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See detailIntegrated STEAM Approach in Outdoor Trails with Elementary School Pre-service Teachers in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Journal of Educational Technology and Society (in press), 24(4),

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer ... [more ▼]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer term of 2019/2020. Therefore, we moved our on-campus STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) related courses to schooling at home. For their course examination, students designed outdoor trails in groups with the educational technology MathCityMap based on an integrated STEAM approach. Hence, they combined STEAM with real-world situations (e.g., monuments, marketplaces, playgrounds). The tasks within the trails required the use of technologies such as augmented reality (AR), digital modelling (e.g., GeoGebra 3D Graphing Calculator), and GPS. Analogue measuring tools (e.g., triangle ruler) were also used in the task designs. We collected data from 21 trails with 259 tasks from 49 pre-service teachers to analyse the effects on professional growth in STEAM education. Through hierarchical cluster analysis we identified three different clusters with patterns regarding STEAM in outdoor trails. This paper will describe a pedagogical framework for the integrated STEAM approach to designing and evaluating outdoor trails. Furthermore, we will explain patterns pre-service teachers developed during this professional development. [less ▲]

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See detailCase study on augmented reality, digital and physical modelling with mathematical learning disabilities students in an elementary school in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education (in press), 28(3),

This paper reports on a case study of two elementary school students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) (ages 10 and 11) using augmented reality (AR), digital and physical modelling in ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a case study of two elementary school students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) (ages 10 and 11) using augmented reality (AR), digital and physical modelling in mathematics class. MLD students worked on modelling geometric shapes (cubes, cuboids, squared pyramids, and octahedrons) and forms (polygons) by combining real-world objects with AR and creating a copy of geometric shapes or missing parts with a 3D printing device. The study focused on the development of process skills and mathematical concepts, tried to identify changes in the visual-spatial memory, and documented the learning behaviour in class. Further, we collected data through task-based interviews with both students. Based on our findings, we present settings and manipulatives which are likely to foster process skills and mathematical concepts in geometry tasks suitable for MLD elementary school students. [less ▲]

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See detailIterative STEAM design in primary grades and in pre-service teacher training
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detaileJMT Problem Corner: June 2021
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

in The Electronic Journal of Mathematics & Technology (2021)

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See detailFirst results of the iterative STEAM design process in 3D modelling and printing with pre-service teachers
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2021, May 28)

While we examined mathematical modelling of architectures with CAD software during the last years, we intended in our higher education courses in pre-service elementary school teachers' initial training ... [more ▼]

While we examined mathematical modelling of architectures with CAD software during the last years, we intended in our higher education courses in pre-service elementary school teachers' initial training to expand the complexity of the modelling tasks. In addition, our previous research results indicated a high difference between the quality and functionality of designs by students. Therefore, we investigated the design process in 3D modelling and printing. Based on the industrial iterative design process (e.g., design of a pen), we became aware of the importance of iterative process milestones, quality controls, discussions and peer evaluations. Therefore, we created a remote teaching course for pre-service teachers to design complex objects (e.g., functionality) and create learning settings and tasks based on an iterative design process concept. We will present the first results and reflections at this conference. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition from traditional to hybrid to online courses for pre-service elementary school teachers at the University of Luxembourg: STEAM integrated approach in the project MathEduc @ BScE
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben

Scientific Conference (2021, April 07)

During the past year, technology has started enabling new forms of teaching and learning in higher education in Luxemburg. Thus, to be able to work more closely with elementary school pre-service teachers ... [more ▼]

During the past year, technology has started enabling new forms of teaching and learning in higher education in Luxemburg. Thus, to be able to work more closely with elementary school pre-service teachers, we shifted our mathematics education course during the past years to flipped classroom approaches and worked with synchronous and asynchronous teaching on- and off-campus modes. Furthermore, due to the restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic, we decided to shift our teaching to entirely online flipped classroom approaches together with outdoor mathematical trails with STEAM integrated assessments. This final shift to a fully online flipped classroom, with self-paced, student-centred teachings and learnings, showed strong positive effects on pre-service elementary school teachers in mathematics teaching. In this presentation, we will outline results of this transition period and describe results from different studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe STEAM skilled child: How children can learn to apply STEAM skills to their living environment
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2021, April 01)

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See detailMixed-methods research in STEAM outdoor trails in elementary school pre-service teacher training
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2021, March 25)

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See detail3D Modelling in online learning for pre-service elementary school teachers at the University of Luxembourg
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2021, March 19)

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See detail3D modelling for pre-service primary school teachers in mathematics education
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben

Scientific Conference (2021, February 17)

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See detailMathEduc @ BScE
Kreis, Yves UL

Presentation (2021, January 14)

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See detailOutdoor STEAM integrated framework in elementary schools in Luxembourg using MathCityMap and GeoGebra 3D Calculator
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in ... [more ▼]

