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See detailShort- and long-term outcome of chronic pallidal neurostimulation in monogenic isolated dystonia
Bruggemann, N.; Kuhn, A.; Schneider, S. A. et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(9), 895-903

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum (GPi-DBS) is an established therapeutic option in treatment-refractory dystonia, and the identification of factors predicting surgical outcome ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum (GPi-DBS) is an established therapeutic option in treatment-refractory dystonia, and the identification of factors predicting surgical outcome is needed to optimize patient selection. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, GPi-DBS outcome of 8 patients with DYT6, 9 with DYT1, and 38 with isolated dystonia without known monogenic cause (non-DYT) was assessed at early (1-16 months) and late (22-92 months) follow-up using Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) scores. RESULTS: At early follow-up, mean reduction of dystonia severity was greater in patients with DYT1 (BFMDRS score: -60%) and non-DYT dystonia (-52%) than in patients with DYT6 dystonia (-32%; p = 0.046). Accordingly, the rate of responders was considerably lower in the latter group (57% vs >90%; p = 0.017). At late follow-up, however, GPi-DBS resulted in comparable improvement in all 3 groups (DYT6, -42%; DYT1, -44; non-DYT, -61%). Additional DBS of the same or another brain target was performed in 3 of 8 patients with DYT6 dystonia with varying results. Regardless of the genotype, patients with a shorter duration from onset of dystonia to surgery had better control of dystonia postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term GPi-DBS is effective in patients with DYT6, DYT1, and non-DYT dystonia. However, the effect of DBS appears to be less predictable in patients with DYT6, suggesting that pre-DBS genetic testing and counseling for known dystonia gene mutations may be indicated. GPi-DBS should probably be considered earlier in the disease course. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term GPi-DBS improves dystonia in patients with DYT1, DYT6, and non-DYT dystonia. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications.
Schuepbach, W. M. M.; Rau, J.; Knudsen, K. et al

in The New England journal of medicine (2013), 368(7), 610-22

BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation reduces motor disability and improves quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who have severe levodopa-induced motor complications. We ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation reduces motor disability and improves quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who have severe levodopa-induced motor complications. We hypothesized that neurostimulation would be beneficial at an earlier stage of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications (mean age, 52 years; mean duration of disease, 7.5 years) to undergo neurostimulation plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone. The primary end point was quality of life, as assessed with the use of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) summary index (with scores ranging from 0 to 100 and higher scores indicating worse function). Major secondary outcomes included parkinsonian motor disability, activities of daily living, levodopa-induced motor complications (as assessed with the use of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, parts III, II, and IV, respectively), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia. RESULTS: For the primary outcome of quality of life, the mean score for the neurostimulation group improved by 7.8 points, and that for the medical-therapy group worsened by 0.2 points (between-group difference in mean change from baseline to 2 years, 8.0 points; P=0.002). Neurostimulation was superior to medical therapy with respect to motor disability (P<0.001), activities of daily living (P<0.001), levodopa-induced motor complications (P<0.001), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia (P=0.01). Serious adverse events occurred in 54.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and in 44.1% of those in the medical-therapy group. Serious adverse events related to surgical implantation or the neurostimulation device occurred in 17.7% of patients. An expert panel confirmed that medical therapy was consistent with practice guidelines for 96.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and for 94.5% of those in the medical-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Subthalamic stimulation was superior to medical therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications. (Funded by the German Ministry of Research and others; EARLYSTIM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00354133.). [less ▲]

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See detailMyoclonus-dystonia: significance of large SGCE deletions.
Grünewald, Anne UL; Djarmati, A.; Lohmann-Hedrich, K. et al

in Human mutation (2008), 29(2), 331-2

Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in SGCE. We investigated the frequency and type of SGCE mutations with emphasis on gene dosage alterations and ... [more ▼]

Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in SGCE. We investigated the frequency and type of SGCE mutations with emphasis on gene dosage alterations and explored the associated phenotypes. We tested 35 M-D index patients by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing. Mutations were found in 26% (9/35) of the cases, all but three with definite M-D. Two heterozygous deletions of the entire SGCE gene and flanking DNA and a heterozygous deletion of exon 2 only were detected, accounting for 33% (3/9) of the mutations found. Both large deletions contained COL1A2 and were additionally associated with joint problems. Further, we discovered one novel small deletion (c.771_772delAT, p.C258X) and four recurrent point mutations (c.289C>T, p.R97X; c.304C>T, p.R102X; c.709C>T, p.R237X; c.1114C>T, p.R372X). A Medline search identified 22 articles on SGCE mutational screening. Sixty-four unrelated M-D patients were described with 41 different mutations. No genotype-phenotype association was found, except in patients with deletions encompassing additional genes. In conclusion, a rigorous clinical preselection of patients and careful accounting for non-motor signs should precede mutational tests. Gene dosage studies should be included in routine SGCE genetic testing. [less ▲]

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