References of "Leist, Anja 50002195"
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See detailLuxembourg
Leist, Anja UL

in Immergut, E.; Anderson, K.; Devitt, C. (Eds.) et al Health politics in Europe: A handbook (2021)

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See detailReturns to Educational and Occupational Attainment in Cognitive Performance for Middle-Aged South Korean Men and Women
Ford, Katherine Joy UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine (2021), 7

Background: Gender differences in late middle-age cognitive performance may be explained by differences in educational or occupational attainment rates, or gender-patterned returns of similar education ... [more ▼]

Background: Gender differences in late middle-age cognitive performance may be explained by differences in educational or occupational attainment rates, or gender-patterned returns of similar education and occupation to cognitive reserve. We tested these competing hypotheses in the historically highly gender unequal context of South Korea. Methods: Data came from the 2006 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. We included adults aged 45–65 years. Using quantile regression decompositions, we decomposed cognitive performance differences across quantiles into differences due to rates of educational and occupational attainment and differences due to divergent returns to those characteristics. Results: Gender-based cognitive performance differences across deciles were driven by differences in rates of educational and occupational attainment, while the returns to these characteristics were similar for both genders. Conclusions: Findings suggest that educational and occupational characteristics contribute to cognitive performance similarly in men and women, but discordant rates of these characteristics contribute to performance gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailPartnership and cognitive aging in Europe: Mediating factors and social stratification
Bertogg, Ariane; Leist, Anja UL

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021)

Objectives. Living in a partnership has been shown to benefit later life health in general and decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Few studies have, however, examined whether different types of ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Living in a partnership has been shown to benefit later life health in general and decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Few studies have, however, examined whether different types of partnership transitions also differ with respect to their impact on cognitive trajectories, and whether financial resources, health behaviors, cognitive stimulation and social integration can explain these differences. Methods. Data came from six waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, which is a representative panel for the population aged 50 years or older, and was collected between 2004 and 2017 in 20 European countries. Our sample includes 213,023 valid person-year observations from 81,814 persons. Mean age at baseline is 63.86 years, and individuals were observed on average 2.6 times. Cognitive functioning was assessed with measures of immediate and delayed recall on a memory test, and verbal fluency. Fixed-effects regression models were employed to exploit individual-level variation in partnership and simultaneous cognitive changes. Results. Partnership status was stable in most respondents (around 90%). Compared to remaining partnered and after controlling for socio-demographic factors, transition to divorce was associated with a steeper decline in immediate and delayed recall. Exploring possible mechanisms, both financial resources and social integration explained these differences. Additional analyses suggested that effects were mostly driven by individuals with lower education. Discussion. Partnership transitions remain infrequent events in later life, but our findings indicate that they can induce less favorable cognitive trajectories compared to partnered individuals, particularly for those with lower cognitive reserve. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic and behavioural factors associated with access to and use of Personal Health Records
Paccoud, Ivana UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2021), 21

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having ... [more ▼]

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having lower intentions to use this technology. By integrating the digital divide approach and the User Acceptance of Information Technology (UTAUT) model, this study aims to further our understanding of socioeconomic factors and the mechanisms linked to different stages in the use of Personal Health Records (PHR): desire, intentions and physical access to PHR. Methods: A cross-sectional online and in-person survey was undertaken in the areas of Lorraine (France), Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Germany), and Wallonia (Belgium). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to group items derived from the UTAUT model. We applied linear and logistic regressions controlling for country-level heterogeneity, health and demographic factors. Results: A total of 829 individuals aged over 18 completed the questionnaire. Socioeconomic inequalities were present in the access to and use of PHR. Education and income played a significant role in individuals' desire to access their PHR. Being older than 65 years, and migrant, were negatively associated with desire to access PHR. An income gradient was found in having a physical access to PHR, while for the subgroup of respondents who expressed desire to have access, higher educational level was positively associated with intentions to regularly use PHR. In fully adjusted model testing the contribution of UTAUT-derived factors, individuals who perceived PHRs to be useful and had the necessary digital skills were more inclined to use their PHR regularly. Social influence, support and lack of anxiety in using technology were strong predictors of regular PHR use. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of considering all stages in PHR use: desire to access, physical access and intention to regularly use PHRs, while paying special attention to migrants and people with lower socioeconomic backgrounds who may feel financial constraints and are not able to exploit the potential of PHRs. As PHR use is expected to come with health benefits, facilitating access and regular use for those less inclined could reduce health inequalities and advance health equity. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Older Americans’ Cognitive Functioning
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Health and Place (2021)

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood ... [more ▼]

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect older residents’ cognitive declines, and which putative factors mediate this relationship. Method: Using data from waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey (n = 1837), ordinary least squares regressions and mediation analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple confounders and testing eight putative mediators. Results: Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances were associated with cognitive declines. Changes in depressive symptoms, sizes of close social networks, and physical activity substantially mediated this relationship. Discussion: While 18.10% of the total effect occurred through these mechanisms, further pathways may work through contextual- and individual-level variables not assessed in the NSHAP. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting the ‘Black Hole’ of age-period excess mortality in 25 countries: Age-period-cohort residual analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert L.

