References of "Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine 50002142"
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See detailTeachers’ assessments of students’ achievements: The ecological validity of studies using case vignettes
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Glock, Sabine et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (in press)

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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailComparing regression approaches in modelling (non-)compensatory judgement formation
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Studies in classification, data analysis and knowledge organization (in press)

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human ... [more ▼]

Applied research on judgment formation, e.g. in education, is interested in identifying the underlying judgment rules from empirical judgment data. Psychological theories and empirical results on human judgment formation support the assumption of compensatory strategies, e.g. (weighted) linear models, as well as non compensatory (heuristic) strategies as underlying judgment rules. Previous research repeatedly demonstrated that linear regression models well fitted empirical judgment data, leading to the conclusion that the underlying cognitive judgment rules were also linear and compensatory. This simulation study investigated whether a good fit of a linear regression model is a valid indicator of a compensatory cognitive judgment formation process. Simulated judgment data sets with underlying compensatory and noncompensatory judgment rules were generated to reflect typical judgment data from applied educational research. Results indicated that linear regression models well fitted even judgment data with underlying non compensatory judgment rules, thus impairing the validity of the fit of the linear model as an indicator of compensatory cognitive judgment processes. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ information processing and judgement accuracy: effects of information consistency and accountability
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2020), 35(3), 675-702

Research has shown that teachers are able to adapt their processing strategy of student information to situational demands, whereby they flexibly use either an automatic and category-based strategy or a ... [more ▼]

Research has shown that teachers are able to adapt their processing strategy of student information to situational demands, whereby they flexibly use either an automatic and category-based strategy or a controlled and information-integrating strategy. However, the effect of teachers’ accountability for task and the consistency of student information on strategy use is less clear. In two experimental studies, teachers were presented with consistent and inconsistent student profiles, whereby accountability levels were systematically varied. In the first study, the attention to and memory of information were investigated as indicators of changes in information processing strategy. In the second study, resulting changes in judgement accuracy were investigated. Results of study 1 provided support for the theoretical assumption that people apply the category-based strategy when confronted with consistent information under low accountability conditions, while inconsistent information and high accountability conditions led to the use of information-integration strategy. Results of study 2 showed that teachers’ judgement accuracy generally increased in relation to high accountability conditions and to lesser extent profile consistency, whereby inaccuracy reflected both under- and overestimation of student ability. The combined results suggest that the use of differential information processing strategies not only leads to differences in the attention to and processing of information, but also results in differences in the quality of judgements and decision making, especially under high accountability conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailÜbergangsentscheidungen in Luxemburg – Die Passung zwischen Leistungs- und Anforderungsniveau und deren Relation zum späteren Lernerfolg
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Lenz, Thomas; Baumann, Isabell; Küpper, Achim (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2018 (2018)

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See detailExplicit and implicit speaker evaluations and their differential attitudinal determinants
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language Sciences (2018), 69

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence ... [more ▼]

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence of explicit and implicit attitudes on controlled versus automatic evaluative responses have not been addressed in this domain thus far. In addition to separating attitudes toward languages from attitudes toward nationality, the aim of this study was to test whether explicit and implicit speaker evaluations refer to distinct concepts. We expected that explicit attitudes would be stronger predictors of deliberate speaker evaluations than implicit attitudes would. By contrast, we expected that automatic evaluations examined with an evaluative priming task would primarily reflect implicit attitudes. Results showed that explicit speaker evaluations were influenced by explicit attitudes toward nationality, whereas implicit evaluations were mainly predicted by implicit attitudes toward nationality. The crucial role of speaker’s nationality in speaker evaluation processes is further discussed within the framework of implicit group processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting inclusive education: The role of teacher’ attitudes and competence
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Markova, Mariya UL; Krischler, Mireille UL et al

in Insights on Learning Disabilities: from prevailing theories to validated practices (2018), 15(1), 49-63

