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See detailAsymptotic Analysis of Max-Min Weighted SINR for IRS-Assisted MISO Systems with Hardware Impairments
Papazafeiropoulo, Anastasios; Pan, Cunhua; Elbir, Ahmet et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (in press)

We focus on the realistic maximization of the up-link minimum-signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a general multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system assisted by an intelligent reflecting ... [more ▼]

We focus on the realistic maximization of the up-link minimum-signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a general multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system assisted by an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the large system limit accounting for HIs. In particular, we introduce the HIs at both the IRS (IRS-HIs) and the transceiver HIs (AT-HIs), usually neglected despite their inevitable impact. Specifically, the deterministic equivalent analysis enables the derivation of the asymptotic weighted maximum-minimum SINR with HIs by jointly optimizing the HIs-aware receiver, the transmit power, and the reflect beamforming matrix (RBM). Notably, we obtain the optimal power allocation and reflect beamforming matrix with low overhead instead of their frequent necessary computation in conventional MIMO systems based on the instantaneous channel information. Monte Carlo simulations verify the analytical results which show the insightful interplay among the key parameters and the degradation of the performance due to HIs. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the assessment of realistic hybrid precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems with hardware impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K; Papageorgiou, Georgios K; Kolawole, Oluwatayo Y et al

in IET Communications (2021), 15(12), 1606-1619

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the ... [more ▼]

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the impact of the inevitable residual transceiver hardware impairments (RTHIs), including the residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and the amplified thermal noise (ATN), has not been sufficiently studied in mmWave hybrid processing. In this work, the hybrid precoder and combiner are designed, which include both digital and analog processing by taking into account the RATHIs and the ATN. In particular, a thorough study is provided to shed light on the degradation of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the practical system. The outcomes show the steady degradation of the performance by the ATN across all SNR values, which becomes increasingly critical for higher values of its variance. Furthermore, it is shown that RATHIs result in degradation of the system only in the high SNR regime. Hence, their impact in mmWave system operating at low SNRs might be negligible. Moreover, an increase concerning the number of streams differentiates the impact between the transmit and receive RATHIs with the latter having a more severe effect. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Optimal Energy Efficiency in Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems
Papazafeiropoulos, A.; Ngo, H.Q.; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021), 5(2), 816-831

Motivated by the ever-growing demand for green wireless communications and the advantages of cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems, we focus on the design of their downlink ... [more ▼]

Motivated by the ever-growing demand for green wireless communications and the advantages of cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems, we focus on the design of their downlink (DL) for optimal energy efficiency (EE). To address this fundamental topic, we assume that each access point (AP) is deployed with multiple antennas and serves multiple users on the same time-frequency resource while the APs are Poisson point process (PPP) distributed, which approaches realistically their opportunistic spatial randomness. Relied on tools from stochastic geometry, we derive a lower bound on the DL average achievable spectral efficiency (SE). Next, we consider a realistic power consumption model for CF mMIMO systems. These steps enable the formulation of a tractable optimization problem concerning the DL EE, which results in the analytical determination of the optimal pilot reuse factor, the AP density, and the number of AP antennas and users that maximize the EE. Hence, we provide useful design guidelines for CF mMIMO systems relating to fundamental system variables towards optimal EE. Among the results, we observe that an optimal pilot reuse factor and AP density exist, while larger values result in an increase of the interference, and subsequently, lower EE. Overall, it is shown that the CF mMIMO technology is a promising candidate for next-generation networks achieving simultaneously high SE and EE. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Optimal Energy Efficiency in Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Ngo, Hien Quoc; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021), 5(2), 816-831

Motivated by the ever-growing demand for green wireless communications and the advantages of cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems, we focus on the design of their downlink ... [more ▼]

Motivated by the ever-growing demand for green wireless communications and the advantages of cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems, we focus on the design of their downlink (DL) for optimal energy efficiency (EE). To address this fundamental topic, we assume that each access point (AP) is deployed with multiple antennas and serves multiple users on the same time-frequency resource while the APs are Poisson point process (PPP) distributed, which approaches realistically their opportunistic spatial randomness. Relied on tools from stochastic geometry, we derive a lower bound on the DL average achievable spectral efficiency (SE). Next, we consider a realistic power consumption model for CF mMIMO systems. These steps enable the formulation of a tractable optimization problem concerning the DL EE, which results in the analytical determination of the optimal pilot reuse factor, the AP density, and the number of AP antennas and users that maximize the EE. Hence, we provide useful design guidelines for CF mMIMO systems relating to fundamental system variables towards optimal EE. Among the results, we observe that an optimal pilot reuse factor and AP density exist, while larger values result in an increase of the interference, and subsequently, lower EE. Overall, it is shown that the CF mMIMO technology is a promising candidate for next-generation networks achieving simultaneously high SE and EE. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Reflecting Surface-assisted MU-MISO Systems with Imperfect Hardware: Channel Estimation and Beamforming Design
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Pan, Cunhua; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

