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See detailPolygenic risk scores validated in patient-derived cells stratify for mitochondrial subtypes of Parkinson\textquoterights disease 2023.05.12.23289877
Arena, Giuseppe UL; Landoulsi, Zied UL; Grossmann, Dajana et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurodegenerative disorder, with affected individuals expected to double during the next 20 years. This raises the urgent need to better ... [more ▼]

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurodegenerative disorder, with affected individuals expected to double during the next 20 years. This raises the urgent need to better understand the genetic architecture and downstream cellular alterations underlying PD pathogenesis, in order to identify more focused therapeutic targets. While only ~10\% of PD cases can be clearly attributed to monogenic causes, there is mounting evidence that additional genetic factors could play a role in idiopathic PD (iPD). In particular, common variants with low to moderate effect size in multiple genes regulating key neuroprotective activities may act as risk factors for PD. In light of the well-established involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, we hypothesized that a fraction of iPD cases may harbour a pathogenic combination of common variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, ultimately resulting in neurodegeneration.Methods: To capture this mitochondria-related 'missing heritability', we leveraged on existing data from previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) i.e., the large PD GWAS from Nalls and colleagues. We then used computational approaches based on mitochondria-specific polygenic risk scores (mitoPRSs) for imputing the genotype data obtained from different iPD case-control datasets worldwide, including the Luxembourg Parkinson\textquoterights Study (412 iPD patients and 576 healthy controls) and the COURAGE-PD cohorts (7270 iPD cases and 6819 healthy controls).Results: Applying this approach to gene sets controlling mitochondrial pathways potentially relevant for neurodegeneration in PD, we demonstrated that common variants in genes regulating Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS-PRS) were significantly associated with a higher PD risk both in the Luxembourg Parkinson\textquoterights Study (odds ratio, OR=1.31[1.14-1.50], p=5.4e-04) and in COURAGE-PD (OR=1.23[1.18-1.27], p=1.5e-29). Functional analyses in primary skin fibroblasts and in the corresponding induced pluripotent stem cells-derived neuronal progenitor cells from Luxembourg Parkinson's Study iPD patients stratified according to the OXPHOS-PRS, revealed significant differences in mitochondrial respiration between high and low risk groups (p < 0.05). Finally, we also demonstrated that iPD patients with high OXPHOS-PRS have a significantly earlier age at disease onset compared to low-risk patients.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that OXPHOS-PRS may represent a promising strategy to stratify iPD patients into pathogenic subgroups in which the underlying neurodegeneration is due to a genetically defined mitochondrial burden potentially eligible for future, more tailored mitochondrially targeted treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide structural variant analysis identifies risk loci for non-Alzheimer’s dementias
Kaivola, Karri; Chia, Ruth; Ding, Jinhui et al

in Cell Genomics (2023)

We characterized the role of structural variants, a largely unexplored type of genetic variation, in two non-Alzheimer’s dementias, namely Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD ... [more ▼]

We characterized the role of structural variants, a largely unexplored type of genetic variation, in two non-Alzheimer’s dementias, namely Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To do this, we applied an advanced structural variant calling pipeline (GATK-SV) to short-read whole-genome sequence data from 5,213 European-ancestry cases and 4,132 controls. We discovered, replicated, and validated a deletion in TPCN1 as a novel risk locus for LBD and detected the known structural variants at the C9orf72 and MAPT loci as associated with FTD/ALS. We also identified rare pathogenic structural variants in both LBD and FTD/ALS. Finally, we assembled a catalog of structural variants that can be mined for new insights into the pathogenesis of these understudied forms of dementia. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate long-read sequencing identified GBA variants as a major genetic risk factor in the Luxembourg Parkinson\textquoterights study 2023.03.29.23287880
Peiris, Sinthuja UL; Landoulsi, Zied UL; Pavelka, Lukas UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Heterozygous variants in the glucocerebrosidase GBA gene are an increasingly recognized risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Due to the pseudogene GBAP1 that shares 96\% sequence homology with the ... [more ▼]

