References of "Lagunas, Eva 50002156"
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See detailRadio Regulation Compliance of NGSO Constellations’ Interference towards GSO Ground Stations
Jalali, Mahdis UL; Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 12–15 September 2022, Virtual Conference (2022, September)

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite ... [more ▼]

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite services increases with the number of satel- lites in such mega-constellations. As the GSO arc encompasses the primary and existing satellite assets providing essential fixed and broadcasting satellite services, the interference avoidance for this area is of the utmost importance. In particular, non- geostationary orbit (NGSO) operators should comply with the regulations set up both by their national regulators and by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to minimize the impact of emissions on existing GSO and non-GSO systems. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the most recent radio regulations that dictate the NGSO-GSO spectral co-existence. Next, we analyze the NGSO-GSO radio frequency interference for the downlink scenario, following the so-called time-simulation methodology introduced by ITU. The probability distribution of aggregated power flux-density for NGSO co-channel interference is evaluated and assessed, adopting different degrees of exclusion angle strategy for interference avoidance. We conclude the paper by discussing the resulting implications for the continuity of operation and service provision and we provide remarks for future work [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency Optimization for Backscatter Enhanced NOMA Cooperative V2X Communications under Imperfect CSI
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other devices. Recently, ambient backscatter communications (AmBC) have gained significant interest in the research community for providing battery-free communications. AmBC can modulate useful data and reflect it towards near devices using the energy and frequency of existing RF signals. However, obtaining channel state information (CSI) for AmBC systems would be very challenging due to no pilot sequences and limited power. As one of the latest members of multiple access technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising solution for connecting large-scale devices over the same spectral resources in B5G wireless networks. Under imperfect CSI, this paper provides a new optimization framework for energy-efficient transmission in AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks. We simultaneously minimize the total transmit power of the V2X network by optimizing the power allocation at BS and reflection coefficient at backscatter sensors while guaranteeing the individual quality of services. The problem of total power minimization is formulated as non-convex optimization and coupled on multiple variables, making it complex and challenging. Therefore, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and convert the nonlinear rate constraints into linear constraints. Then, we adopt the iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. For comparison, we also present a conventional NOMA cooperative V2X network without AmBC. Simulation results show the benefits of our proposed AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative V2X network in terms of total achievable energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailBackscatter-Aided NOMA V2X Communication under Channel Estimation Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 20)

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of ... [more ▼]

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of communications among wireless devices by using the existing ambient radio frequency signals. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently attracted significant attention due to its high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. This paper proposes a new optimization framework to minimize total transmit power of BC-NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything networks (V2XneT) while ensuring the quality of services. More specifically, the base station (BS) transmits a superimposed signal to its associated roadside units (RSUs) in the first time slot. Then the RSUs transmit the superimposed signal to their serving vehicles in the second time slot exploiting decode and forward protocol. A backscatter device (BD) in the coverage area of RSU also receives the superimposed signal and reflect it towards vehicles by modulating own information. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously optimize the transmit power of BS and RSUs along with reflection coefficient of BDs under perfect and imperfect channel state information. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as non-convex and coupled on multiple optimization variables which makes it very complex and hard to solve. Therefore, we first transform and decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and then employ iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BC-NOMA V2XneT provides high energy efficiency than the conventional NOMA V2XneT without BC. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen RIS Meets GEO Satellite Communications: A New Sustainable Optimization Framework in 6G
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the signal propagation by using passive reflecting elements. On the other side, the demand of high throughput geostationary (GEO) satellite communications (SatCom) is rapidly growing to deliver broadband services in inaccessible/insufficient covered areas of terrestrial networks. This paper proposes a GEO SatCom network, where a satellite transmits the signal to a ground mobile terminal using multicarrier communications. To enhance the effective gain, the signal delivery from satellite to the ground mobile terminal is also assisted by RIS which smartly shift the phase of the signal towards ground terminal. We consider that RIS is mounted on a high building and equipped with multiple re-configurable passive elements along with smart controller. We jointly optimize the power allocation and phase shift design to maximize the channel capacity of the system. The joint optimization problem is formulated as nonconvex due to coupled variables which is hard to solve through traditional convex optimization methods. Thus, we propose a new optimal algorithm which is based on Mesh Adaptive Direct Search to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results unveil the benefits of RIS-assisted SatCom in terms of system channel capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailUnsupervised Learning for User Scheduling in Multibeam Precoded GEO Satellite Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 09)

Future generation SatCom multibeam architectures will extensively exploit full-frequency reuse schemes together with interference management techniques, such as precoding, to dramatically increase ... [more ▼]

