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See detailCross-Cultural Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale in Four Forms and Eight Languages
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J. et al

in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (2019), 22(7), 451-464

Abstract The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple ... [more ▼]

Abstract The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple adaptations of this instrument have led to versions in different languages (e.g., Arabic and French), and different numbers of items (e.g., from 5 to 16 items instead of the original 14). However, to date, the CIUS has never been simultaneously compared and validated in several languages and different versions. Consequently, the present study tested the psychometric properties of four CIUS versions (i.e., CIUS-14, CIUS-9, CIUS-7, and CIUS-5) across eight languages (i.e., German, French, English, Finnish, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian) to (a) examine their psychometric properties, and (b) test their measurement invariance. These analyses also identified the optimal versions of the CIUS. The data were collected via online surveys administered to 4,226 voluntary participants from 15 countries, aged at least 18 years, and recruited from academic environments. All brief versions of the CIUS in all eight languages were validated. Dimensional, configural, and metric invariance were established across all languages for the CIUS-5, CIUS-7, and CIUS-9, but the CIUS-5 and CIUS-7 were slightly more suitable because their model fitted the ordinal estimate better, while for cross-comparisons, the CIUS-9 was slightly better. The brief versions of the CIUS are therefore reliable and structurally stable instruments that can be used for cross-cultural research across adult populations. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use: An empirically validated model
Pivetta, Erika; Harkin, Lydia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 100

Given the prominent role that smartphones have in everyday life, research in the field has proliferated. From a theoretical perspective, problematic smartphone use (PSPU) is described as a multi-faceted ... [more ▼]

Given the prominent role that smartphones have in everyday life, research in the field has proliferated. From a theoretical perspective, problematic smartphone use (PSPU) is described as a multi-faceted phenomenon entailing a variety of dysfunctional manifestations (e.g., addictive, antisocial and dangerous use). To date, however, there is still a lack of empirical evidence supporting the identification of PSPU as a potential behavioural addiction. Driven by theory, the aim of the present study was to provide an empirically validated model by testing the contribution of specific factors leading to PSPU. Relationships among individual characteristics (internalised psychopathology, impulsivity and personality traits) and PSPU uses (addictive, antisocial and dangerous) were investigated according to the updated version of the theoretical framework provided by the Pathway Model of problematic smartphone use (Billieux et al., 2015). An online survey was administered to a convenience sample (N = 511) of smartphone users in order to examine their daily engagement, problematic usage patterns and related psychological correlates. Path analysis revealed important information about different PSPU components and results are discussed in light of the available literature. Recommendations for future research are proposed to further investigate the problematic behaviour, including the study of additional variables, such as the fear of missing out (FoMO), nomophobia and excessive social media use. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use: Investigating contemporary experiences using a convergent design
Kuss, Daria J.; Harkin, Lydia; Kanjo, Eiman et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2018), 15

Internet-enabled smartphones are increasingly ubiquitous in the Western world. Research suggests a number of problems can result from mobile phone overuse, including dependence, dangerous and prohibited ... [more ▼]

Internet-enabled smartphones are increasingly ubiquitous in the Western world. Research suggests a number of problems can result from mobile phone overuse, including dependence, dangerous and prohibited use. For over a decade, this has been measured by the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPU-Q). Given the rapid developments in mobile technologies, changes of use patterns and possible problematic and addictive use, the aim of the present study was to investigate and validate an updated contemporary version of the PMPU-Q (PMPU-Q-R). A mixed methods convergent design was employed, including a psychometric survey (N = 512) alongside qualitative focus groups (N = 21), to elicit experiences and perceptions of problematic smartphone use. The results suggest the PMPU-Q-R factor structure can be updated to include smartphone dependence, dangerous driving, and antisocial smartphone use factors. Theories of problematic mobile phone use require consideration of the ubiquity and indispensability of smartphones in the present day and age, particularly regarding use whilst driving and in social interactions [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement Invariance of the Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) across Eight Languages
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Pontes, Halley M. et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2018), 15(6), 1213

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See detailTechnological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.
Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

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See detailSelf-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2017), 6(2), 168-177

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution of Internet addiction: A global perspective.
Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Addictive behaviors (2016), 53

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the ... [more ▼]

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the 'evolution of Internet addiction' featured very little European research, and did not consider the main international evidence that has contributed to our current knowledge about the conceptualization, epidemiology, etiology, and course of Internet-related disorders. This short commentary paper elaborates on important literature omitted by Young that the present authors believe may be of use to researchers. We also address statements made in Young's (2015) commentary that are incorrect (and therefore misleading) and not systematically substantiated by empirical evidence. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014).
Griffiths, Mark D.; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel et al

in Addiction (Abingdon, England) (2016), 111(1), 167-75

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See detailThe relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.
Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël UL; Griffiths, Mark D. et al

in Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2016), 30(2), 252-62

Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid ... [more ▼]

Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2016), 5(2), 351-6

Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. [less ▲]

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