References of "Leist, Anja 50002195"
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See detailPrevalence of dementia in Latin America and Caribbean countries: Systematic review and meta-analyses exploring age, sex, rurality, and education as possible determinants
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Teixeira Santos, Ana Carolina UL; Caramelli, Paulo et al

in Ageing Research Reviews (2022)

Background Studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) may be higher than in high-income countries. Thus, we sought to systematically analyse the prevalence ... [more ▼]

Background Studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) may be higher than in high-income countries. Thus, we sought to systematically analyse the prevalence of dementia and explore possible drivers that lead to this disparity in LAC countries. Method We searched Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Lilacs, and SciELO for studies on dementia in LAC countries published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Random-effects model was applied. Results Thirty-one studies from 17 LAC countries were included. Pooled prevalence of all-cause dementia was 10.66%. Further analyses with studies providing raw prevalence by sex, area, and educational level showed a higher prevalence for women (8.97%) than for men (7.26%). Also, dementia prevalence was higher for rural than urban residents (7.71% vs 8.68%, respectively). Participants without formal education presented more than double the prevalence of dementia (21.37%) compared to those with at least one year of formal education (9.88%). Studies with more recent data collection showed higher dementia prevalence. Conclusion Our findings suggest a high global dementia prevalence in LAC countries and an unequal burden of dementia for women, lower-educated, and rural residents. Secular increases in dementia prevalence call for greater public health efforts for preventative actions. [less ▲]

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See detailCountry-level Variation of Dementia Prevalence in Europe - Comparing OECD and SHARE Data
Klee, Matthias UL; Langa, Kenneth, M.; Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2022, July 07)

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See detailMachine learning in Public Health: Relevant applications in ageing populations
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2022, April 25)

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See detailThe Role of Country-Level Availability and Generosity of Healthcare Services, and Old-Age Ageism for Missed Healthcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic Control Measures in Europe
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Journal of Aging and Health (2022)

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020) (N = 57,025), country-level data from the European Social Survey (2008) and OECD (2020), and logistic regressions, this study examines predictors of older Europeans’ forgone, postponed, and denied healthcare during the pandemic. Results: Country-level availability of physicians, healthcare systems’ generosity, and beliefs that older persons burden healthcare systems all increased forgone healthcare. Healthcare system generosity increased postponed and denied healthcare. Greater medical resources decreased denied healthcare. Furthermore, missed healthcare varied by individual-level gender (higher rates among women), age, education, and health. Discussion: This study reveals predictors of missed healthcare during the pandemic. To decrease unintended health consequences of a pandemic, both individual-level determinants, such as gender and health, and contextual-level determinants, such as healthcare systems’ characteristics, should be considered in research and practice. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes (Re-)Entering the Labor Market at Advanced Ages Protect Against Cognitive Decline? A Panel-Matching Difference-in-differences Approach
Kim, Jung Hyun UL; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Leist, Anja UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

While prolonged labor market participation becomes increasingly important in ageing societies, evidence of the impacts of entering or exiting work beyond age 65 on cognitive functioning is scarce. We ... [more ▼]

While prolonged labor market participation becomes increasingly important in ageing societies, evidence of the impacts of entering or exiting work beyond age 65 on cognitive functioning is scarce. We estimate these effects using panel-matching difference-in-differences with populationrepresentative panel datasets from South Korea and the United States. We compare countries and across socioeconomic characteristics. We find general positive effects of entering the labor market in South Korea, while only individuals with high assets in the US benefit from entering the labor market. Exiting the labor market does not result in changes in cognitive functioning in Korea but is followed by a cognitive decline in individuals with low assets in the US. Findings suggest that the benefits and disincentives from late-life labor status transitions on cognitive functioning vary between South Korea and the US and across socioeconomic groups. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual factors and beliefs determining COVID-19 vaccination willingness
Pauly, Laure UL; Paccoud, Ivana UL; Satagopam, Venkata UL et al

Poster (2022, April)

Background: High vaccination coverage rates are necessary to reduce infections and transmissions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 and to allow successful mitigation of the current pandemic. To ... [more ▼]

