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See detailThe Role of Implicit Nationality Preference in Speaker Evaluations in the Multilingual Context of Montreal
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Journal of Language and Social Psychology (2018)

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be ... [more ▼]

Multilingual contexts in cross-border regions are characterized by a high number of inhabitants making use of various languages depending on the context. A language that a person speaks thus cannot be used as indicator of national group membership, which highlights the need for a distinction. The present study aimed to transfer an adapted model positing language and nationality attitudes as distinct factors of speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level, to the context of Montreal. Explicit attitudes were assumed to primarily affect explicit speaker evaluations, whereas implicit attitudes were expected to be the primary predictor of implicit speaker evaluations. Results primarily confirmed the distinctness of language and nationality concepts on an implicit attitude level. Moreover, the crucial role of nationality preference on an implicit level was highlighted: Quebecers’ implicit nationality attitudes affected implicit preferences for the Quebec nation suggesting affirmation of model transferability. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicit and implicit speaker evaluations and their differential attitudinal determinants
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language Sciences (2018), 69

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence ... [more ▼]

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence of explicit and implicit attitudes on controlled versus automatic evaluative responses have not been addressed in this domain thus far. In addition to separating attitudes toward languages from attitudes toward nationality, the aim of this study was to test whether explicit and implicit speaker evaluations refer to distinct concepts. We expected that explicit attitudes would be stronger predictors of deliberate speaker evaluations than implicit attitudes would. By contrast, we expected that automatic evaluations examined with an evaluative priming task would primarily reflect implicit attitudes. Results showed that explicit speaker evaluations were influenced by explicit attitudes toward nationality, whereas implicit evaluations were mainly predicted by implicit attitudes toward nationality. The crucial role of speaker’s nationality in speaker evaluation processes is further discussed within the framework of implicit group processes. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeaker evaluations in multilingual contexts: The predictive role of language and nationality attitudes as distinct factors in explicit and implicit cognition
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Previous speaker evaluation models have assumed that, in social interactions, attitudes towards languages are the most salient cues that are used to form an evaluation of the person who is speaking (Giles ... [more ▼]

Previous speaker evaluation models have assumed that, in social interactions, attitudes towards languages are the most salient cues that are used to form an evaluation of the person who is speaking (Giles & Marlow, 2011). The role of attitudes towards the speaker’s national group has not been addressed because most studies have been conducted in monolingual contexts in which spoken language serves as a clear indicator of national group membership. However, the concepts of language and nationality cannot be equated in multilingual societies, which are characterized by various nationals using different languages. The present dissertation addresses the need for the development of a revised theoretical model for multilingual contexts by making a distinction between language, nationality, and speaker concepts on both an explicit and an implicit level. The adapted model applies social-cognitive theories that propose a distinction between explicit and implicit processes and further posits a differential predictive influence of explicit and implicit attitudes on explicit and implicit speaker evaluations. In the multilingual context of Luxembourg, three successive studies were conducted by adapting an audio-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) as an implicit measure of language and nationality attitudes and an evaluative priming task as implicit measure of speaker evaluations. The findings emphasized the convergent and discriminant validity of language and nationality attitudes on both an explicit and an implicit level. Furthermore, the distinctness of explicit and implicit speaker evaluations was confirmed such that explicit evaluations were influenced by explicit attitudes, and implicit evaluations were affected by implicit attitudes. In the fourth study, the model was transferred to the linguistic context of Montreal (Canada). The findings showed that implicit speaker preferences were affected by implicit nationality attitudes affirming model transferability. Overall, the dissertation shows that language is a salient factor in explicit person perception, whereas nationality plays a vital role on an implicit level, demonstrating the added value of the language-nationality and the explicit-implicit distinction in the speaker evaluation formation. Self-reports diverged from implicit measures such that an in-group bias was visible only on an implicit level, giving insight into the effect of specific socio-contextual factors in a given linguistic context as well as the practical implications for decision makers in professional domains. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage and nationality attitudes as distinct factors that influence speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit attitudes in Luxembourg
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language & Communication (2018), 61

