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See detailMomentary Subjective Age is Associated with Perceived and Physiological Stress in the Daily Lives of Old and Very Old Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Psychology and Aging (in press)

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated stress covaries with older subjective age. However, it is an open question whether such links can also be observed at the momentary level within a given day and go beyond self-reports of stress. Moving ahead, we investigated how two indicators of stress (self-reported: perceived stress; physiological: salivary cortisol) are associated with the age people feel on a momentary basis. We examined data from 118 older (Mage = 66.67 years) and 36 very old adults (Mage = 85.92 years) who reported their momentary subjective age and perceived stress and also provided saliva samples up to seven times a day over seven consecutive days. Dynamic structural equation models showed that both higher momentary perceived stress and higher cortisol levels preceding the measurement predicted an older momentary subjective age. In contrast, subjective age at the previous measurement did not predict subsequent stress. These effects were moderated by participant age group and grip strength, albeit not consistently. Our results corroborate and extend earlier findings that both self-reported and physiological stress are important explanatory variables for people’s subjective age variation even on relatively short time scales, and shed light on differential time-ordered dynamics between stress and subjective age in daily life. Findings also inform theoretical models of subjective age that highlight the importance of contextual, momentary influences on how old people feel and help better understand how biological and psychological processes are intertwined in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Studies on Subjective Views of Aging: Overview, Challenges, and Future Directions
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Diehl, Manfred; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit (Eds.) Subjective Views of Aging: Theory, Research, and Practice (in press)

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from ... [more ▼]

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from longitudinal studies, research on VoA has also been strongly experimental since its inception. Our chapter aims to provide an overview about the major lines of prior experimental research on VoA and by this means derive its role for present and future VoA research overall. We first offer an organizing scheme for the existing body of experimental work on VoA. We arrive at the conclusion that previous experimental research on VoA with older adults has been conducted in a broad range of studies with different dependent variables and experimental manipulations, showing the importance of VoA and their impact on a wide range on phenomena. We then go into more detail of VoA research that has been done in the past decade. Here, our conclusion is that recent experimental research on VoA is taking up societal challenges, such as the aging workforce, older people in the health care system, and stereotype threat elicited by digital technologies. At the same time, current VoA research is adding to the differentiation of established effects in the prior literature as well as helped to identify moderating and contextual conditions not considered previously. We end with a set of recommendations for future experimental VoA research including strengthening the needed liaison with other research formats. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Corona Pandemic and Its Implications for the Mental Health and Mental Healthcare of Older Adults
Albert, Isabelle UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2022), 35(1),

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See detailViews on Aging – Current Trends and Future Directions for Cross- Cultural Research
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; De Paula Couto, Clara M. P.; Rothermund, Klaus

in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (2022), 6(2),

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their ... [more ▼]

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their understanding through cross-cultural research is of utmost importance. In the current review, we address the role of socio-ecological variables and cultural values and beliefs when investigating country differences in what people think about older persons and getting old themselves. Several complexities are introduced in terms of a differentiated conceptualization of views on aging that takes life domains and normative prescriptions into account, and also in terms of a differentiated and extended view on the factors through which societal and cultural aspects and views on aging mutually influence each other. We propose that an encompassing, lifespan framework on views on aging enhances our understanding of aging well in different cultural and societal contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailA chip off the old block? The relationship of family factors and young adults’ views on aging.
Hoffmann, Cathy UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022), 13:808386

Views on aging (VoA), such as self-perceptions of aging or age stereotypes are generated in early childhood and continue to develop throughout the entire lifespan. The ideas a person has about their own ... [more ▼]

Views on aging (VoA), such as self-perceptions of aging or age stereotypes are generated in early childhood and continue to develop throughout the entire lifespan. The ideas a person has about their own aging and aging in general influence their behavior towards older persons as well as their own actual aging, which is why VoA are already important in adolescence and young adulthood. The current study investigates VoA of young adults in different domains (continued growth, physical losses, social losses) and how different family aspects are related to VoA. From February to March 2021, N = 305 young adults [aged 18 - 30 years, Mage(SD) = 22.20(2.60)] participated in an online survey, in which, in addition to sociodemographic variables and family aspects (contact with grandparents, family age climate, i.e. the frequency and valence of talking about age in the family), self-perceptions of aging, age stereotypes, and the young adults’ ratings of their parents' VoA were assessed. The results of stepwise regression analyses predicting the young adults’ VoA, revealed significant associations between the quality of contact with grandparents and the self-perceptions of aging of young adults. However, the frequency of contact was neither related to young adults’ self-perceptions of aging nor age stereotypes. Grandparents' health status emerged as a significant moderator between the relationship of contact quality and the young adults’ self-perceptions of aging as continued growth and physical decline. Family climate was also found to be significantly related to young adults' self-perceptions of aging and age stereotypes. Similarities regarding VoA within the family were demonstrated, based on proxy report from the respondents. The results underline the importance of family aspects for the development of VoA in young adulthood, and the significance of interventions targeting these factors to combat ageism. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonality and Subjective Age: Evidence from Six Samples
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Psychology and Aging (2022), 37(3), 401-412