in Bell, Andrew (Ed.) Age, Period, and Cohort Effects (2021)

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We ... [more ▼]

In a time of worldwide availability of annual age-specific mortality data, we lack basic tools for detecting and graphing, from a comparative perspective, fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We provide a new age-period-cohort-based methodology, combining information from age-period (AP) and APC-Detrended (APCD) analyses to detect all-cause mortality increases. Plotting the resulting AP coefficients and APCD residuals in equilateral Lexis diagrams, mortality patterns can easily be distinguished as age, period, or cohort trends and fluctuations. We highlight abnormalities as interactions of age and period (‘Black Holes’). We then investigate the ‘Black Holes’ of mortality of young-adult cohorts in the early 1990s in Spain, other southern European countries, and the U.S., in emphasizing their simultaneously occurring mortality crises. Additional analyses with WHO mortality data and epidemiological evidence from other studies show that these mortality increases likely result from lack of treatment and inadequate public health responses to the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We discuss other possible applications of the new method. [less ▲]

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See detailThe patients’ perspective on access to and use of Personal Health Records
Paccoud, Ivana UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, October 29)

We present the patients' perspective regarding the use of Personal Health Records, and give insights on patients' characteristics, such as socioeconomic and behavioural factors, that are associated with ... [more ▼]

We present the patients' perspective regarding the use of Personal Health Records, and give insights on patients' characteristics, such as socioeconomic and behavioural factors, that are associated with the access to and use of Personal Health Records. The findings come from the INTERREG APPS project that investigated preferences for and intention to use Personal Health Records in four cross-border regions, in Lorraine/France, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland/Germany, and Wallonia/Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailWho is going to pay the price of Covid-19? Reflections about an unequal Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2020), 19

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See detailProgramme Démence Prévention (pdp ): A Nation-Wide Programme for Dementia Prevention in Luxembourg
Schröder, Valerie UL; Kaysen, Anne UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

Poster (2020, April)

Objectives: To implement a multi-year nation-wide programme, by the means of a personalised lifestyle intervention, to prevent or to delay cognitive decline that can contribute to development of dementia ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To implement a multi-year nation-wide programme, by the means of a personalised lifestyle intervention, to prevent or to delay cognitive decline that can contribute to development of dementia in Luxembourg. Methods: Participants with mild cognitive impairment, referred to the programme by their treating physician, undergo an extensive cognitive evaluation by a neuropsychologist on relevant neuropsychological domains as well as a structured dementia risk factor assessment. Based on these assessments, individualised lifestyle interventions are offered by diverse national partners involved in the programme, thus filling a gap of not yet reimbursed services in the Luxemburgish healthcare system. After the personalised lifestyle interventions, each participant will undergo a neuropsychological follow-up in order to re-evaluate his/her health status in terms of cognition. Results: We established a participant-centred national network by presenting the programme on many outreach events and efficient stakeholder communication. The network raises the awareness of dementia prevention in the Luxembourgish population, fosters interdisciplinary communication between individual medical and non-medical healthcare professionals and allows for a successful recruitment of the target population. Moreover, we collect information about adherence to the suggested lifestyle changes, as well as the effectiveness of our interventions in reducing risk factors contributing to the onset of dementia. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the feasibility of the implementation of a nation-wide dementia prevention programme including diverse partners offering personalised lifestyle interventions, which are easily transferrable to other countries. Future results from this programme may also help to integrate prevention interventions into the regular healthcare system. [less ▲]

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See detailBeing a World Young Leader in Dementia: Between academic brilliance and acts of kindness. Blog post
Leist, Anja UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The blog post describes my journey from being selected as an 'Emerging Leader in Dementia' in 2014/15 by the UK Science and Innovation Network to helping to form, with other emerging leaders, a truly ... [more ▼]

The blog post describes my journey from being selected as an 'Emerging Leader in Dementia' in 2014/15 by the UK Science and Innovation Network to helping to form, with other emerging leaders, a truly global network of World Young Leaders in Dementia, now spanning 400+ members in 29+ countries, and aiming to facilitate careers of young professionals in the field of dementia. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to actively protect against dementia. Epidemiological evidence from Luxembourg
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2020, February)

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See detailUsing cohort data to emulate lifestyle interventions: Long-term beneficial effects of initiating physical activity on cognitive decline and dementia
Leist, Anja UL; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Solomon, Alina

in Alzheimer's and Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (2020), 16

Background: Intervention studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of physical activity on cognitive decline and reduced risk of dementia. However, randomized controlled trial data of lifestyle ... [more ▼]