Future generation SatCom multibeam architectures will extensively exploit full-frequency reuse schemes together with interference management techniques, such as precoding, to dramatically increase spectral efficiency performance. Precoding is very sensitive to user scheduling, suggesting a joint precoding and user scheduling design to achieve optimal performance. However, the joint design requires solving a highly complex optimization problem which is unreasonable for practical systems. Even for suboptimal disjoint scheduling designs, the complexity is still significant. To achieve a good compromise between performance and complexity, we investigate the applicability of Machine Learning (ML) for the aforementioned problem. We propose three clustering algorithms based on Unsupervised Learning (UL) that facilitate the user scheduling decisions while maximizing the system performance in terms of throughput. Numerical simulations compare the three proposed algorithms (K-means, Hierarchical clustering, and Self-Organization) with the conventional geographic scheduling and identify the main trade-offs. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Optimization of Beam-Hopping Design and NOMA-Assisted Transmission for Flexible Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022)

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands ... [more ▼]

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands. Considering potential benefits of beam hopping (BH) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), we exploit the time-domain flexibility in multi-beam satellite systems by optimizing BH design, and enhance the power-domain flexibility via NOMA. In this paper, we investigate the synergy and mutual influence of beam hopping and NOMA. We jointly optimize power allocation, beam scheduling, and terminal-timeslot assignment to minimize the gap between requested traffic demand and offered capacity. In the solution development, we formally prove the NP-hardness of the optimization problem. Next, we develop a bounding scheme to tightly gauge the global optimum and propose a suboptimal algorithm to enable efficient resource assignment. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of combining NOMA and BH, and validate the superiority of the proposed BH-NOMA schemes over benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand and Interference Aware Adaptive Resource Management for High Throughput GEO Satellite Systems
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022)

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS ... [more ▼]

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS) systems. Accordingly, future satellites are expected to employ advanced resource/interference management techniques to achieve high system spectrum efficiency and low power consumption while ensuring user demand satisfaction. This paper proposes a novel demand and interference aware adaptive resource management for geostationary (GEO) VHTS systems. For this, we formulate a multi-objective optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power consumption and system bandwidth usage while matching the offered capacity with the demand per beam. In this context, we consider resource management for a system with full-precoding, i.e. all beams are precoded; without precoding, i.e. no precoding is applied to any beam; and with partial precoding, i.e. only some beams are precoded. The nature of the problem is non-convex and we solve it by jointly using the Dinkelbach and Successive Convex Approximation (SCA) methods. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark schemes. Specifically, we show that the proposed method requires low resource consumption, low computational time, and simultaneously achieves a high demand satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning for Radio Resource Management in Multibeam GEO Satellite Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Electronics (2022), 11(7), 992

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and ... [more ▼]

Satellite communications (SatComs) systems are facing a massive increase in traffic demand. However, this increase is not uniform across the service area due to the uneven distribution of users and changes in traffic demand diurnal. This problem is addressed by using flexible payload architectures, which allow payload resources to be flexibly allocated to meet the traffic demand of each beam. While optimization-based radio resource management (RRM) has shown significant performance gains, its intense computational complexity limits its practical implementation in real systems. In this paper, we discuss the architecture, implementation and applications of Machine Learning (ML) for resource management in multibeam GEO satellite systems. We mainly focus on two systems, one with power, bandwidth, and/or beamwidth flexibility, and the second with time flexibility, i.e., beam hopping. We analyze and compare different ML techniques that have been proposed for these architectures, emphasizing the use of Supervised Learning (SL) and Reinforcement Learning (RL). To this end, we define whether training should be conducted online or offline based on the characteristics and requirements of each proposed ML technique and discuss the most appropriate system architecture and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Evaluation of Forward Link Packet Scheduling in Satellite Communication Systems with Carrier Aggregation
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Kumar, Sumit UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

The rapidly growing demand for increased data rates and spectrum scarcity in satellite communication systems require new paradigms to effectively utilize radio resources. Of many candidate techniques ... [more ▼]

The rapidly growing demand for increased data rates and spectrum scarcity in satellite communication systems require new paradigms to effectively utilize radio resources. Of many candidate techniques, carrier aggregation (CA) is a promising solution that combines multiple carriers across the available spectrum to achieve a substantial increase in peak data rate and improve user experience. The concept of CA was introduced in 3GPP standards for the terrestrial communication systems and has been successfully deployed and commercialized worldwide. Recently, satellite communication community has investigated the requirements for adopting CA technique to satellite infrastructures. In this setting, aggregating multiple heterogeneous satellite links to boost a single-user peak throughput requires an efficient data packet scheduler at the gateway in order to avoid the out-of-order packet issues and the subsequent queuing delays at the receiver side. Thereby, several research efforts have been devoted to circumvent this challenge through developing packet schedulers that are aiming at delivering data packets without perturbing their original transmission order. In this paper, the performance of the developed schedulers is evaluated using end-to-end system simulations to investigate the impact of different network metrics. The obtained results demonstrate the design tradeoffs and summarize the pros and cons of the schedulers. [less ▲]