Teachers are expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. However, teachers often feel ill prepared and hence may be apprehensive toward the inclusion of students with special ... [more ▼]

Teachers are expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous student population. However, teachers often feel ill prepared and hence may be apprehensive toward the inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) in regular classrooms. This paper concerns factors associated with the successful implementation of inclusive education. More specifically, it considers teacher characteristics that may facilitate -or hinder- the inclusion of students with SEN. The paper first discusses teacher competencies concerning the accommodation of students with SEN in regular classrooms, not only as a determinant of effective inclusive practice, but also in relation to teacher attitudes toward inclusive education. Second, we investigate to what extent teacher’ attitudes, both toward students with SEN and inclusive education, may affect teaching behaviors and (positive) action toward students with SEN. The paper further discusses (training) methods that could be applied to increase teacher competence and foster positive attitudes in an attempt to strive to a more equitable educational system. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers´ judgments and decision making: Studies concerning the transition from primary to secondary education and their implications for teacher education
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Toepper, M.; Pant, H.A. (Eds.) et al Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – Cross-national Comparisons and Perspectives (2018)

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ ... [more ▼]

Accuracy in assessing academic achievement and potential is a core component of teachers’ diagnostic competence. Large-scale studies in the Luxembourgish and German educational systems show that teachers’ secondary school track decisions are biased by a student’s social background. Therefore, biased assessment of students may contribute to the social inequalities observed in secondary schools in both countries. Within a social cognitive framework of dual-process theories, bias is explained by heuristic information processing, which, in contrast to information-integrating processing, relies on stereotype-based expectations to form judgments about students. A series of experimental studies investigated the information processing strategies of teachers, identifying a low accountability of the decision setting and a high consistency of student information as key moderators that promote stereotype-based information processing strategies in teachers’ school track decisions. Similar effects were shown for novice teachers at the beginning of their professional career. Further research evaluated intervention modules based on increased accountability, feedback, and increased knowledge about judgment formation processes. Results demonstrated that all evaluated intervention modules led to higher judgment accuracy and more information-integrating processing. Reviewing current models of teachers’ diagnostic competence, the findings on teachers’ information processing emphasized the need to include situational and process-oriented components into models of diagnostic competence. Beside a cognitive component – the ability to form accurate and unbiased judgments – diagnostic competence includes an adaptive choice of information processing strategies, depending on the accountability and information consistency of the judgment setting. Results on intervention modules gave insights how to increase diagnostic competence in teacher education programs. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage and nationality attitudes as distinct factors that influence speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit attitudes in Luxembourg
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language & Communication (2018), 61

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a ... [more ▼]

Many language attitude models have proposed that attitudes towards a speaker’s linguistic aspects have an influence on evaluations of that speaker. However, only a little attention has been paid to how a speaker’s nationality might affect speaker evaluations. We examined whether language and nationality attitudes, on both explicit and implicit levels, are distinct concepts, and whether these attitude types affect speaker evaluations. Findings confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of language and nationality attitudes, thus confirming their conceptual distinctness. Moreover, explicit language attitudes affected explicit speaker evaluations, a finding that is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed stereotype content and attitudes toward students with special educational needs and their inclusion in regular schools in Luxembourg
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2018), 75

Background: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion ... [more ▼]

Background: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion. Theoretical frameworks have suggested that stereotypes and attitudes elicit differential expectations and judgments, which in turn affect (social) behaviors. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the stereotypes and implicit attitudes held by a sample of Luxemburgish adults toward students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior. We also explored the adults’ explicit attitudes towards inclusion. Method and procedures: Participants (N=103) completed an evaluative priming task and rated students on the stereotype dimensions of warmth and competence. In addition, they completed the German version of The Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities questionnaire and provided demographic information. Outcomes and results: Results showed differential stereotype content with respect to students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior. Results further indicated that participants’ implicit attitudes toward both challenging behavior and learning difficulties were negative. By contrast, participants expressed positive attitudes towards inclusion. Conclusions and implications: The results of the current study contribute to the understanding of why some people accept, whereas others reject students with SEN. Understanding prevalent stereotypes and attitudes can inform the development of targeted interventions to promote and facilitate the social inclusion of students with SEN. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, September 04)

