the Swiss-Prot, BRENDA and KEGG databases in combination with a Hidden Markov Model-based method, we estimate that >600 yeast and 2000 human proteins (>30% of their proteins of unknown function) are enzymes whose precise function(s) remain(s) to be determined. This illustrates the impressive scale of the ‘unknown enzyme problem’. We extensively review classical biochemical as well as more recent systematic experimental and computational approaches that can be used to support enzyme function discovery research. Finally, we discuss the possible roles of the elusive catalysts in light of recent developments in the fields of enzymology and metabolism as well as the significance of the unknown enzyme problem in the context of metabolic modeling, metabolic engineering and rare disease research. [less ▲]

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See detailNit1 is a metabolite repair enzyme that hydrolyzes deaminated glutathione
Peracchi, Alessio; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Kuhara, Tomiko et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2017), 1613736114

The mammalian gene Nit1 (nitrilase-like protein 1) encodes a protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. Despite being ∼35% sequence identical to ω-amidase ... [more ▼]

The mammalian gene Nit1 (nitrilase-like protein 1) encodes a protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. Despite being ∼35% sequence identical to ω-amidase (Nit2), the Nit1 protein does not hydrolyze efficiently α-ketoglutaramate (a known physiological substrate of Nit2), and its actual enzymatic function has so far remained a puzzle. In the present study, we demonstrate that both the mammalian Nit1 and its yeast ortholog are amidases highly active toward deaminated glutathione (dGSH; i.e., a form of glutathione in which the free amino group has been replaced by a carbonyl group). We further show that Nit1-KO mutants of both human and yeast cells accumulate dGSH and the same compound is excreted in large amounts in the urine of Nit1-KO mice. Finally, we show that several mammalian aminotransferases (transaminases), both cytosolic and mitochondrial, can form dGSH via a common (if slow) side-reaction and provide indirect evidence that transaminases are mainly responsible for dGSH formation in cultured mammalian cells. Altogether, these findings delineate a typical instance of metabolite repair, whereby the promiscuous activity of some abundant enzymes of primary metabolism leads to the formation of a useless and potentially harmful compound, which needs a suitable “repair enzyme” to be destroyed or reconverted into a useful metabolite. The need for a dGSH repair reaction does not appear to be limited to eukaryotes: We demonstrate that Nit1 homologs acting as excellent dGSH amidases also occur in Escherichia coli and other glutathione-producing bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Identification of D-Ribulokinase in Budding Yeast and Mammals
Singh, Charandeep UL; Glaab, Enrico UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2017), 292(3), 1005-1028

Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins are ... [more ▼]

Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins are predicted to have catalytic properties. Here we aimed at identifying the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr109c protein and of its human homolog FGGY, both of which belong to the broadly conserved FGGY family of carbohydrate kinases. Functionally identified members of this family phosphorylate 3- to 7-carbon sugars or sugar derivatives, but the endogenous substrate of S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY has remained unknown. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of an S. cerevisiae deletion mutant of YDR109C revealed ribulose as one of the metabolites with the most significantly changed intracellular concentration as compared to a wild-type strain. In human HEK293 cells, ribulose could only be detected when ribitol was added to the cultivation medium and under this condition, FGGY silencing led to ribulose accumulation. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant purified Ydr109c and FGGY proteins showed a clear substrate preference of both kinases for D-ribulose over a range of other sugars and sugar derivatives tested, including L-ribulose. Detailed sequence and structural analyses of Ydr109c and FGGY as well as homologs thereof furthermore allowed the definition of a 5-residue D-ribulokinase signature motif (TCSLV). The physiological role of the herein identified eukaryotic D-ribulokinase remains unclear, but we speculate that S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY could act as metabolite repair enzymes, serving to re-phosphorylate free D-ribulose generated by promiscuous phosphatases from D-ribulose-5-phosphate. In human cells, FGGY can additionally participate in ribitol metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailA conserved phosphatase destroys toxic glycolytic side products in mammals and yeast
Collard, François; Baldin, Francesca; Gerin, Isabelle et al

in Nature Chemical Biology (2016), 12(8), 601-607

Metabolic enzymes are very specific. However, most of them show weak side activities toward compounds that are structurally related to their physiological substrates, thereby producing side products that ... [more ▼]

Metabolic enzymes are very specific. However, most of them show weak side activities toward compounds that are structurally related to their physiological substrates, thereby producing side products that may be toxic. In some cases, ‘metabolite repair enzymes’ eliminating side products have been identified. We show that mammalian glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, two core glycolytic enzymes, produce 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phospho-L-lactate, respectively. 4-Phosphoerythronate strongly inhibits an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, whereas 2-phospho-L-lactate inhibits the enzyme producing the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. We discovered that a single, widely conserved enzyme, known as phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP) in mammals, dephosphorylates both 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phospho-L-lactate, thereby preventing a block in the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. Its yeast ortholog, Pho13, similarly dephosphorylates 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phosphoglycolate, a side product of pyruvate kinase. Our work illustrates how metabolite repair enzymes can make up for the limited specificity of metabolic enzymes and permit high flux in central metabolic pathways. [less ▲]

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