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See detailFlexible Resource Optimization for GEO Multibeam Satellite Communication System
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Conventional GEO satellite communication systems rely on a multibeam foot-print with a uniform resource allocation to provide connectivity to users. However, applying uniform resource allocation is ... [more ▼]

Conventional GEO satellite communication systems rely on a multibeam foot-print with a uniform resource allocation to provide connectivity to users. However, applying uniform resource allocation is inefficient in presence of non-uniform demand distribution. To overcome this limitation, the next generation of broadband GEO satellite systems will enable flexibility in terms of power and bandwidth assignment, enabling on-demand resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a novel satellite resource assignment design whose goal is to satisfy the beam traffic demand by making use of the minimum transmit power and utilized bandwidth. The motivation behind the proposed design is to maximize the satellite spectrum utilization by pushing the spectrum reuse to affordable limits in terms of tolerable interference. The proposed problem formulation results in a non-convex optimization structure, for which we propose an efficient tractable solution. We validate the proposed method with extensive numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach with respect to benchmark schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-DNN Assisted Optimization for Efficient Resource Scheduling in NOMA-Enabled Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 08)

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission time by jointly optimizing power allocation and terminal-timeslot assignment for accomplishing a transmission task in NOMA-enabled satellite systems. The problem appears non-linear/non-convex with integer variables and can be equivalently reformulated in the format of mixed-integer convex programming (MICP). Conventional iterative methods may apply but at the expenses of high computational complexity in approaching the optimum or near-optimum. We propose a combined learning and optimization scheme to tackle the problem, where the primal MICP is decomposed into two learning-suited classification tasks and a power allocation problem. In the proposed scheme, the first learning task is to predict the integer variables while the second task is to guarantee the feasibility of the solutions. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms benchmarks in terms of average computational time, transmission time performance, and feasibility guarantee. [less ▲]

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See detailRadio Resource Management Techniques for Multibeam Satellite Systems
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Abdu, Tedros Salih UL et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 25(8), 2448-2452

Next–generation of satellite communication (SatCom) networks are expected to support extremely high data rates for a seamless integration into future large satellite-terrestrial networks. In view of the ... [more ▼]

Next–generation of satellite communication (SatCom) networks are expected to support extremely high data rates for a seamless integration into future large satellite-terrestrial networks. In view of the coming spectral limitations, the main challenge is to reduce the cost (satellite launch and operation) per bit, which can be achieved by enhancing the spectral efficiencies. In addition, the capability to quickly and flexibly assign radio resources according to the traffic demand distribution has become a must for future multibeam broadband satellite systems. This article presents the radio resource management problems encountered in the design of future broadband SatComs and provides a comprehensive overview of the available techniques to address such challenges. Firstly, we focus on the demand matching formulation of the power and bandwidth assignment. Secondly, we present the scheduling design in practical multibeam satellite systems. Finally, a number of future challenges and the respective open research topics are described. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Beam-Hopping Scheduling and Power Allocation in NOMA-Assisted Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, March 31)

In this paper, we investigate potential synergies of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and beam hopping (BH) for multi-beam satellite systems. The coexistence of BH and NOMA provides time-power-domain ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate potential synergies of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and beam hopping (BH) for multi-beam satellite systems. The coexistence of BH and NOMA provides time-power-domain flexibilities in mitigating a practical mismatch effect between offered capacity and requested traffic per beam. We formulate the joint BH scheduling and NOMA-based power allocation problem as mixed-integer nonconvex programming. We reveal the xponential-conic structure for the original problem, and reformulate the problem to the format of mixed-integer conic programming (MICP), where the optimum can be obtained by exponential-complexity algorithms. A greedy scheme is proposed to solve the problem on a timeslot-by-timeslot basis with polynomial-time complexity. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed efficient suboptimal algorithm in reducing the matching error by 62.57% in average over the OMA scheme and achieving a good trade-off between computational complexity and performance compared to the optimal solution. [less ▲]

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See detailCompletion Time Minimization in NOMA Systems:Learning for Combinatorial Optimization
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Networking Letters (2021)

In this letter, we study a completion-time minimization problem by jointly optimizing time slots (TSs) and power allocation for time-critical non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. The original ... [more ▼]

In this letter, we study a completion-time minimization problem by jointly optimizing time slots (TSs) and power allocation for time-critical non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. The original problem is non-linear/non-convex with discrete variables, leading to high computational complexity in conventional iterative methods. Towards an efficient solution, we train deep neural networks to perform fast and high-accuracy predictions to tackle the difficult combinatorial parts, i.e., determining the minimum consumed TSs and user-TS allocation. Based on the learning-based predictions, we develop a low-complexity post-process procedure to provide feasible power allocation. The numerical results demonstrate promising improvements of the proposed scheme compared to other baseline schemes in terms of computational efficiency, approximating optimum, and feasibility guarantee. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasible Point Pursuit and Successive Convex Approximation for Transmit Power Minimization in SWIPT-Multigroup Multicasting Systems
Gautam, Sumit UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021)