Heterozygous variants in the glucocerebrosidase GBA gene are an increasingly recognized risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Due to the pseudogene GBAP1 that shares 96\% sequence homology with the GBA coding region, accurate variant calling by array-based or short-read sequencing methods remains a major challenge in understanding the genetic landscape of GBA-related PD. We established a novel long-read sequencing technology for assessing the full length of the GBA gene. We used subsequent regression models for genotype-phenotype analyses. We sequenced 752 patients with parkinsonism and 806 healthy controls of the Luxembourg Parkinson's study. All GBA variants identified showed a 100% true positive rate by Sanger validation. We found 12% of unrelated PD patients carrying GBA variants. Three novel variants of unknown significance (VUS) were identified. Using a structure-based approach, we defined a potential risk prediction method for VUS. This study describes the full landscape of GBA-related parkinsonism in Luxembourg, showing a high prevalence of GBA variants as the major genetic risk for PD. Our approach provides an important advancement for highly accurate GBA variant calling, which is essential for providing access to emerging causative therapies for GBA carriers. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered infective competence of the human gut microbiome in COVID-19
de Nies, Laura; Galata, Valentina; Martin-Gallausiaux, Camille et al

in Microbiome (2023), 11(1), 46

BACKGROUND: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have a pronounced impact on the gastrointestinal tract and its resident microbiome. Clear differences between severe cases of infection and healthy individuals have ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have a pronounced impact on the gastrointestinal tract and its resident microbiome. Clear differences between severe cases of infection and healthy individuals have been reported, including the loss of commensal taxa. We aimed to understand if microbiome alterations including functional shifts are unique to severe cases or a common effect of COVID-19. We used high-resolution systematic multi-omic analyses to profile the gut microbiome in asymptomatic-to-moderate COVID-19 individuals compared to a control group. RESULTS: We found a striking increase in the overall abundance and expression of both virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in COVID-19. Importantly, these genes are encoded and expressed by commensal taxa from families such as Acidaminococcaceae and Erysipelatoclostridiaceae, which we found to be enriched in COVID-19-positive individuals. We also found an enrichment in the expression of a betaherpesvirus and rotavirus C genes in COVID-19-positive individuals compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified an altered and increased infective competence of the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients. Video Abstract. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of Shared Genetic Risk Factors Between Parkinson's Disease and Cancers
Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lucotte, Elise A.; Domenighetti, Cloé et al

in Movement Disorders (2023), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Background Epidemiological studies that examined the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and cancers led to inconsistent results, but they face a number of methodological difficulties ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Epidemiological studies that examined the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and cancers led to inconsistent results, but they face a number of methodological difficulties. Objective We used results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to study the genetic correlation between PD and different cancers to identify common genetic risk factors. Methods We used individual data for participants of European ancestry from the Courage-PD (Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson's Disease; PD, N = 16,519) and EPITHYR (differentiated thyroid cancer, N = 3527) consortia and summary statistics of GWASs from iPDGC (International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium; PD, N = 482,730), Melanoma Meta-Analysis Consortium (MMAC), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (breast cancer), the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (prostate cancer), International Lung Cancer Consortium (lung cancer), and Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (ovarian cancer) (N comprised between 36,017 and 228,951 for cancer GWASs). We estimated the genetic correlation between PD and cancers using linkage disequilibrium score regression. We studied the association between PD and polymorphisms associated with cancers, and vice versa, using cross-phenotypes polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses. Results We confirmed a previously reported positive genetic correlation of PD with melanoma (Gcorr = 0.16 [0.04; 0.28]) and reported an additional significant positive correlation of PD with prostate cancer (Gcorr = 0.11 [0.03; 0.19]). There was a significant inverse association between the PRS for ovarian cancer and PD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89 [0.84; 0.94]). Conversely, the PRS of PD was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.08 [1.06; 1.10]) and inversely associated with ovarian cancer (OR = 0.95 [0.91; 0.99]). The association between PD and ovarian cancer was mostly driven by rs183211 located in an intron of the NSF gene (17q21.31). Conclusions We show evidence in favor of a contribution of pleiotropic genes to the association between PD and specific cancers. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbracing Monogenic Parkinson's Disease: The MJFF Global Genetic PD Cohort
Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Schaake, Susen; Lohmann, Katja et al