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age ... [more ▼]

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age. Participants (N > 31,000) were from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the National Health and Aging Study (NHATS), the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate (WLSG) and Siblings (WLSS) samples, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Demographic factors, personality traits, and subjective age were assessed at baseline. Subjective age was assessed again in the MIDUS, the HRS, and the NHATS, 4 to almost 20 years later. Across the samples and a meta-analysis, higher neuroticism was related to an older subjective age, whereas higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with a younger subjective age. Self-rated health, physical activity, chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms partially mediated these relationships. There was little evidence that chronological age moderated these associations. Multilevel longitudinal analyses found similar associations with the intercept and weak evidence for an association with the slope in the opposite of the expected direction: Lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to feeling relatively older over time. The present study provides replicable evidence that personality is related to subjective age. It extends existing conceptualization of subjective age as a biopsychosocial marker of aging by showing that how old or young individuals feel partly reflects personality traits. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Relationship Between Subjective Age and Worry for Older Adults in Times of a Pandemic
Tingvold, Maiken UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 593-593

Given the role of age as a risk factor in the covid pandemic, we examined the longitudinal cross-lagged relationship between subjective age and Covid-related worry, and possible moderators of this ... [more ▼]

Given the role of age as a risk factor in the covid pandemic, we examined the longitudinal cross-lagged relationship between subjective age and Covid-related worry, and possible moderators of this relationship. Data were obtained at two-time points (June and October 2020) by a phone/online survey, from N = 611 older participants (Mage = 69.92 years). Participants felt on average 10 and 8.5 years younger than their chronological ages at the two-time points, respectively. Younger subjective age at T1 increased the level of worry at T2 irrespective of age, perceived control and subjective health. Higher worry increased subjective age at T2, but only for those with worse subjective health. Our results show that subjective age and Covid-related worry interact over time. This relation needs to be explored further in order to understand the relationship between subjective age and well-being especially, but not only in the pandemic context. [less ▲]

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See detail“I Felt so Old This Morning.” Short-Term Variations in Subjective Age and the Role of Trait Subjective Age: Evidence from the ILSE/EMIL Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(3), 373-382

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept in previous research, recent studies employing experimental designs and daily assessments suggest that subjective age can vary after experimental manipulations or between days. However, less is known about whether subjective age varies over even shorter time frames such as within moments on a given day, how such short-term variability differs by age and its association with trait subjective age. We examined these questions with data obtained from 123 young–old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old–old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over 7 consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Within-person variability in subjective age amounted to an average of about 3 years from one moment to the next and did not differ between age groups. However, those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis and that state and trait components of subjective age are related. Further research should investigate the contextual predictors of variability in subjective age and the links between trait and state concepts and developmental outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Relations Between Views on Aging and Perceived Stress: Evidence for Mutual Associations
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wettstein, Markus

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging ... [more ▼]

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging-related cognitions including social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined the potentially moderating role of chronological age. Data of the German Ageing Survey, comprising two measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) and a sample of 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years, were analyzed. Controlling for socio-demographic and health-related indicators, cross-lagged models indicated mutual longitudinal relations between VoA and stress. Whether the pathway from stress to VoA or the opposite pathway was stronger varied depending on the VoA considered. With increasing age, most VoA domains were less strongly associated with subsequent perceived stress. Our findings suggest that less favorable VoA predict higher perceived subsequent stress, but they are also preceded and predicted by higher levels of perceived stress. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of resilience of older people in times of crisis
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(S 1), 723

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in-person contacts was necessary in particular during the first months of the pandemic, concerns about the immediate and longer-term secondary effects of these measures on subjective well-being were raised. In the present study, we focused on self-reported resilience of older people in a longitudinal design to examine risk and protective factors in dealing with the restrictions. Data from independently living people aged 60+ in Luxembourg were collected via a telephone/online survey after the first lockdown in June (N = 611) and September/October 2020 (N = 523), just before the second pandemic wave made restrictions necessary again. Overall, results showed an increase in life-satisfaction from T1 to T2, although life-satisfaction was still rated slightly lower than before the crisis. Also, about a fifth of participants indicated at T2 difficulties to recover from the crisis. Participants who reported higher resilience to deal with the Covid-19 crisis at T2 showed higher self-efficacy, agreed more strongly with measures taken by the country and felt better informed about the virus. In contrast, participants who reported more difficulties in dealing with the pandemic, indicated reduced social contacts to family and friends at T2, and also felt lonelier. Results will be discussed applying a life-span developmental and systemic perspective on risk and protective factors in dealing with the secondary impacts of the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates Of Resilience In The Context Of Social Isolation In Seniors (CRISIS)
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Presentation (2021, April 21)

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See detailShort-Term Fluctuation of Subjective Age and its Correlates: An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Older Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six ... [more ▼]