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g ... [more ▼]

Previous language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. Moreover, language is framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). In previous research, a conceptual overlap exist between the evaluations of languages, nationality groups, and individual speakers. Consequently, the distinction between language and nationality attitudes has not been addressed. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people hold two types of attitudes towards the same object, an explicit and an implicit attitude (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). Thus, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes affect speaker evaluations, both on an explicit and implicit level. Explicit assessments were examined with questionnaires and implicit assessments were measured with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Our study findings (N = 79) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages, revealed that implicit nationality attitudes significantly predicted implicit speaker evaluations such that a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This implicit in-group favoritism is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotypen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf: Überzeugungen von erfahrenen Lehrkräften, Lehramtsstudierenden und SchülerInnen
Krischler, Mireille UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und ... [more ▼]

„Stereotypen“ werden als sozial geteilte Meinungen über Verhaltensweisen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Mitgliedern einer bestimmten Gruppe verstanden. Stereotypen beeinflussen nicht nur unser Denken und Verhalten, sondern haben auch Auswirkungen darauf, wie unsere Mitmenschen über sich selber denken und sich dementsprechend verhalten (z.B. Pygmalion Effekt). Aus den stereotyp-basierten Erwartungen gegenüber SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf können Bildungsungleichheiten und eine reduzierte soziale Partizipation resultieren. Lehrerurteile können beispielsweise von Stereotypen geprägt sein und dementsprechend Bildungswege unangemessen beeinflussen. Ebenso können Schüler, geleitet von ihren stereotyp-basierten Überzeugungen, weniger bereit sein Freundschaften mit MitschülerInnen mit Förderbedarf einzugehen. Gemäss dem „Stereotyp Content Model“ (Fiske u.a., 2002) finden Einschätzungen von Aussengruppen entlang der Dimensionen „Wärme“ und „Kompetenz“ statt. Die „Wärme“ bestimmt dabei ob eine Person als negativ oder positiv wahrgenommen wird, wobei die „Kompetenz“ die Extremität dieses Eindrucks festlegt. Stereotypen sind verbunden mit differenziellen Emotionen. So werden z.B. warme Menschen mit niedriger Kompetenz als angenehm wahrgenommen. Ziel dieser Studie war die Ermittlung ob Überzeugungen über SchülerInnen mit Förderbedarf durch Stereotypen geprägt sind und diese je nach Förderbedarf variieren. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht ob Stereotypen zwischen den verschiedenen Akteuren in der Schule variieren (z.B. abhängig von professioneller Kompetenz). Lehrkräfte, Lehramtsstudierende und Schüler (N=103) bewerteten Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen und Lernschwierigkeiten anhand von Vignetten in den beiden Dimensionen „Wärme und „Kompetenz“. SchülerInnen sowie Lehramtsstudierende kategorisierten Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen beide als inkompetent. Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen wurden zusätzlich auch als relativ kalt eingeschätzt, während Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten eher als warm wahrgenommen wurden. Erfahrene Lehrkräfte dagegen, bewerteten die Schüler mit Lernschwierigkeiten als warm aber inkompetent und die Schüler mit Verhaltensproblemen in beiden Dimensionen neutral. Unsere Befunde sind im Einklang mit vorherigen Forschungsergebnissen die belegen, dass Stereotypen je nach Förderbedarf varieren. Da Stereotypen Urteile und Verhalten beeinflussen, deuten unsere Befunde darauf hin, dass sich die Interaktionen mit SchülerInnen mit Lernschwierigkeiten und Verhaltensproblemen voneinander unterscheiden. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotypes and attitudes towards students with special educational needs in relation to teachers´ attitudes towards inclusive education
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