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a ... [more ▼]

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a speaker’s nationality might affect speaker evaluations. We examined whether language and nationality attitudes, on both explicit and implicit levels, are distinct concepts, and whether these attitude types affect speaker evaluations. Findings confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of language and nationality attitudes, thus confirming their conceptual distinctness. Moreover, explicit language attitudes affected explicit speaker evaluations, a finding that is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, September 04)

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g ... [more ▼]

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). In previous research, a conceptual overlap exist between the evaluations of languages, nationality groups, and individual speakers. Consequently, the distinction between language and nationality attitudes has not been addressed. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people hold two types of attitudes towards the same object, an explicit and an implicit attitude (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). Thus, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes affect speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level. Explicit assessments were examined with questionnaires and implicit assessments were measured with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Our study findings (N = 79) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages, revealed that implicit nationality attitudes significantly predicted implicit speaker evaluations such that a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This implicit in-group favoritism is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailWahrnehmung von Personen und ihren sozialen Räumen: Explizite versus implizite Verarbeitungsprozesse
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL

Presentation (2017, July 07)

Ein Raum als primäres Medium der Architektur kann als ein soziokultureller Begegnungsort definiert werden, in dem verschiedene architektonische Konzepte auf den Menschen wirken (Günzel, 2010). Die soziale ... [more ▼]

Ein Raum als primäres Medium der Architektur kann als ein soziokultureller Begegnungsort definiert werden, in dem verschiedene architektonische Konzepte auf den Menschen wirken (Günzel, 2010). Die soziale Logik privater sowie öffentlicher Räume kann durch ihre individuelle Formen- und Strukturvielfalt als eigene Sprache wahrgenommen werden. Studien zur Wahrnehmung öffentlicher Plätze in der Stadt, im Büro, oder in medizinischen Einrichtungen haben allgemeine bauphysikalische Faktoren (z.B. Farben, Distanzen, Dimensionen) aufgedeckt, die einen Einfluss auf die Wahrnehmung sowie das Verhalten von Personen haben. Die Untersuchung des Einflusses menschlichen Verhaltens auf die Gestaltung und Wahrnehmung von Räumen stellt hingegen ein junges Forschungsfeld dar. Studien zur Erforschung der Wechselwirkung zwischen Mensch und Raum haben ergeben, dass ein Mensch mit seinen individuellen Erfahrungen ein aktiver Bestandteil von öffentlichen Plätzen ist und diese dadurch auch formt (z.B. Flade, 2008; Gehl & Svarre, 2013). Da bestimmte Plätze von verschiedenen Menschen (z.B. Studentenviertel, Geschäftsbezirk) geprägt sind, werden diese auch unterschiedlich wahrgenommen. In public space-life studies werden meistens explizite Erhebungsmethoden eingesetzt (z.B. systematische Beobachtung, Interviews), um mögliche Einflussfaktoren der Nutzung von öffentlichen Plätzen zu untersuchen. Da auch die individuellen Erfahrungen des Menschen einen Einfluss auf die Raumwahrnehmung und –nutzung haben können, scheint der Einsatz von impliziten Methoden eine vielversprechende Erweiterung. Implizite Methoden erheben automatische und oft unbewusste Reaktionen auf Stimuluskombinationen mittels computerbasierter Tests (z.B. Greenwald et al., 2000). Während explizite Verarbeitungsprozesse oftmals durch sozial erwünschte Vorstellungen beeinflusst sind, basieren implizite Prozesse auf individuell erlernten und somit automatischen Assoziationen zwischen bestimmten Konzepten und Valenzen (z.B. Greenwald et al., 2000). Unsere Beurteilungen und Verhaltenstendenzen sind sowohl durch explizite als auch implizite Prozesse geprägt (Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). In einer geplanten Studie in Luxemburg wird die Wahrnehmung des neuen Universitätscampus Belval durch eine Kombination von expliziten und impliziten Methoden untersucht. Das Ziel der Studie ist dabei die Untersuchung der Wahrnehmung von sozialen Räumen, welche sich durch das Vorhandensein oder die Abwesenheit von Personen unterscheiden. Die Ergebnisse der Gegenüberstellung expliziter und impliziter Wahrnehmungsprozesse können dabei wichtige Schlussfolgerungen für die Wirkung architektonischer Konzepte sowie vor allem die Wechselwirkung zwischen Mensch und Raum offenlegen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, May 03)