Background: Intervention studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of physical activity on cognitive decline and reduced risk of dementia. However, randomized controlled trial data of lifestyle interventions over long time spans are not available due to lack of resources, feasibility or ethical reasons. Drawing from the principles of emulating a ‘target trial’, which apply design principles of randomized trials to the analysis of observational data, cohort data of a large European survey were analyzed to understand the long-term effects of physical activity changes. Method: Biennial assessments of the economic, social, and health situation of respondents aged 50 and older came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-2017). Cognitive functioning (immediate recall, delayed recall, and verbal fluency) and self-reported diagnosis of dementia were assessed at each follow-up. The target trial included sedentary respondents at t1 who, at follow-up (t2), stayed sedentary (“control group”) or newly reported vigorous physical activity more often than once a week (initiators, “treatment group”). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were implemented as close as possible to those of the FINGER trial. Inverse-probability weighting accounted for the probability of initiating physical activity with a large set of predictor variables. Selecting respondents aged 50-85 years old who met the target trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessments of cognitive functioning and self-reported diagnosis of dementia were available for 8,781 respondents at t3 (on average 3.02 years later), 3,858 respondents at t4 (5.84 years), and 2,304 respondents at t5 (7.72 years). A total of 304 respondents reported a diagnosis of dementia. Result: Initiators of vigorous physical activity had higher cognitive functioning at two follow-ups compared to non-initiators (t3: “average treatment effect on the treated”, ATET=0.059, CI: 0.028, 0.090), which remained significant after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. Initiators had lower risk of dementia compared to non-initiators at all three follow-ups (t3: ATET=-0.009, CI: -0.015, -0.005, relative risk decrease -46.7%), remaining significant after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusion: Emulating a target trial showed long-term benefits of initiating physical activity for cognitive functioning and dementia risk. Multidomain interventions related to nutrition, social, cognitive activities etc. can be similarly emulated. [less ▲]

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See detailPartnership transitions and cognitive functioning among the European 50+
Bertogg, Ariane; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2020)

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See detailHealth inequalities in the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic
Leist, Anja UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis. Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

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See detailMental health impact of the confinement measures during the COVID-19 pandemic
Pauly, Claire UL; Schroeder, Valerie; Pauly, Laure UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(S1), 952

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See detailPrevalence of memory impairment 2000-2015 in Sao Paolo, Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira et al

in Alzheimer's and Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (2020), 16

Background: Decreases in prevalence of memory impairment and dementia over the last two decades have been observed in different countries for cohorts entering older age. We sought to explore the changes ... [more ▼]

Background: Decreases in prevalence of memory impairment and dementia over the last two decades have been observed in different countries for cohorts entering older age. We sought to explore the changes in prevalence of cognitive impairment across four waves of the Health, Welfare and Aging survey (SABE) with data collected in Sao Paolo, Brazil, in 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015. Method: Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and covariate values were available for 5,191 respondents (62.4% female) aged 60 to 99 across four waves. Cognitive impairment was defined as having <=12 points on a 19-point abbreviated version of the MMSE. Age group, educational attainment (no formal schooling, primary, secondary, post-secondary), self-reported heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and BMI (<18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, 30+) were adjusted for. Result: In more recent waves, prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher for respondents aged 60-64 years (9.0% in 2015 vs. 4.6% in 2000), 65-69 years (9.7% in 2015 vs. 5.8% in 2006) and 70-74 years (13.9% in 2015 vs. 5.8% in 2006). Between 2015 and 2000, respondents were increasingly more likely to report some formal education (90.8% vs. 75.3%), secondary (17.6% vs. 7.3%) or postsecondary education (11.4% vs. 4.3%). Respondents were increasingly more likely to report hypertension (66.5% vs. 54.2%), diabetes (28.7% vs. 17.8%), and be overweight/obese (74.1% vs. 58.9%). In age-adjusted logistic regressions, respondents in 2015 were more likely to show cognitive impairment compared to 2000 (OR 1.84, CI 1.20-2.82). Conclusion: SABE respondents showed higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in 2015 compared to respondents of the same age in earlier waves, but differences disappeared after adjusting for chronic disease burden and educational attainment. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining gender differentials in the association of low control work with cognitive performance in older workers
Ford, Katherine Joy UL; Batty, G. David; Leist, Anja UL

in European Journal of Public Health (2020)

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate effects of low control, while conversely, gender-role norms may moderate the influence of occupational psychosocial risk factors. We therefore examined if the links between control and cognitive function were similarly gendered. Methods: This observational, longitudinal study included respondents of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe who were aged 50-64 years at entry, employed, and provided at least two measurements of control and cognition (n=6,697). Relationships between control and cognition, quantified with standardised scores from verbal fluency, immediate and delayed word recall tests, were explored using linear fixed-effect and random-effect models with gender interactions. Results: Consistent trends of improved verbal fluency performance with high control were evident across analyses, equal to producing around three-quarters of a word more under high control conditions, with an effect size roughly equal to 0.1 standard deviation units (fully adjusted models, range 0.077-0.104 SD), although associations with recall tests were inconsistent. We did not find evidence of clear gender differences in control–cognition relationships for any of the cognitive domains. Conclusions: The cognitive health of older European workers may benefit from improved workplace control irrespective of gender. Possible sources of bias that could explain the lack of gender differences are discussed, particularly gender differences in labour force participation, response behaviour in job control ratings, and implications of gender-role norms on the importance of occupational risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Teixeira-Santos, Carolina; Leist, Anja UL

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(S1), 897898

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