in Movement Disorders (2023), 38(2), 286--303

BACKGROUND: As gene-targeted therapies are increasingly being developed for Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying and characterizing carriers of specific genetic pathogenic variants is imperative. Only a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: As gene-targeted therapies are increasingly being developed for Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying and characterizing carriers of specific genetic pathogenic variants is imperative. Only a small fraction of the estimated number of subjects with monogenic PD worldwide are currently represented in the literature and availability of clinical data and clinical trial-ready cohorts is limited. OBJECTIVE: The objectives are to (1) establish an international cohort of affected and unaffected individuals with PD-linked variants; (2) provide harmonized and quality-controlled clinical characterization data for each included individual; and (3) further promote collaboration of researchers in the field of monogenic PD. METHODS: We conducted a worldwide, systematic online survey to collect individual-level data on individuals with PD-linked variants in SNCA, LRRK2 VPS35, PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, as well as selected pathogenic and risk variants in GBA and corresponding demographic, clinical, and genetic data. All registered cases underwent thorough quality checks, and pathogenicity scoring of the variants and genotype-phenotype relationships were analyzed. RESULTS: We collected 3888 variant carriers for our analyses, reported by 92 centers (42 countries) worldwide. Of the included individuals 3185 had a diagnosis of PD (ie, 1306 LRRK2, 115 SNCA, 23 VPS35 429 PRKN, 75 PINK1, 13 DJ-1, and 1224 GBA) and 703 were unaffected (ie, 328 LRRK2, 32 SNCA, 3 VPS35, 1 PRKN, 1 PINK1, and 338 GBA). In total, we identified 269 different pathogenic variants; 1322 individuals in our cohort (34\%) were indicated as not previously published. CONCLUSIONS: Within the MJFF Global Genetic PD Study Group, we (1) established the largest international cohort of affected and unaffected individuals carrying PD-linked variants; (2) provide harmonized and quality-controlled clinical and genetic data for each included individual; (3) promote collaboration in the field of genetic PD with a view toward clinical and genetic stratification of patients for gene-targeted clinical trials. 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of two induced pluripotent stem cell lines and the corresponding isogenic controls from Parkinson's disease patients carrying the heterozygous mutations c.1290A > G (p.T351A) or c.2067A > G (p.T610A) in the RHOT1 gene encoding Miro1.
Chemla, Axel UL; Arena, Giuseppe UL; Saraiva, Claudia UL et al

in Stem cell research (2023), 69

Primary skin fibroblasts from two Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying distinct heterozygous mutations in the RHOT1 gene encoding Miro1, namely c.1290A > G (Miro1 p.T351A) and c.2067A > G (Miro1 p ... [more ▼]

Primary skin fibroblasts from two Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying distinct heterozygous mutations in the RHOT1 gene encoding Miro1, namely c.1290A > G (Miro1 p.T351A) and c.2067A > G (Miro1 p.T610A), were converted into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by episomal reprogramming. The corresponding isogenic gene-corrected lines have been generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization and quality assurance of both isogenic pairs, which will be used to study Miro1-related molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in iPSC-derived neuronal models (e.g., midbrain dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes). [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of two induced pluripotent stem cell lines and the corresponding isogenic controls from Parkinson’s disease patients carrying the heterozygous mutations c.815G>A (p.R272Q) or c.1348C>T (p.R450C) in the RHOT1 gene encoding Miro1
Chemla, Axel UL; Arena, Giuseppe UL; Onal, Gizem et al

in Stem Cell Research (2023)

Fibroblasts from two Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients carrying either the heterozygous mutation c.815G>A (Miro1 p.R272Q) or c.1348C>T (Miro1 p.R450C) in the RHOT1 gene, were converted into induced ... [more ▼]

Fibroblasts from two Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients carrying either the heterozygous mutation c.815G>A (Miro1 p.R272Q) or c.1348C>T (Miro1 p.R450C) in the RHOT1 gene, were converted into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using RNA-based and episomal reprogramming, respectively. The corresponding isogenic gene-corrected lines have been generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. These two isogenic pairs will be used to study Miro1-related molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in relevant iPSC-derived neuronal models (e.g., midbrain dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes). [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39-based functional mobility composite score (FMCS) in people with Parkinson's disease.
Hanff, Anne-Marie UL; McCrum, Christopher; Rauschenberger, Armin UL et al

in Parkinsonism & related disorders (2023), 112

INTRODUCTION: Functional mobility is an important outcome for people with Parkinson's disease (PwP). Despite this, there is no established patient-reported outcome measure that serves as a gold standard ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Functional mobility is an important outcome for people with Parkinson's disease (PwP). Despite this, there is no established patient-reported outcome measure that serves as a gold standard for assessing patient-reported functional mobility in PwP. We aimed to validate the algorithm calculating the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) based Functional Mobility Composite Score (FMCS). METHODS: We designed a count-based algorithm to measure patient-reported functional mobility in PwP from items of the PDQ-39 subscales mobility and activities of daily living. Convergent validity of the algorithm calculating the PDQ-39-based FMCS was assessed using the objective Timed Up and Go (n = 253) and discriminative validity was assessed by comparing the FMCS with patient-reported (MDS-UPDRS II) and clinician-assessed (MDS-UPDRS III) motor symptoms as well as between disease stages (H&Y) and PIGD phenotypes (n = 736). Participants were between 22 and 92 years old, with a disease duration from 0 to 32 years and 64.9% in a H&Y 1-2 ranging from 1 to 5. RESULTS: Spearman correlation coefficients (r(s)) ranging from -0.45 to -0.77 (p < 0.001) indicated convergent validity. Hence, a t-test suggested sufficient ability of the FMCS to discriminate (p < 0.001) between patient-reported and clinician-assessed motor symptoms. More specifically, FMCS was more strongly associated with patient-reported MDS-UPDRS II (r(s) = -0.77) than clinician-reported MDS-UPDRS III (r(s) = -0.45) and can discriminate between disease stages as between PIGD phenotypes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The FMCS is a valid composite score to assess functional mobility through patient reports in PwP for studying functional mobility in studies using the PDQ-39. [less ▲]