Decisions concerning the educational instruction and pathways of students with special educational needs (SEN) may be affected by general stereotypes and associated teachers´ attitudes. Both stereotypes ... [more ▼]

Decisions concerning the educational instruction and pathways of students with special educational needs (SEN) may be affected by general stereotypes and associated teachers´ attitudes. Both stereotypes and attitudes affect judgments and behavior and hence may be pivotal for the success of inclusive education. More specifically, stereotypes and attitudes can elicit positive or negative expectations and judgments, which in turn can enhance or limit the successful inclusion of students with SEN in regular classrooms. The current study investigated stereotypes of and teachers´ implicit attitudes toward students with SEN in relation to teachers´ explicit attitudes towards inclusive education. Results show that teachers hold ambivalent views of students with learning difficulties (i.e. low competence, high warmth), whereas students with behavioral problems are perceived as neither particularly (in)competent nor warm. These stereotypes matched teachers´ implicit attitudes to the extent that implicit attitudes towards students with learning difficulties were more negative than towards students with behavioral problems. Although teachers expressed positive attitudes towards the benefits of inclusion they reported negative attitudes in regards to their ability to teach students with SEN. No associations were found between stereotypes and implicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes towards students with SEN were also not associated with explicit attitudes towards inclusive education. The warmth dimension of stereotype was however positively correlated with perceived ability to teach students with SEN. That is, perceived ability to successfully teach these students may rely on perceptions of these students´ alleged sociability. [less ▲]

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See detailIntervention strategies to improve the quality of teachers´ judgments: Changes in the accuracy of teachers´ transition decisions
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these transition decisions should be based on academic achievement, research has shown non-academic variables to influence decisions, leading to disadvantages for specific groups of students. Using an experimental pre-post design, we investigated the short and long term effects of accountability, theoretical knowledge and the application of prediction rules on teachers’ judgment accuracy, respectively. Pre-intervention data showed that although teachers’ decision accuracy was of high standard, decision accuracy for ethnic majority students was significantly higher than for ethnic minority students. Increased accountability resulted in increased decision accuracy, especially in regards to decisions for ethnic minority students. Similarly, the introduction of theoretical models of decision making and judgment formation and the application of prediction rules also resulted in an improvement of transition decisions but only for ethnic minority students. Unfortunately, the differential intervention effects of the intervention modules could not be maintained over time, that is, at follow up, the ethnicity bias reappeared. From these studies we can conclude that all three intervention modules can improve the accuracy of teachers’ transition decisions. In line with the intention of the interventions, the disproportionally high rate of decision errors for ethnic minority students observed pre-intervention was eliminated post-intervention and in line with error rates for ethnic majority students. However, training or instruction should be repeated briefly before making such judgments as their influence was not maintained over time. [less ▲]

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See detailWahrnehmung von Personen und ihren sozialen Räumen: Explizite versus implizite Verarbeitungsprozesse
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

Presentation (2017, July 07)

Ein Raum als primäres Medium der Architektur kann als ein soziokultureller Begegnungsort definiert werden, in dem verschiedene architektonische Konzepte auf den Menschen wirken (Günzel, 2010). Die soziale ... [more ▼]