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures ... [more ▼]

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures, energy harvesting (EH) only users with non-linear EH module, and users with joint ID and EH capabilities having separate units for the two operations, respectively. Each user is categorized under unique group(s), which can be of MC type specifically meant for ID users, and/or an energy group consisting of EH explicit users. The joint ID and EH users are a part of both EH group and single MC group. We formulate an optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power with optimal precoder designs for the three aforementioned scenarios, under certain quality-of-service constraints. The problem may be adapted to the well-known semidefinite program and solved via relaxation of rank-1 constraint. However, this process leads to performance degradation in some cases, which increases with the rank of solution obtained from the relaxed problem. Hence, we develop a novel technique motivated by the feasible-point pursuit successive convex approximation method in order to address the rank-related issue. The benefits of proposed method are illustrated under various operating conditions and parameter values, with comparison between the three above-mentioned scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailNOMA-Enabled Multi-Beam Satellite Systems: Joint Optimization to Overcome Offered-Requested Data Mismatches
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(1), 900-913

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has potentials to improve the performance of multi-beam satellite systems. The performance optimization in satellite-NOMA systems could be different from that in ... [more ▼]

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has potentials to improve the performance of multi-beam satellite systems. The performance optimization in satellite-NOMA systems could be different from that in terrestrial-NOMA systems, e.g., considering distinctive channel models, performance metrics, power constraints, and limited flexibility in resource management. In this paper, we adopt a metric, offered capacity to requested traffic ratio (OCTR), to measure the requested-offered data rate mismatch in multi-beam satellite systems. In the considered system, NOMA is applied to mitigate intra-beam interference while precoding is implemented to reduce inter-beam interference. We jointly optimize power, decoding orders, and terminal-timeslot assignment to improve the max-min fairness of OCTR. The problem is inherently difficult due to the presence of combinatorial and non-convex aspects. We first fix the terminal-timeslot assignment, and develop an optimal fast-convergence algorithmic framework based on Perron-Frobenius theory (PF) for the remaining joint power-allocation and decoding-order optimization problem. Under this framework, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the original problem, which iteratively updates the terminal-timeslot assignment and improves the overall OCTR performance. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm improves the max-min OCTR by 40.2% over orthogonal multiple access (OMA) in average. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Resource Assignment for Heterogeneous Services in 5G Downlink Under Imperfect CSI
Korrai, Praveenkumar UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Shree Krishna Sharma et al

Scientific Conference (2021)

This paper addresses the radio access network (RAN) resource slicing problem in the context of the joint allocation of transmit powers and time-frequency resource blocks (RBs) in the 5G system consisting ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the radio access network (RAN) resource slicing problem in the context of the joint allocation of transmit powers and time-frequency resource blocks (RBs) in the 5G system consisting of ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC) and enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) users. Specifically, we formulate a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) based optimization problem to maximize the sum goodput of eMBB users while satisfying URLLC and eMBB users' QoS requirements. The proposed scheme considers the impact of imperfect channel state information (CSI) and the active user's queue status for the dynamic assignment of radio resources to the heterogeneous users according to its demand. The resulting mixed-integer non-convex problem is first transformed into a tractable form by exploiting the probabilistic to non-probabilistic conversion, Big-M theory, and difference-of-convex (DC) programming. Later, the transformed problem is solved using the successive convex approximation (SCA) based iterative algorithm. Our simulation results illustrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the baseline methods in terms of eMBB rate, latency in delivering the URLLC packets, and total power consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailSatellite Communications in the New Space Era: A Survey and Future Challenges
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Maturo, Nicola UL et al

in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (2021), 23(1), 70-109

Satellite communications (SatComs) have recently entered a period of renewed interest motivated by technological advances and nurtured through private investment and ventures. The present survey aims at ... [more ▼]

Satellite communications (SatComs) have recently entered a period of renewed interest motivated by technological advances and nurtured through private investment and ventures. The present survey aims at capturing the state of the art in SatComs, while highlighting the most promising open research topics. Firstly, the main innovation drivers are motivated, such as new constellation types, on-board processing capabilities, nonterrestrial networks and space-based data collection/processing. Secondly, the most promising applications are described i.e. 5G integration, space communications, Earth observation, aeronautical and maritime tracking and communication. Subsequently, an in-depth literature review is provided across five axes: i) system aspects, ii) air interface, iii) medium access, iv) networking, v) testbeds & prototyping. Finally, a number of future challenges and the respective open research topics are described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 203 (37 UL)