Poster (2021)

Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), consisting of lowcost passive elements, is a promising technology for improving the spectral and energy efficiency of the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond networks ... [more ▼]

Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), consisting of lowcost passive elements, is a promising technology for improving the spectral and energy efficiency of the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond networks. It is also noteworthy that an IRS can shape the reflected signal propagation. Most works in IRSassisted systems have ignored the impact of the inevitable residual hardware impairments (HWIs) at both the transceiver hardware and the IRS while any relevant works have addressed only simple scenarios, e.g., with single-antenna network nodes and/or without taking the randomness of phase noise at the IRS into account. In this work, we aim at filling up this gap by considering a general IRS-assisted multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) system with imperfect channel state information (CSI) and correlated Rayleigh fading. In parallel, we present a general computationally efficient methodology for IRS reflect beamforming (RB) optimization. Specifically, we introduce an advantageous channel estimation (CE) method for such systems accounting for the HWIs. Moreover, we derive the uplink achievable spectral efficiency (SE) with maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiver, displaying three significant advantages being: 1) its closed-form expression, 2) its dependence only on large-scale statistics, and 3) its low training overhead. Notably, by exploiting the first two benefits, we achieve to perform optimization with respect to the that can take place only at every several coherence intervals, and thus, reduces significantly the computational cost compared to other methods which require frequent phase optimization. Among the insightful observations, we highlight that uncorrelated Rayleigh fading does not allow optimization of the SE, which makes the application of an IRS ineffective. Also, in the case that the phase drifts, describing the distortion of the phases in the RBM, are uniformly distributed, the presence of an IRS provides no advantage. The analytical results outperform previous works and are verified by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipair Two-Way DF Relaying with Cell-Free Massive MIMO
PAPAZAFEIROPOULOS, ANASTASIOS K.; KOURTESSIS, PANDELIS; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), 2

We consider a two-way half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relaying system with multiple pairs of single-antenna users assisted by a cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO ... [more ▼]

We consider a two-way half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relaying system with multiple pairs of single-antenna users assisted by a cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) architecture with multiple-antenna access points (APs). Under the practical constraint of imperfect channel state information (CSI), we derive the achievable sum spectral efficiency (SE) for a finite number of APs with maximum ratio (MR) linear processing for both reception and transmission in closed-form. Notably, the proposed CF mMIMO relaying architecture, exploiting the spatial diversity, and providing better coverage, outperforms the conventional collocated mMIMO deployment. Moreover, we shed light on the power-scaling laws maintaining a specific SE as the number of APs grows. A thorough examination of the interplay between the transmit powers per pilot symbol and user/APs takes place, and useful conclusions are extracted. Finally, differently to the common approach for power control in CF mMIMO systems, we design a power allocation scheme maximizing the sum SE. [less ▲]

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See detailCoverage Probability of Distributed IRS Systems Under Spatially Correlated Channels
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Pan, Cunhua; Elbir, Ahmet et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021)

This paper suggests the use of multiple distributed intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) towards a smarter control of the propagation environment. Notably, we also take into account the inevitable ... [more ▼]

This paper suggests the use of multiple distributed intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) towards a smarter control of the propagation environment. Notably, we also take into account the inevitable correlated Rayleigh fading in IRS-assisted systems. In particular, in a single-input and single-output (SISO) system, we consider and compare two insightful scenarios, namely, a finite number of large IRSs and a large number of finite size IRSs to show which implementation method is more advantageous. In this direction, we derive the coverage probability in closed-form for both cases contingent on statistical channel state information (CSI) by using the deterministic equivalent (DE) analysis. Next, we obtain the optimal coverage probability. Among others, numerical results reveal that the addition of more surfaces outperforms the design scheme of adding more elements per surface. Moreover, in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh fading, statistical CSI-based IRS systems do not allow the optimization of the coverage probability. [less ▲]

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See detailCoverage Probability of Double-IRS Assisted Communication Systems
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(8), 1722-1726