Ein Raum als primäres Medium der Architektur kann als ein soziokultureller Begegnungsort definiert werden, in dem verschiedene architektonische Konzepte auf den Menschen wirken (Günzel, 2010). Die soziale Logik privater sowie öffentlicher Räume kann durch ihre individuelle Formen- und Strukturvielfalt als eigene Sprache wahrgenommen werden. Studien zur Wahrnehmung öffentlicher Plätze in der Stadt, im Büro, oder in medizinischen Einrichtungen haben allgemeine bauphysikalische Faktoren (z.B. Farben, Distanzen, Dimensionen) aufgedeckt, die einen Einfluss auf die Wahrnehmung sowie das Verhalten von Personen haben. Die Untersuchung des Einflusses menschlichen Verhaltens auf die Gestaltung und Wahrnehmung von Räumen stellt hingegen ein junges Forschungsfeld dar. Studien zur Erforschung der Wechselwirkung zwischen Mensch und Raum haben ergeben, dass ein Mensch mit seinen individuellen Erfahrungen ein aktiver Bestandteil von öffentlichen Plätzen ist und diese dadurch auch formt (z.B. Flade, 2008; Gehl & Svarre, 2013). Da bestimmte Plätze von verschiedenen Menschen (z.B. Studentenviertel, Geschäftsbezirk) geprägt sind, werden diese auch unterschiedlich wahrgenommen. In public space-life studies werden meistens explizite Erhebungsmethoden eingesetzt (z.B. systematische Beobachtung, Interviews), um mögliche Einflussfaktoren der Nutzung von öffentlichen Plätzen zu untersuchen. Da auch die individuellen Erfahrungen des Menschen einen Einfluss auf die Raumwahrnehmung und –nutzung haben können, scheint der Einsatz von impliziten Methoden eine vielversprechende Erweiterung. Implizite Methoden erheben automatische und oft unbewusste Reaktionen auf Stimuluskombinationen mittels computerbasierter Tests (z.B. Greenwald et al., 2000). Während explizite Verarbeitungsprozesse oftmals durch sozial erwünschte Vorstellungen beeinflusst sind, basieren implizite Prozesse auf individuell erlernten und somit automatischen Assoziationen zwischen bestimmten Konzepten und Valenzen (z.B. Greenwald et al., 2000). Unsere Beurteilungen und Verhaltenstendenzen sind sowohl durch explizite als auch implizite Prozesse geprägt (Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). In einer geplanten Studie in Luxemburg wird die Wahrnehmung des neuen Universitätscampus Belval durch eine Kombination von expliziten und impliziten Methoden untersucht. Das Ziel der Studie ist dabei die Untersuchung der Wahrnehmung von sozialen Räumen, welche sich durch das Vorhandensein oder die Abwesenheit von Personen unterscheiden. Die Ergebnisse der Gegenüberstellung expliziter und impliziter Wahrnehmungsprozesse können dabei wichtige Schlussfolgerungen für die Wirkung architektonischer Konzepte sowie vor allem die Wechselwirkung zwischen Mensch und Raum offenlegen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language and nationality attitudes on speaker evaluations: Explicit versus implicit information processing
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

Presentation (2017, May 03)

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra ... [more ▼]

In previous research, language attitude models assign a privileged status to language behavior as important factor that influence speaker evaluations. However, language behavior is always framed by extra-linguistic cues (e.g., speaker’s social group membership) that may affect evaluative outcomes (e.g., Myers-Scotton, 2006). Whereas most studies show a conceptual overlap between the evaluation of languages, national groups, and individual speakers, we examined whether language and nationality attitudes refer to distinct concepts that affect speaker evaluations. Moreover, dual-process theories argue that people make use of two types of strategies to process social objects, an explicit and an implicit processing strategy (e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). We transferred the explicit-implicit distinction to the field of language by examining implicit assessments with audio Implicit Association Tests and an affective priming task. Explicit assessments were measured with validated questionnaires. Our study findings (N = 82) in Luxembourg, a linguistically diverse country with three official languages (Luxembourgish, French, and German), revealed that explicit nationality attitudes had a significant influence on explicit speaker evaluations, while implicit nationality attitudes significantly affected implicit speaker evaluations. Hence, on implicit level, a stronger implicit preference for the Luxembourgish national group was associated with an increase in the preference for speakers of the Luxembourgish national group. This in-group favoritism as well as the importance of nationality attitudes as potent factor that influence speaker evaluations is discussed in the light of its implications for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Special Issue Current Methodological Issues in Educational Large-Scale Assessments - Part II
Stadler, Matthias UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Special Issue Current Methodological Issues in Educational Large-Scale Assessments – Part II (2017), 59

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