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See detailIntronic enhancers of the human SNCA gene predominantly regulate its expression in brain in vivo.
Cheng, Fubo; Zheng, Wenxu; Liu, Chang et al

in Science advances (2022), 8(47), 6324

Evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and our previously reported α-synuclein (SNCA) transgenic rat model support the idea that increased SNCA protein is a substantial risk factor of PD ... [more ▼]

Evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and our previously reported α-synuclein (SNCA) transgenic rat model support the idea that increased SNCA protein is a substantial risk factor of PD pathogenesis. However, little is known about the transcription control of the human SNCA gene in the brain in vivo. Here, we identified that the DYT6 gene product THAP1 (THAP domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein 1) and its interaction partner CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) act as transcription regulators of SNCA. THAP1 controls SNCA intronic enhancers' activities, while CTCF regulates its enhancer-promoter loop formation. The SNCA intronic enhancers present neurodevelopment-dependent activities and form enhancer clusters similar to "super-enhancers" in the brain, in which the PD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms are enriched. Deletion of the SNCA intronic enhancer clusters prevents the release of paused RNA polymerase II from its promoter and subsequently reduces its expression drastically in the brain, which may provide new therapeutic approaches to prevent its accumulation and thus related neurodegenerative diseases defined as synucleinopathies. [less ▲]

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See detailSMASCH: Facilitating multi-appointment scheduling in longitudinal clinical research studies and care programs
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Gawron, Piotr UL; Lebioda, Jacek et al

Poster (2022, September 20)

Longitudinal clinical research studies require conducting various assessments over long periods of time. Such assessments comprise numerous stages, requiring different resources defined by ... [more ▼]

Longitudinal clinical research studies require conducting various assessments over long periods of time. Such assessments comprise numerous stages, requiring different resources defined by multidisciplinary research staff and aligned with available infrastructure and equipment, altogether constrained by time. While it is possible to manage the allocation of resources manually, it is complex and error-prone. Efficient multi-appointment scheduling is essential to assist clinical teams, ensuring high participant retention and producing successful clinical studies, directly impacting patient throughput and satisfaction. We present Smart Scheduling (SMASCH) system [1], a web application for multi-appointment scheduling management aiming to reduce times, optimise resources and secure personal identifiable information. SMASCH facilitates clinical research and integrated care programs in Luxembourg, providing features to better manage multi-appointment scheduling problems (MASPs) characteristic of longitudinal clinical research studies and speed up management tasks. It is present in multiple clinical research and integrated care programs in Luxembourg since 2017, including Dementia Prevention Program, the study for Mild Cognitive Impairment and gut microbiome, and the National Centre of Excellence in Research on Parkinson’s disease [2] which encompasses the study for REM sleep behaviour disorder and the Luxembourg Parkinson’s Study. SMASCH is a free and open-source solution available both as a Linux package and Docker image. [less ▲]

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See detailNanoluciferase-based cell fusion assay for rapid and high-throughput assessment of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in patient samples.
Meyrath, Max; Szpakowska, Martyna UL; Plesseria, Jean-Marc et al

in Methods in enzymology (2022), 675

After more than two years, COVID-19 still represents a global health burden of unprecedented extent and assessing the degree of immunity of individuals against SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Virus ... [more ▼]

