References of "Linnemann, S"
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See detailThe role of the inhibitors of interleukin-6 signal transduction SHP2 and SOCS3 for desensitization of interleukin-6 signalling
Fischer, P.; Lehmann, U.; Sobota, R. M. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 378(Pt 2), 449-60

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing ... [more ▼]

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the feedback inhibitor SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling) are potent inhibitors of IL-6 signal transduction. Impaired function of SOCS3 or SHP2 leads to enhanced and prolonged IL-6 signalling. The inhibitory function of both proteins depends on their recruitment to the tyrosine motif 759 within glycoprotein gp130. In contrast to inactivation, desensitization of signal transduction is regarded as impaired responsiveness due to prestimulation. Usually, after activation the sensing receptor becomes inactivated by modifications such as phosphorylation, internalization or degradation. We designed an experimental approach which allows discrimination between desensitization and inactivation of IL-6 signal transduction. We observed that pre-stimulation with IL-6 renders cells less sensitive to further stimulation with IL-6. After several hours, the cells become sensitive again. We show that not only signal transduction through previously activated receptors is affected by desensitization but signalling through receptors which were not targeted by the first stimulation was also attenuated ( trans -desensitization). Interestingly, in contrast to inhibition, desensitization does not depend on the presence of functional SHP2. Furthermore, cells lacking SOCS3 show constitutive STAT3 activation which is not affected by pre-stimulation with IL-6. All these observations suggest that desensitization and inhibition of signalling are mechanistically distinct. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSignal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation
Anhuf, D.; Weissenbach, M.; Schmitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(5), 2535-43

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two ... [more ▼]

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit. [less ▲]

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