In this paper, we derive the coverage probability of a double-intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted wireless network and study the impact of multiplicative beamforming gain and correlated Rayleigh ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we derive the coverage probability of a double-intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted wireless network and study the impact of multiplicative beamforming gain and correlated Rayleigh fading. In particular, we derive a novel closed-form expression of the coverage probability of a single-input single-output (SISO) system assisted by two large IRSs while being dependent on the corresponding arbitrary reflecting beamforming matrices (RBMs) and large-scale statistics in terms of correlation matrices. Taking advantage of th large-scale statistics, we achieve to perform optimization of the RBM of both IRSs at every several coherence intervals rather at each interval. This property, based on statistical channel state information (CSI), is of paramount importance in multi-IRS assisted networks, which are accompanied with increased computational complexity during their RBM optimization. Numerical results validate the tightness of the analytical results even for small IRSs and reveal insightful properties. [less ▲]

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See detailScalable Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems: Impact of Hardware Impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Björnson, Emil; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(10), 9701-9715

Scalable cell-free CF (SCF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) systems is a promising technology to cover the demands for higher data rates and increasing number of users in fifth generation ... [more ▼]

Scalable cell-free CF (SCF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) systems is a promising technology to cover the demands for higher data rates and increasing number of users in fifth generation (5G) networks and beyond. According to this concept, a large number of distributed access points (APs) communicates with the users in the network by means of joint coherent transmission while facing the main challenges against standard CF mMIMO systems being their high fronthaul load and computational complexity. Given that the cost-efficient deployment of such large networks requires low-cost transceivers being prone to unavoidable hardware imperfections, in this work, we focus on their impact on the advantageous SCF mMIMO systems by means of a general model accounting for both additive and multiplicative hardware impairments (HWIs). Notably, the scalability, depending on the time-variant characteristics of the network, is clearly affected by means of HWIs being time-varying. There is no other work in the literature studying the phase noise (PN) in CF mMIMO systems or in general any HWIs in SCF mMIMO systems. Hence, we derive upper and lower bounds on the uplink capacity accounting for HWIs. Especially, the lower bound is derived in closed-form by means of the theory of deterministic equivalents (DEs) and after obtaining the optimal hardware-aware (HA) partial minimum mean-squared error (PMMSE) combiner. Among the interesting findings, we observe that separate local oscillators (SLOs) outperform a common LO (CLO) architecture, and the additive transmit distortion degrades more the performance than the receive distortion. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Channel Learning For Large Intelligent Surfaces Aided mm-Wave Massive MIMO Systems
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2020), 9(Sept. 2020), 1447-1451

This letter presents the first work introducing a deep learning (DL) framework for channel estimation in large intelligent surface (LIS) assisted massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems. A ... [more ▼]

This letter presents the first work introducing a deep learning (DL) framework for channel estimation in large intelligent surface (LIS) assisted massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems. A twin convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture is designed and it is fed with the received pilot signals to estimate both direct and cascaded channels. In a multi-user scenario, each user has access to the CNN to estimate its own channel. The performance of the proposed DL approach is evaluated and compared with state-of-the-art DL-based techniques and its superior performance is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis of Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems: A Stochastic Geometry Approach
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Di Renzo, Marco et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2020)

Cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) has emerged as an alternative deployment for conventional cellular massive MIMO networks. As revealed by its name, this topology considers no ... [more ▼]

Cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) has emerged as an alternative deployment for conventional cellular massive MIMO networks. As revealed by its name, this topology considers no cells, while a large number of multi-antenna access points (APs) serves simultaneously a smaller number of users over the same time/frequency resources through time-division duplex (TDD) operation. Prior works relied on the strong assumption (quite idealized) that the APs are uniformly distributed, and actually, this randomness was considered during the simulation and not in the analysis. However, in practice, ongoing and future networks become denser and increasingly irregular. Having this in mind, we consider that the AP locations are modeled by means of a Poisson point process (PPP) which is a more realistic model for the spatial randomness than a grid or uniform deployment. In particular, by virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we derive both the downlink coverage probability and achievable rate. Notably, this is the only work providing the coverage probability and shedding light on this aspect of CF massive MIMO systems. Focusing on the extraction of interesting insights, we consider small-cells (SCs) as a benchmark for comparison. Among the findings, CF massive MIMO systems achieve both higher coverage and rate with comparison to SCs due to the properties of favorable propagation, channel hardening, and interference suppression. Especially, we showed for both architectures that increasing the AP density results in a higher coverage which saturates after a certain value and increasing the number of users decreases the achievable rate but CF massive MIMO systems take advantage of the aforementioned properties, and thus, outperform SCs. In general, the performance gap between CF massive MIMO systems and SCs is enhanced by increasing the AP density. Another interesting observation concerns that a higher path-loss exponent decreases the rate while the users closer to the APs affect more the performance in terms of the rate. [less ▲]

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