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) report that students need hands-on activities on real-world objects. Furthermore, in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, where numerous restrictions and risks dominate teaching inside the classroom, outdoor learning is safer and offers many opportunities. Hence, we created outdoor mathematical trails with a STEAM integrated approach for elementary schools using the free educational software MathCityMap and the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra 3D. In these outdoor trails, students used a set of promising technologies, i.e. AR (Augmented Reality) or GPS, to support STEAM education. Based on results from our first study on outdoor mathematical trails in June 2020 (in review), we developed and evaluated a framework on outdoor STEAM integrated teaching. This framework was used for further outdoor task and trail creations in elementary schools, which we investigated by conducting semi-structured interviews with students and teachers. Hence, we will present how this framework was used in elementary schools to create outdoor mathematical trails and describe how it affected the students' learning. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition from in-class to outdoor learning with real-world mathematical modelling: PhD research project 2015-2021
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Dana-Picard, Thierry (Noah) et al

Presentation (2020, December 10)

In this PhD outline, I will present highlights from my PhD research project on mathematical modelling with real-world information in the classroom, remote teaching and outdoor learning in Luxemburg ... [more ▼]

In this PhD outline, I will present highlights from my PhD research project on mathematical modelling with real-world information in the classroom, remote teaching and outdoor learning in Luxemburg. Through design-based explanatory studies, I investigated different technology enhanced tasks, learning and teaching settings that could likely engage students in understanding and transferring mathematical modelling to their living environments. The selected design-based research methodology and its characteristics, allowed to adapt task designs, settings and methods during my PhD research project. Hence, firstly, I investigated process skills learning (e.g.: mathematical modelling) with an automated tutoring system (the educational technology software MathemaTIC) within an international project. Although findings were promising, I redesigned my interventions to connect further students mathematical modelling learning to real-world information. Thus, secondly, I performed mathematical modelling tasks with augmented reality on real-world objects in remote teaching and in special needs educations. Utilising findings of these studies and a redesign of the intervention based on outdoor mathematical trails, thirdly, I undertook my final study. In pre-service teacher higher education, I explored outdoor mathematical modelling with an integrated STEAM (Science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) approach. With the aim of such holistic approach, I collected data on education-related perceptions from different stakeholders of elementary school education (students, parents, in-service, and pre service teachers) and developed conceptual frameworks on task creation, mathematical modelling, and stakeholders' roles. In my PhD research project, I aspired to contribute and explain how in-class learning and teaching could be connected and transferred to mathematical modelling within students living environments. Although there are many crucial moments, method choices and findings within these studies, in this report, I will offer highlights of my PhD work and results. [less ▲]

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See detailGeoGebraTAO: Geometry Learning using a Dynamic Adaptive ICT-Enhanced Environment to Promote String Differentiation of Children's Individual Pathways
Dording, Carole; Max, Charles Joseph UL; Kreis, Yves UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a ... [more ▼]

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse student population. 164 children of Luxembourg elementary schools, aged between 10 and 13 years, acted as test-group and explored elementary geometric concepts in a sequence of learning assignments, created with the dynamic mathematics system GeoGebra integrated into the computer-assisted testing framework TAO. They actively built new knowledge in an autonomous way and at their own pace with only minor support interventions of their teacher. Based on easily exploitable data, collected within a sequence of exploratory learning assignments, the GeoGebraTAO tool analyses the answers provided by the child and performs a diagnostic of the child’s competencies in geometry. With respect to this outcome, the tool manages to identify children struggling with geometry concepts and subsequently proposes a differentiated individual pathway through scaffolding and feedback practices. Short videoclips aim at helping the children to better understand any task in case of need and can be watched voluntarily. Furthermore, a spaced repetition feature is another highly useful component. Pre- and post-test results show that the test-group, working with GeoGebraTAO, and a parallel working control-group, following a traditional paper-and-pencil geometry course, increased their geometry skills and knowledge through the training program; the test-group performed even better in items related to dynamic geometry. In addition, a more precise analysis within clusters, based on similar performances in both pre- and post-tests and the child’s progress within GeoGebraTAO activities, provides evidence of some common ways of working with our dynamic geometry tool, leading to overall improvement at an individualized level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of augmented reality, digital and physical modelling in schooling at home in early childhood in Echternach
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Zsolt, Lavicza

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early ... [more ▼]

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early childhood (cycle 1), however, is not yet a common practice in elementary schools in Luxemburg. Participation in online video conferences or the use of educational technologies relied in early childhood in significant parts on the disponibility and skills of parents. Younger students were experiencing difficulties in following-up courses requests in schooling at home. From previous research (Haas et al., In Preparation), we designed a conceptual framework on parent assisted remote teaching. Hence, we used these findings to work with 12 early childhood students (ages 4-6), their teachers and parents in schooling at home. Based on the four basic principles of Dienes’s theory of mathematics in physical and digital modelling (Lieban, 2019), we created mathematical modelling tasks with TinkerCad. During two weeks, we collected data through chat responses, web meetings and observations. In this presentation, we will explain insights and how further tasks in schooling at home in early childhood could benefit from this experience. [less ▲]

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See detailReflections on our teaching activities in the initial teacher training during the COVID-19 crisis: From “onsite classes” to “schooling at home”
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Reuter, Robert UL et al