Background: High vaccination coverage rates are necessary to reduce infections and transmissions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 and to allow successful mitigation of the current pandemic. To date, we are still lacking information to explain the hesitancy in Luxembourg towards uptake of the available COVID-19 vaccines. The present study explored motivations for and against vaccination in a population-representative sample of residents across Luxembourg to identify hesitant groups and develop strategies to increase population immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In the framework of the nationwide, representative longitudinal CON-VINCE study, a sample of 1589 respondents (49.6% women, 84.3% Luxembourg nationality) ranging from 18-84 years, participated in the survey in spring 2021. The protocol of the CON-VINCE study has been described in detail elsewhere (Snoeck et al. 2020). Results: 52% of the respondents had at least partial vaccination at time of assessment between April to June 2021. The most common reasons for vaccination of those willing to be vaccinated (81.2%) were altruistic motivations. Prevalent reasons against vaccination for those undecided (8.7%) or reluctant (10.2%) to be vaccinated were that the vaccine had not been tested sufficiently and the fear of long-term vaccine side effects. Only very few of the vaccination-hesitant or -reluctant respondents reported that they did not believe in vaccination in general. Conclusion: The present study identified motivations for and against COVID-19 vaccination and determined demographic and socio-economic factors associated with vaccination willingness. To increase vaccination rates, public health communication needs to target those unsure or unwilling to be vaccinated. We will continue to study the vaccination uptake in the Luxembourg population, as CON-VINCE is now part of the H2020-funded international ORCHESTRA project (https://orchestra-cohort.eu), research into comparing these results on a Pan-European level. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrograde Procedural Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study
Pauly, Laure UL; Pauly, Claire UL; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2022)

Background: The analysis of the procedural memory is particularly relevant in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, due to the central role of the basal ganglia in procedural memory. It ... [more ▼]

Background: The analysis of the procedural memory is particularly relevant in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, due to the central role of the basal ganglia in procedural memory. It has been shown that anterograde procedural memory, the ability to learn a new skill, is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. However, retrograde procedural memory, the long-term retention and execution of skills learned in earlier life stages, has not yet been systematically investigated in Parkinson’s disease. Objective: This study aims to investigate retrograde procedural memory in people with Parkinson’s disease.We hypothesized that retrograde procedural memory is impaired in people with Parkinson’s disease compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. Methods: First, we developed the CUPRO evaluation system, an extended evaluation system based on the Cube Copying Test, to distinguish the cube copying procedure, representing functioning of retrograde procedural memory, and the final result, representing the visuo-constructive abilities. Development of the evaluation system included tests of discriminant validity. Results: Comparing people with typical Parkinson’s disease (n = 201) with age- and gender-matched control subjects (n = 201), we identified cube copying performance to be significantly impaired in people with Parkinson’s disease (p = 0.008) No significant correlation was observed between retrograde procedural memory and disease duration. Conclusion: We demonstrated lower cube copying performance in people with Parkinson’s disease compared to control subjects, which suggests an impaired functioning of retrograde procedural memory in Parkinson’s disease. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrograde Procedural Memory in Parkinson's Disease
Pauly, Laure UL; Pauly, Claire UL; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

Poster (2022, March)

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See detailNeighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, inequalities, and cognitive ageing
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2022, February)

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See detailMapping of machine learning approaches for description, prediction, and causal inference in the social and health sciences
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Kim, Jung Hyun UL et al

in Science Advances (2022), 8

Machine learning (ML) methodology used in the social and health sciences needs to fit the intended research purposes of description, prediction, or causal inference. This paper provides a comprehensive ... [more ▼]

Machine learning (ML) methodology used in the social and health sciences needs to fit the intended research purposes of description, prediction, or causal inference. This paper provides a comprehensive, systematic meta-mapping of research questions in the social and health sciences to appropriate ML approaches by incorporating the necessary requirements to statistical analysis in these disciplines. We map the established classification into description, prediction, counterfactual prediction, and causal structural learning to common research goals, such as estimating prevalence of adverse social or health outcomes, predicting the risk of an event, and identifying risk factors or causes of adverse outcomes, and explain common ML performance metrics. Such mapping may help to fully exploit the benefits of ML while considering domain-specific aspects relevant to the social and health sciences and hopefully contribute to the acceleration of the uptake of ML applications to advance both basic and applied social and health sciences research. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of Self-Stigma in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Mixed Methods Scoping Review
Hanff, Anne-Marie UL; Leist, Anja UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Background: Self-stigma in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) can substantially impact quality of life and possibilities for social participation. An integrative analysis of determinants of self-stigma ... [more ▼]

