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See detailWCET and Priority Assignment Analysis of Real-Time Systems using Search and Machine Learning
Lee, Jaekwon UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Real-time systems have become indispensable for human life as they are used in numerous industries, such as vehicles, medical devices, and satellite systems. These systems are very sensitive to violations ... [more ▼]

Real-time systems have become indispensable for human life as they are used in numerous industries, such as vehicles, medical devices, and satellite systems. These systems are very sensitive to violations of their time constraints (deadlines), which can have catastrophic consequences. To verify whether the systems meet their time constraints, engineers perform schedulability analysis from early stages and throughout development. However, there are challenges in obtaining precise results from schedulability analysis due to estimating the worst-case execution times (WCETs) and assigning optimal priorities to tasks. Estimating WCET is an important activity at early design stages of real-time systems. Based on such WCET estimates, engineers make design and implementation decisions to ensure that task executions always complete before their specified deadlines. However, in practice, engineers often cannot provide a precise point of WCET estimates and they prefer to provide plausible WCET ranges. Task priority assignment is an important decision, as it determines the order of task executions and it has a substantial impact on schedulability results. It thus requires finding optimal priority assignments so that tasks not only complete their execution but also maximize the safety margins from their deadlines. Optimal priority values increase the tolerance of real-time systems to unexpected overheads in task executions so that they can still meet their deadlines. However, it is a hard problem to find optimal priority assignments because their evaluation relies on uncertain WCET values and complex engineering constraints must be accounted for. This dissertation proposes three approaches to estimate WCET and assign optimal priorities at design stages. Combining a genetic algorithm and logistic regression, we first suggest an automatic approach to infer safe WCET ranges with a probabilistic guarantee based on the worst-case scheduling scenarios. We then introduce an extended approach to account for weakly hard real-time systems with an industrial schedule simulator. We evaluate our approaches by applying them to industrial systems from different domains and several synthetic systems. The results suggest that they are possible to estimate probabilistic safe WCET ranges efficiently and accurately so the deadline constraints are likely to be satisfied with a high degree of confidence. Moreover, we propose an automated technique that aims to identify the best possible priority assignments in real-time systems. The approach deals with multiple objectives regarding safety margins and engineering constraints using a coevolutionary algorithm. Evaluation with synthetic and industrial systems shows that the approach significantly outperforms both a baseline approach and solutions defined by practitioners. All the solutions in this dissertation scale to complex industrial systems for offline analysis within an acceptable time, i.e., at most 27 hours. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Priority Assignment for Real-Time Systems: A Coevolution-Based Approach
Lee, Jaekwon UL; Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Nejati, Shiva et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2022), 27

In real-time systems, priorities assigned to real-time tasks determine the order of task executions, by relying on an underlying task scheduling policy. Assigning optimal priority values to tasks is ... [more ▼]

In real-time systems, priorities assigned to real-time tasks determine the order of task executions, by relying on an underlying task scheduling policy. Assigning optimal priority values to tasks is critical to allow the tasks to complete their executions while maximizing safety margins from their specified deadlines. This enables real-time systems to tolerate unexpected overheads in task executions and still meet their deadlines. In practice, priority assignments result from an interactive process between the development and testing teams. In this article, we propose an automated method that aims to identify the best possible priority assignments in real-time systems, accounting for multiple objectives regarding safety margins and engineering constraints. Our approach is based on a multi-objective, competitive coevolutionary algorithm mimicking the interactive priority assignment process between the development and testing teams. We evaluate our approach by applying it to six industrial systems from different domains and several synthetic systems. The results indicate that our approach significantly outperforms both our baselines, i.e., random search and sequential search, and solutions defined by practitioners. Our approach scales to complex industrial systems as an offline analysis method that attempts to find near-optimal solutions within acceptable time, i.e., less than 16 hours. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating Probabilistic Safe WCET Ranges of Real-Time Systems at Design Stages
Lee, Jaekwon UL; Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Nejati, Shiva et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Estimating worst-case execution times (WCET) is an important activity at early design stages of real-time systems. Based on WCET estimates, engineers make design and implementation decisions to ensure ... [more ▼]

Estimating worst-case execution times (WCET) is an important activity at early design stages of real-time systems. Based on WCET estimates, engineers make design and implementation decisions to ensure that task execution always complete before their specified deadlines. However, in practice, engineers often cannot provide precise point WCET estimates and prefer to provide plausible WCET ranges. Given a set of real-time tasks with such ranges, we provide an automated technique to determine for what WCET values the system is likely to meet its deadlines, and hence operate safely with a probabilistic guarantee. Our approach combines a search algorithm for generating worst-case scheduling scenarios with polynomial logistic regression for inferring probabilistic safe WCET ranges. We evaluated our approach by applying it to three industrial systems from different domains and several synthetic systems. Our approach efficiently and accurately estimates probabilistic safe WCET ranges within which deadlines are likely to be satisfied with a high degree of confidence. [less ▲]

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See detailTetrahydrobenzimidazole TMQ0153 triggers apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis crosstalk in chronic myeloid leukemia
Song, S.; Lee, J.-Y.; Ermolenko, L. et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2020), 11(2),

By comparing imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivative TMQ0153 triggered caspase ... [more ▼]

By comparing imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivative TMQ0153 triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis at low concentrations accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ levels. Interestingly, at higher concentrations, TMQ0153 induced necroptotic cell death with accumulation of ROS, both preventable by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. At necroptosis-inducing concentrations, we observed increased ROS and decreased ATP and GSH levels, concomitant with protective autophagy induction. Inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 (baf-A1) and siRNA against beclin 1 abrogated autophagy, sensitized CML cells against TMQ0153 and enhanced necroptotic cell death. Importantly, TMQ153-induced necrosis led to cell surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT) and ERp57 as well as the release of extracellular ATP and high mobility group box (HMGB1) demonstrating the capacity of this compound to release immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers. We validated the anti-cancer potential of TMQ0153 by in vivo inhibition of K562 microtumor formation in zebrafish. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that cellular stress and redox modulation by TMQ0153 concentration-dependently leads to different cell death modalities including controlled necrosis in CML cell models. © 2020, The Author(s). [less ▲]

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