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis: Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

The COVID-19 public health crisis and the subsequent confinement induced a series of profound changes to teaching and learning in education all over the world (Lancker and Parolin 2020). Mid-March 2020 ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 public health crisis and the subsequent confinement induced a series of profound changes to teaching and learning in education all over the world (Lancker and Parolin 2020). Mid-March 2020, the University of Luxembourg also switched from on-campus classes to schooling at home for all courses. This transition was more or less smooth for the teaching staff and the students. In this paper, we present our reflections, as lecturers in the “Bachelor en Sciences de l’Éducation”, on how we adapted three courses and the internships, which could not happen as usual. We describe and discuss which aspects of our teaching approaches and the settings within which we have been working so far, might have contributed to a rather successful response to the current health crisis. The insights gained via these forced changes are discussed in terms of lessons learned for future instructional design decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailFostering process skills with the educational technology software MathemaTIC in elementary schools
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Donevska-Todorova, Ana; Faggiano, Eleonora; Trgalova, Jana (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 10th ERME TOPIC CONFERENCE (ETC10) on Mathematics Education in the Digital Age (MEDA) (2020, September 07)

This study reports the use of automated tutoring and scaffolding implemented in the module “arithmetic word problem” in the educational technology software MathemaTIC in grade 3 (age 8 to 10). We examined ... [more ▼]

This study reports the use of automated tutoring and scaffolding implemented in the module “arithmetic word problem” in the educational technology software MathemaTIC in grade 3 (age 8 to 10). We examined 246 students with access to MathemaTIC and receiving tutoring and scaffolding through a one-to-one learning setting with this technology. The control group (n=226) had access to the same learning tasks and worked with paper-and-pencil without MathemaTIC but with their teachers. Results showed that the experimental group finished with higher outcome scores than the control group. This paper will outline the study and attempts to explain these results. [less ▲]

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See detailSTEAM Education in elementary schools: A holistic investigation on technology enhanced teaching and learning
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Kreis, Yves UL

Scientific Conference (2020, July 03)

When we address the learning of mathematics in elementary school, we imagine pupils doing experiments, discoveries, and combining the different elements from arithmetics to geometry. Pupils interact with ... [more ▼]

When we address the learning of mathematics in elementary school, we imagine pupils doing experiments, discoveries, and combining the different elements from arithmetics to geometry. Pupils interact with their environment and try to use their learned skills to get a deeper understanding of the world. They engage in a mathematical thinking process and try to interact with their environment. However, when you visit a classroom, you find a rather old fashioned teaching based on a deductive approach where imitations of technics play an essential role. Based on our observations, pupils learn mainly through to repetitions in textbooks. Experimentation, if any, comes as additional work, it is seen as a ludic activity rather than as real learning activity. In our research, we inquired about different ways to engage pupils in an experimental approach. We used digital and physical modulation, augmented reality, and various educational technologies. In one of our first studies, we designed a tutoring system to foster process-related skills in mathematics within the educational software MathemaTIC . We collected data on pupils in assessments on transferring mathematical thinking from instructional technology to the everyday classroom teaching. In a second study, we worked with pupils from elementary schools, kindergarten, and from the special needs section to go beyond two-dimensional representations and discover how mathematics operates in three-dimensional settings. Pupils worked on designing software and three-dimensional printing. We collected data on how pupils and parents perceived the learning and teaching and how this influences the further thinking in mathematics. In a holistic approach, we aimed to identify how pupils, teachers and parents perceive the learning through these new technologies and how it affects the learning and teaching. Our research happened in onsite and remote teaching. In this conference, we will present results from the different studies, give insights into our research, and present future experimental investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailConnecting the real world to mathematical models in elementary schools in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (2020, July), 40(2), 1-6

In the Luxemburgish national curriculum for elementary schools (MENFP, 2011) experimentations and discoveries of mathematics concepts in courses are strongly recommended. Elementary school teachers should ... [more ▼]

In the Luxemburgish national curriculum for elementary schools (MENFP, 2011) experimentations and discoveries of mathematics concepts in courses are strongly recommended. Elementary school teachers should engage students in active mathematical modelling approaches, where they can develop processes and content skills through discoveries. Moreover, learned skills should be connected to real-world problems and situations to foster a better understanding of students’ living environments. Nevertheless, this teaching culture in mathematics is unusual in elementary schools and teachers tend to teach based on textbooks. Students mostly learn mathematics by imitation and repetition rather than through modelling mathematics with real-world problems and situations. Thus, to develop new methodologies in teaching mathematics and to meet the requirements of the national curriculum, we designed different technology-enhanced teaching and learning methods to engage students in experimental approaches within and outside classrooms. Moreover, we conducted three studies with digital and physical modelling, augmented reality, and a tutoring system in elementary school mathematics courses. Based on our collected data, we identified settings and tasks likely to support active mathematical modelling approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailSTEAM in special needs education in an elementary school in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Kreis, Yves UL

Scientific Conference (2020, June 25)

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