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra ... [more ▼]

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). Whereas most studies show a conceptual overlap between the evaluation of languages, national groups, and individual speakers, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes refer to distinct concepts that affect speaker evaluations. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people make use of two types of strategies to process social objects, an explicit and an implicit processing strategy (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). We transferred the explicit-implicit distinction to the field of language by examining implicit assessments with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Explicit assessments were measured with validated questionnaires. Our study findings (N = 82) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages (Luxembourgish, French, and German), revealed that explicit nationality attitudes had a significant influence on explicit speaker evaluations, while implicit nationality attitudes significantly affected implicit speaker evaluations. Hence, on implicit level, a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This in-group favoritism as well as the importance of nationality attitudes as potent factor that influence speaker evaluations is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailJudging people and their language use: How attitudes towards languages and speakers’ nationality influence speaker evaluations in multilingual contexts, using Luxembourg as an example
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2016, March 21)

In social encounters, language is one of the most salient cues eliciting evaluative responses. According to models on language attitudes (e.g., Cargile, Giles, Ryan & Bradac, 1994), listeners` attitudes ... [more ▼]

In social encounters, language is one of the most salient cues eliciting evaluative responses. According to models on language attitudes (e.g., Cargile, Giles, Ryan & Bradac, 1994), listeners` attitudes towards the speaker`s language influence the evaluation of this speaking person. However, linguistic stimuli might evoke additional inferences, e.g. on speaker`s nationality. We are therefore experimentally testing whether attitudes towards languages and attitudes towards speaker`s nationality are two distinguishable constructs which has not been addressed in previous research. Furthermore, the distinction between implicit and explicit attitudes is examined, resulting in a theoretical framework of four distinct types of attitudes influencing speaker evaluations. Luxembourg`s linguistic context is determined by the existence of various languages spoken by different inhabitants. In the present study, the model is tested with Luxembourgish and French. Using a combination of explicit measures and an adapted audio Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2002), language and national attitudes of Luxembourgish university students are assessed. According our hypotheses, it is expected that language attitudes correlate moderately with national attitudes, providing evidence for the factorial separability. Results of regression analyses are discussed to give insight into the predictive impact of the four attitude types on speaker evaluations. A comparison between implicit and explicit attitudes is put into focus to demonstrate the model’s relevance. Overall, this study contributes to ascertaining the complexity of influencing factors on person perception based on linguistic cues by treating language and national attitudes as distinguishable constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailJudging people and their language use: How attitudes towards languages and language users affect speaker evaluations in multilingual contexts
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak, Sabine UL

Presentation (2015, November 26)

In multilingual contexts, such as in Luxembourg, individuals are exposed to various languages spoken by different inhabitants. An important question within the framework of person perception is to what ... [more ▼]

In multilingual contexts, such as in Luxembourg, individuals are exposed to various languages spoken by different inhabitants. An important question within the framework of person perception is to what extent language attitudes influence our evaluative responses (i.e., differential perceptions of languages effect perceptions of speakers of these languages). However, multilingualism not only concerns the differential perceptions of languages but also refers to perceptions of (nationality) groups speaking such languages. The present project focuses on the interplay of attitudes towards languages and (national) groups of language users and their impact on speaker evaluations. To this extent we are adapting and testing a model of person perception based on linguistic cues. In addition, the proposed theoretical model assigns particular importance to the distinction between implicit and explicit information processing, which may be involved in multilinguals’ attitudes towards languages and language users. [less ▲]

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