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over seven consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation, while chronological age did not impact variability. Furthermore, we investigated relationships between within-day fluctuations of subjective age and daily cortisol fluctuations. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis, that state and trait components of subjective age are related, and that fluctuations in subjective age are related to biomarkers of stress. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Associations between Perceived Stress and Views on Aging: Evidence for Reciprocal Relations
Wettstein, Markus; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(6), 752-766

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See detailPerceived Ageism During the Covid-19-Crisis is Longitudinally Related to Subjective Perceptions of Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in Frontiers in Public Health (2021)

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether ... [more ▼]

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether perceived ageism during the crisis longitudinally affects how people perceive their own aging. In June 2020, N = 611 older adults from Luxembourg [aged 60 – 98 years, Mage(SD) = 69.92(6.97)] participated in a survey on their perception of the crisis. In October 2020, N = 523 participated in a second measurement occasion. Participants reported on perceived ageism during the crisis in different domains, their self-perceptions of aging and subjective age. In latent longitudinal regression models, we predicted views on aging at T2 with perceived ageism at T1, while controlling for baseline views on aging and covariates. Perceived ageism at T1 increased self-perceptions of aging as social loss and yielded a trend for physical decline, while there were no effects on subjective age and self-perceptions of aging as continued growth. Views on aging are powerful predictors of well-being and health outcomes in later life. Our data suggest that being the target of ageism during the crisis negatively affects older adults’ self-perceptions of aging and this impact may be felt beyond the current crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing social marketing for the promotion of cognitive health: a scoping review protocol
Barbier, Mathilde UL; Schulte, Caroline; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in BMJ Open (2021)

Introduction: The use of social marketing strategies to induce the promotion of cognitive health has received little attention in research. The objective of this scoping review is twofold: (i) to identify ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The use of social marketing strategies to induce the promotion of cognitive health has received little attention in research. The objective of this scoping review is twofold: (i) to identify the social marketing strategies that have been used in recent years to initiate and maintain health-promoting behaviour; (ii) to advance research in this area to inform policy and practice on how to best make use of these strategies to promote cognitive health. Methods and analysis: We will use the five-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Articles in English published since 2010 will be searched in electronic databases (the Cochrane Library, DoPHER, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, PsycInfo, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus). Quantitative and qualitative study designs as well as reviews will be considered. We will include those articles that report the design, implementation, outcomes and evaluation of programmes and interventions concerning social marketing and/or health promotion and/or promotion of cognitive health. Grey literature will not be searched. Two independent reviewers will assess in detail the abstracts and full text of selected citations against the inclusion criteria. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flowchart for Scoping Reviews will be used to illustrate the process of article selection. We will use a data extraction form, present the results through narrative synthesis and discuss them in relation to the scoping review research questions. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval is not required for conducting this scoping review. The results of the review will be the first step to advance a conceptual framework, which contributes to the development of interventions targeting the promotion of cognitive health. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. They will also be disseminated to key stakeholders in the field of the promotion of cognitive health. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of age stereotypes on physical and mental health are mediated by self-perceptions of aging
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021), 76(5), 845-857

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See detailAgeism and Older People's Health and Well-Being during the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Role of Subjective Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2021), 18

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See detailDigitale Kommunikation im Alter – Erste Ergebnisse der CRISIS-Studie
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer ... [more ▼]

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer Kontakte berichtet. Die vorliegende Studie liefert erste Hinweise darauf, inwiefern sich das Kommunikationsverhalten älterer Menschen während der COVID-19 Krise verändert hat, wie der Gebrauch verschiedener Kommunikationsmittel mit der Reduktion von Einsamkeit und sozialer Isolation zusammenhängt und ob digitale Medien traditionelle Formen der Kommunikation verdrängen oder ergänzen. Im Juni 2020 wurden im Rahmen des vom FNR Luxemburg geförderten CRISIS-Projekts N = 611 in Privathaushalten lebende Personen im Alter zwischen 60 und 98 Jahren zu ihrem Erleben während der COVID-19 Krise befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Telefon insgesamt zwar weiterhin das wichtigste Kommunikationsmittel älterer Menschen bleibt, jedoch nehmen digitale Medien insbesondere in der Gruppe der 60-69-jährigen einen wichtigen Stellenwert ein, um mit anderen in Kontakt zu bleiben. Dabei reduzierte ein gestiegener Gebrauch digitaler Medien (wie auch traditioneller Medien) das Gefühl, nicht genug Gesellschaft zu haben. Außerdem scheinen neue Arten der Kommunikation traditionelle Arten in unserer Zielgruppe nicht zu ersetzen, sondern sie ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Bezug auf Maßnahmen zur Reduktion sozialer Isolation und Einsamkeit im Alter und im Kontext von COVID-19 diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Corona-Pandemie und die ältere Bevölkerung: Psychologische Aspekte
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Boll, Thomas UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis. Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

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