After more than two years, COVID-19 still represents a global health burden of unprecedented extent and assessing the degree of immunity of individuals against SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Virus neutralization assays represent the gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 in sera from recovered and/or vaccinated individuals. Neutralizing antibodies block the interaction of viral spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in vitro and prevent viral entry into host cells. Classical viral neutralization assays using full replication-competent viruses are restricted to specific biosafety level 3-certified laboratories, limiting their utility for routine and large-scale applications. We developed therefore a cell-fusion-based assay building on the interaction between viral spike and ACE2 receptor expressed on two different cell lines, substantially reducing biosafety risks associated with classical viral neutralization assays. This chapter describes this simple, sensitive, safe and cost-effective approach for rapid and high-throughput evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies relying on high-affinity NanoLuc® luciferase complementation technology (HiBiT). When applied to a variety of standards and patient samples, this method yields highly reproducible results in 96-well, as well as in 384-well format. The use of novel NanoLuc® substrates with increased signal stability like Nano-Glo® Endurazine™ furthermore allows for high flexibility in assay set-up and full automatization of all reading processes. Lastly, the assay is suitable to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of sera against the existing spike variants, and potentially variants that will emerge in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic stratification of motor and QoL outcomes in Parkinson's disease in the EARLYSTIM study
Weiss, Daniel; Landoulsi, Zied UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (2022)

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable ... [more ▼]

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable decisions is under investigation. Objective First, we aimed to reproduce the previous observation that SNCA rs356220 was associated with favourable STN-DBS motor response. In additional exploratory analyses, we studied if other PD risk and progression variants from the latest GWAS are associated with therapeutic outcome. Further, we evaluated the predictive value of polygenic risk scores. Methods We comprehensively genotyped patients from the EarlyStim cohort using NeuroChip, and assessed the clinico-genetic associations with longitudinal outcome parameters. Results The SNCA rs356220 variant did not predict UPDRS III outcomes. However, it was associated with quality of life improvement in secondary analyses. Several polymorphisms from previously identified GWAS hits predicted motor or quality of life outcomes in DBS patients. Polygenic risk scores did not predict any outcome parameter. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that different common genetic markers are associated with favourable quality of life outcomes of STN-DBS in PD. These findings can be the basis for further validation in larger and independent cohorts. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of SORL1 in Lewy Body Dementia Identifies No Significant Associations
Ray, Anindidta; Reho, Paolo; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior ... [more ▼]

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. LBD lies along a spectrum between Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and recent evidence suggests that the genetic architectures of these age-related syndromes are intersecting. In summary, we did not find a significant enrichment of rare, damaging SORL1 mutations in our well-powered LBD cohort. Our data set is, to our knowledge, the largest genome-sequence cohort in this understudied disease. Although it is possible that an association was missed due to allelic heterogeneity, our findings indicate that caution should be exercised when interpreting SORL1 mutations in LBD, as the current evidence does not conclusively support an association with disease risk. [less ▲]

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See detailAlpha synuclein determines ferroptosis sensitivity in dopaminergic neurons via modulation of ether-phospholipid membrane composition.
Mahoney-Sanchez, Laura; Bouchaoui, Hind; Boussaad, Ibrahim UL et al

in Cell reports (2022), 40(8), 111231

There is a continued unmet need for treatments that can slow Parkinson's disease progression due to the lack of understanding behind the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Since its ... [more ▼]

There is a continued unmet need for treatments that can slow Parkinson's disease progression due to the lack of understanding behind the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Since its discovery, ferroptosis has been implicated in several diseases and represents a therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Here, we use two highly relevant human dopaminergic neuronal models to show that endogenous levels of α-synuclein can determine the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to ferroptosis. We show that reducing α-synuclein expression in dopaminergic neurons leads to ferroptosis evasion, while elevated α-synuclein expression in patients' small-molecule-derived neuronal precursor cells with SNCA triplication causes an increased vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Lipid profiling reveals that ferroptosis resistance is due to a reduction in ether-linked phospholipids, required for ferroptosis, in neurons depleted of α-synuclein (α-syn). These results provide a molecular mechanism linking α-syn levels to the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to ferroptosis, suggesting potential therapeutic relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly-to-mid idiopathic Parkinson’s disease shows a more cytotoxic but declined CD8-regulatory peripheral immune profile
Capelle, Christophe; Cire, Séverine; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been systematically investigated. Here we analyzed >700 combinatorial immunological features in fresh blood of 28 early-to-mid-stage PD patients and 24 matched controls. We found an enhanced cytotoxic immune profile in idiopathic PD patients (iPD), with a higher frequency of terminally-differentiated effector CD8 T (TEMRA), late-differentiated CD8+ natural killer T cells and neutrophils. This immune profile was intensified by elevated serum granzyme A, reduced percentages of CD8+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells with immunosuppressive or tolerance-inducing functions. The frequency of CD8 TEMRA was negatively correlated with disease duration, suggesting a contribution to PD pathogenesis. Our work provides a comprehensive map on disturbed peripheral adaptive and innate immune cells in early-to-mid iPD, proposing easily-accessible candidates for early diagnosis and treatments. [less ▲]

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