References of "Krainc, Dimitri"
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See detailDopamine oxidation mediates mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
Burbulla, Lena F.; Song, Pingping; Mazzulli, Joseph R. et al

in Science (New York, N.Y.) (2017), 357(6357), 1255-1261

Mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction have been implicated in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), but how these pathways are linked in human neurons remains ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction have been implicated in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), but how these pathways are linked in human neurons remains unclear. Here we studied dopaminergic neurons derived from patients with idiopathic and familial PD. We identified a time-dependent pathological cascade beginning with mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to oxidized dopamine accumulation and ultimately resulting in reduced glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity, lysosomal dysfunction, and alpha-synuclein accumulation. This toxic cascade was observed in human, but not in mouse, PD neurons at least in part because of species-specific differences in dopamine metabolism. Increasing dopamine synthesis or alpha-synuclein amounts in mouse midbrain neurons recapitulated pathological phenotypes observed in human neurons. Thus, dopamine oxidation represents an important link between mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction in PD pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-dependent ubiquitination of endogenous Parkin attenuates mitophagy: study in human primary fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.
Rakovic, Aleksandar; Shurkewitsch, Katharina; Seibler, Philip et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2013), 288(4), 2223-37

Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive forms of familial Parkinson disease, with PINK1 ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive forms of familial Parkinson disease, with PINK1 functioning upstream of Parkin in a pathway important for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and morphology. Upon the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, Parkin translocates to mitochondria in a PINK1-dependent manner to ubiquitinate mitochondrial proteins. Parkin-mediated polyubiquitination of outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) proteins recruits the ubiquitin- and LC3-binding adaptor protein p62 to mitochondria and induces mitophagy. Although previous studies examined mitophagy in established cell lines through overexpression approaches, there is an imperative to study the role of endogenous Parkin and PINK1 in human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here, we demonstrate in human primary fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem-derived neurons from controls and PINK1 mutation carriers that endogenous levels of Parkin are not sufficient to initiate mitophagy upon loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caused by its (self-)ubiquitination, followed by degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Next, we showed differential PINK1-dependent, Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of OMM proteins, which is Parkin dose-dependent and affects primarily OMM proteins of higher molecular mass. In contrast to the situation fibroblasts, we did not detect mitophagy in induced pluripotent stem-derived neurons even upon overexpression of Parkin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitophagy differs between human non-neuronal and neuronal cells and between "endogenous" and "Parkin-overexpressing" cellular models. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Klionsky, Daniel J.; Abdalla, Fabio C.; Abeliovich, Hagai et al

in Autophagy (2012), 8(4), 445-544

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field ... [more ▼]

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. [less ▲]

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