Background: Self-stigma in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) can substantially impact quality of life and possibilities for social participation. An integrative analysis of determinants of self-stigma has been lacking. Objective: We sought to explore which complementary insights from qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as from expert consultation, could be gained. Methods: An established mixed methods study design was employed to first conduct a mixed methods scoping review of published qualitative and quantitative literature, and then consult with experts to arrive at an exhaustive list of determinants of self-stigma after a thematic synthesis. Results: A total of 87 unique determinants of self-stigma were identified. Quantitative studies and expert consultations mainly identified personal determinants of people with self-stigma (e.g., age, anxiety, or apathy). In contrast, qualitative studies identified social situations associated with self-stigma (e.g., joint meals of people with typical PD with others). Notably, self-stigma of people with PD was found to be particularly salient in unfamiliar places, at the working place or in contact with people without PD. Across methods, cognitive impairment, tremor, and abnormal walk and unsteady gait, respectively, were associated with self-stigma. Conclusion: The mixed method study design yielded complementary insights, but also factors commonly associated with self-stigma across methods. Future prioritization exercises may gain further insights into self-stigma of people with PD. Facilitating social encounters by both addressing needs of affected people and raising knowledge and public awareness may improve quality of life in people with PD [less ▲]

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See detailWhich demographic and socio-economic factors are associated with vaccination willingness and beliefs towards vaccination? Rapid report with first results
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Paccoud, Ivana UL et al

Report (2021)

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour market and health care” aims to triangulate evidence from different data sources such as social security and general population data, the national cohort CON-VINCE as well as national health surveys. We seek to arrive at robust assessments of how socio-economic determinants shape vaccination willingness, occurrence, severity and persistence of long COVID, and economic consequences of long COVID in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning and health inequalities
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2021, November 08)

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See detailA life-course perspective on cognitive ageing: Explaining gendered trajectories in memory functioning
Bertogg, Ariane; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October)

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See detailThe retrograde procedural memory in people with Parkinson’s disease with or without freezing of gait – a cross-sectional study
Pauly, Laure UL; Rauschenberger, Armin UL; Pauly, Claire UL et al

Poster (2021, September 17)

Objective: To investigate the retrograde procedural memory in people with typical Parkinson’s disease (PwP) with or without freezing of gait (FOG). We hypothesized that the retrograde procedural memory is ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the retrograde procedural memory in people with typical Parkinson’s disease (PwP) with or without freezing of gait (FOG). We hypothesized that the retrograde procedural memory is more strongly impaired in patients with FOG (FOG+) than in patients without FOG (FOG-). Background: Given that cognitive functions, like executive control and automaticity, are crucial for mobility, it is of great importance to get a deeper knowledge of the cognitive impairment that may interfere with walking and causing gait disturbances in PwP, i.e. FOG. The integrity of retrograde procedural memory, the ability to execute skills that have been learned in earlier life stages, is essential for a person’s ability to complete routine, procedural activities like walking. As FOG is characterized as a de-automatization disorder, we hypothesized an impairment of the retrograde procedural memory in patients with FOG. Methods: A total of 194 patients from the Luxembourg Parkinson’s study were included into the cross-sectional study. All patients were assigned to the FOG+ / FOG- groups based on a semi-structured interview conducted by a study physician. The extended evaluation system of the cube copying test was applied to evaluate both the cube-drawing procedure, representing the retrograde procedural memory, and the final result, representing the visuo-constructive abilities (Pauly et al., 2020, MDS abstract). We compared the cube copying performance of n=97 FOG+ with n=97 age-, gender- and education-matched FOG-. Results: FOG+ scored lower on the cube copying procedure compared to the FOG- (p=0.027), which is suggestive of an impaired retrograde procedural memory in FOG+. No significant differences in the visuo-constructional abilities were detected (p=0.945). Conclusion: In line with FOG being considered a de-automatization of walking, a skill acquired in earlier life stages, the present results suggest that PwP with FOG have an impaired retrograde procedural memory in comparison to PwP without FOG. The results lend support to the ability of the extended evaluation system of the cube copying test to assess impaired retrograde procedural memory and help improve our understanding of behavioral symptoms in PwP. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution and social determinants of mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Luxembourg
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Schröder, Valerie UL; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Psychiatry Research (2021), 303

Studies have been showing a negative impact of pandemic control measures on mental health. However, few studies assessed these effects longitudinally during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

Studies have been showing a negative impact of pandemic control measures on mental health. However, few studies assessed these effects longitudinally during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goals of this study were to explore whether differential effects of COVID-19 restrictions on mental health could be observed by sex and age in a Luxembourgish nationally representative sample during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether there are differences in risk and protective factors longitudinally at two assessment times. A total of 1,756 respondents aged 18 years and older (50.74% women) reported sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics, depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. Women and younger respondents reported higher rates of severe depression and anxiety symptoms, suggesting higher vulnerability to the pandemic control measures. This study contributes to the investigation of mental health consequences of the pandemic and the pandemic control measures, particularly related to shifts in care task responsibilities, gender and socio-economic inequalities, as well as younger groups' uncertainty about the future. [less ▲]

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