References of "Kratochvil, Miroslav 50039489"
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See detailInterrogating the effect of enzyme kinetics on metabolism using differentiable constraint-based models
Wilken, St Elmo; Besançon, Mathieu; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL et al

in Metabolic Engineering (2022)

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of ... [more ▼]

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of predictions to parameters. A corresponding theory for constraint-based models is lacking, due to their formulation as optimization problems. Here, we show that optimal solutions of optimization problems can be efficiently differentiated using constrained optimization duality and implicit differentiation. We use this to calculate the sensitivities of predicted reaction fluxes and enzyme concentrations to turnover numbers in an enzyme-constrained metabolic model of Escherichia coli. The sensitivities quantitatively identify rate limiting enzymes and are mathematically precise, unlike current finite difference based approaches used for sensitivity analysis. Further, efficient differentiation of constraint-based models unlocks the ability to use gradient information for parameter estimation. We demonstrate this by improving, genome-wide, the state-of-the-art turnover number estimates for E. coli. Finally, we show that this technique can be generalized to arbitrarily complex models. By differentiating the optimal solution of a model incorporating both thermodynamic and kinetic rate equations, the effect of metabolite concentrations on biomass growth can be elucidated. We benchmark these metabolite sensitivities against a large experimental gene knockdown study, and find good alignment between the predicted sensitivities and in vivo metabolome changes. In sum, we demonstrate several applications of differentiating optimal solutions of constraint-based metabolic models, and show how it connects to classic metabolic control analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslational Challenges of Biomedical Machine Learning Solutions in Clinical and Laboratory Settings
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Satagopam, Venkata UL et al

in Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (2022)

The ever increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in biomedical sciences calls for closer inter-disciplinary collaborations that transfer the domain knowledge from life scientists to ... [more ▼]

The ever increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in biomedical sciences calls for closer inter-disciplinary collaborations that transfer the domain knowledge from life scientists to computer science researchers and vice-versa. We highlight two general areas where the use of AI-based solutions designed for clinical and laboratory settings has proven problematic. These are used to demonstrate common sources of translational challenges that often stem from the differences in data interpretation between the clinical and research view, and the unmatched expectations and requirements on the result quality metrics. We outline how explicit interpretable inference reporting might be used as a guide to overcome such translational challenges. We conclude with several recommendations for safer translation of machine learning solutions into real-world settings. [less ▲]

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See detailGPU-Accelerated Mahalanobis-Average Hierarchical Clustering Analysis
Šmelko, Adam; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Kruliš, Martin et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2021, August), 12820

Hierarchical clustering is a common tool for simplification, exploration, and analysis of datasets in many areas of research. For data originating in flow cytometry, a specific variant of agglomerative ... [more ▼]

Hierarchical clustering is a common tool for simplification, exploration, and analysis of datasets in many areas of research. For data originating in flow cytometry, a specific variant of agglomerative clustering based Mahalanobis-average linkage has been shown to produce results better than the common linkages. However, the high complexity of computing the distance limits the applicability of the algorithm to datasets obtained from current equipment. We propose an optimized, GPU-accelerated open-source implementation of the Mahalanobis-average hierarchical clustering that improves the algorithm performance by over two orders of magnitude, thus allowing it to scale to the large datasets. We provide a detailed analysis of the optimizations and collected experimental results that are also portable to other hierarchical clustering algorithms; and demonstrate the use on realistic high-dimensional datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailCOBREXA.jl: constraint-based reconstruction and exascale analysis
Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Heirendt, Laurent UL; Wilken, St Elmo et al

in Bioinformatics (2021)

COBREXA.jl is a Julia package for scalable, high-performance constraint-based reconstruction and analysis of very large-scale biological models. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the integration of ... [more ▼]

COBREXA.jl is a Julia package for scalable, high-performance constraint-based reconstruction and analysis of very large-scale biological models. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the integration of modern high performance computing environments with the processing and analysis of large-scale metabolic models of challenging complexity. We report the architecture of the package, and demonstrate how the design promotes analysis scalability on several use-cases with multi-organism community models.https://doi.org/10.17881/ZKCR-BT30.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. [less ▲]

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See detailGigaSOM.jl: High-performance clustering and visualization of huge cytometry datasets
Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Hunewald, Oliver; Heirendt, Laurent UL et al

in GigaScience (2020), 9(11),

Background: The amount of data generated in large clinical and phenotyping studies that use single-cell cytometry is constantly growing. Recent technological advances allow the easy generation of data ... [more ▼]

Background: The amount of data generated in large clinical and phenotyping studies that use single-cell cytometry is constantly growing. Recent technological advances allow the easy generation of data with hundreds of millions of single-cell data points with >40 parameters, originating from thousands of individual samples. The analysis of that amount of high-dimensional data becomes demanding in both hardware and software of high-performance computational resources. Current software tools often do not scale to the datasets of such size; users are thus forced to downsample the data to bearable sizes, in turn losing accuracy and ability to detect many underlying complex phenomena. Results: We present GigaSOM.jl, a fast and scalable implementation of clustering and dimensionality reduction for flow and mass cytometry data. The implementation of GigaSOM.jl in the high-level and high-performance programming language Julia makes it accessible to the scientific community and allows for efficient handling and processing of datasets with billions of data points using distributed computing infrastructures. We describe the design of GigaSOM.jl, measure its performance and horizontal scaling capability, and showcase the functionality on a large dataset from a recent study. Conclusions: GigaSOM.jl facilitates the use of commonly available high-performance computing resources to process the largest available datasets within minutes, while producing results of the same quality as the current state-of-art software. Measurements indicate that the performance scales to much larger datasets. The example use on the data from a massive mouse phenotyping effort confirms the applicability of GigaSOM.jl to huge-scale studies. [less ▲]

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