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See detailDomain-specific views on aging and preparation for age-related changes – Development and validation of three brief scales.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hess, Thomas M; Rothermund, Klaus

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (in press)

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See detailViews on Ageing - A Lifespan Approach
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kessler, Eva-Marie; Wurm, Susanne et al

in European Journal of Ageing (in press)

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See detailYoung people feel wise and older people feel energetic: Comparing age stereotypes and self-evaluations across adulthood
Bowen, Catherine E.; Spuling, Svenja M.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in European Journal of Ageing (in press)

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See detailThe Uniqueness of Subjective Ageing. Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Spuling, Svenja M.; Klusmann, Verena; Bowen, Catherine E. et al

in European Journal of Ageing (in press)

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See detailGenetic and environmental variation in political orientation in adolescence and early adulthood: A Nuclear Twin Family Analysis.
Hufer, Anke; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian et al

in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (in press)

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See detailPreparation for Old Age – The Role of Cultural Context and Future Perceptions
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Fung, Helene H. et al

in The Journals of Gerontology. Series B. Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2019), 74(4), 609--619

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See detailLife span development
Wurm, Susanne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailPolygenic Scores for Education, Health, and Personality as Predictors of Subjective Age Among Older Individuals of European Ancestry: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2019), 34(1), 139-144

The present study aimed to identify whether polygenic scores (PGSs) for education, health and psychological factors are related to subjective age in a large sample of older adults. Participants were 7,763 ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to identify whether polygenic scores (PGSs) for education, health and psychological factors are related to subjective age in a large sample of older adults. Participants were 7,763 individuals of European ancestry (57% women, Mean age = 69.15, SD = 10.18) from the Health and Retirement Study who were genotyped and provided subjective age data. Higher PGSs for educational achievement and well-being were related to a younger subjective age, whereas higher PGSs for neuroticism, body mass index, waist circumference, and depressive symptoms were associated with an older subjective age. This study provides new evidence on the potential genetic underpinnings of subjective age. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-perceptions of aging
Wurm, Susanne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailThe interplay of personality and attitudes toward own aging across two decades of later life
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Siebert, Jelena S.; Wahl, Hans-Werner

in PLoS One (2019), 14(10),

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study ... [more ▼]

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study so far comprehensively addressed their mutual connection over time. We used data from the ILSE study, a longitudinal study capturing personality and attitudes toward own aging at four measurement occasions, spanning 20 years and including two participant cohorts in midlife (n = 501; born 1950–52) and later life (n = 500; born 1930–32). Dual latent change score models showed that personality was longitudinally related to change in attitudes toward own aging: Lower Neuroticism, higher Conscientiousness, and higher Openness predicted more positive attitudes, whereas the direction of the effect for Extraversion varied by time. Furthermore, the role of personality seems to be confined to certain sensitive periods in midlife and early old age. Contrary to our expectations, attitudes toward own aging had only marginal longitudinal impact on the Big Five. Our results shed light on the developmental co-dynamics of personality and subjective perceptions of aging across the second half of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional views on aging and old age.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wurm, Susanne

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailA World of Difference? Domain-Specific Views on Aging in China, the US, and Germany
Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hess, Thomas M. et al

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2018), 33(4), 595-606

Research on cross-national differences in views on aging has often focused on a comparison between Asian and Western countries. However, the results are mixed showing either more positive views in Asia ... [more ▼]

Research on cross-national differences in views on aging has often focused on a comparison between Asian and Western countries. However, the results are mixed showing either more positive views in Asia, no difference at all, or even more positive views in Western countries. A potential moderator of country differences that might explain some of the heterogeneity is the fact that views on aging differ in their content and valence depending on life domains such as health versus family relations. Therefore, our aim was to systematically address domain-specific views on aging in a cross-national study, also considering that cross-national differences are age group-specific. We examined differences in views on aging between China, the United States, and Germany in eight life domains using samples with a broad age range. For most of the domains, cross-national differences indicated more negative views on aging in China compared with the Western countries and more positive views among the American compared with the German participants. Intriguingly, the differences between China and the United States or Germany were absent or even reversed in the domains friends, personality, and finances. Cross-national differences also varied by age group. Our results show that explanations of cross-national differences in views of aging probably do not apply uniformly across all life domains or age groups. They underline the importance of acknowledging the domain-specific nature of views on aging in cross-national research. [less ▲]

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See detailSound Body, Sound Mind? The Interrelation Between Health Change and Personality Change in Old Age
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hagemeyer, Birk; Neyer, Franz J. et al

in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY (2018), 32(1), 30-45

Personality development is characterized by increasing maturation, that is, people become more conscientious, agreeable and emotionally stable as they age. In late life, however, these trends seem to be ... [more ▼]

Personality development is characterized by increasing maturation, that is, people become more conscientious, agreeable and emotionally stable as they age. In late life, however, these trends seem to be reversed. Because many changes and transitions in older age are related to health, we investigated correlated changes in health problems and personality traits, the sources of health changes in later life and the directionality of effects. Our sample consisted of older adult twins, aged 64-85years at time 1 (n=410; 135 male/275 female; 134 monozygotic/63 dizygotic twin pairs), assessed at two different time points about five years apart, and we ran bivariate latent change and latent change twin model analyses. Increasing health problems were associated with decreases in agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability and conscientiousness. Changes in health problems were only due to environmental influences, implying that the association between health and personality changes was exclusively environmental. Directional effects were largely absent, but health and personality were significantly related at the second measurement occasion (age 69-89years). Our results support the link between health change and personality change in late life and spark the assumption of normative personality adaptations to deterioration of health status as a means of developmental regulation. Copyright (c) 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology [less ▲]

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See detailOn the genetic and environmental sources of social and political participation in adolescence and early adulthood
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hufer, Anke; Kandler, Christian et al

in PLOS ONE (2018), 13(8),

Political participation (POP), social participation (SOP), and political interest (PI) are important indicators of social status and social inequality. Previous studies on related trait differences ... [more ▼]

Political participation (POP), social participation (SOP), and political interest (PI) are important indicators of social status and social inequality. Previous studies on related trait differences yielded genetic and environmental contributions. However, focusing on adult samples, classical twin designs, and convenience samples often restricts parameter estimation and generalizability, and limits the understanding of age differences. We investigated sources of variance in POP, SOP, and PI in late adolescence and early adulthood with an extended twin family design (ETFD). We analyzed data from over 2,000 representative German twin families. Individual environments not shared by family members reflected the major source of variance for all variables, but genetic influences were also pronounced. Genetic effects were mostly higher for young adults, whereas effects of twins' shared environment were significant in adolescence. Our study deepens the understanding of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in shaping differences in young persons' integration in society. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher IQ in adolescence is related to a younger subjective age in later life: Findings from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in INTELLIGENCE (2018), 69

Subjective age predicts consequential outcomes in old age, including risk of hospitalization, dementia, and mortality. Studies investigating the determinants of subjective age have mostly focused on aging ... [more ▼]

Subjective age predicts consequential outcomes in old age, including risk of hospitalization, dementia, and mortality. Studies investigating the determinants of subjective age have mostly focused on aging-related factors measured in adulthood and old age. Little is known about the extent to which early life factors may contribute to later life subjective age. The present study examined the prospective association between IQ in adolescence and subjective age in later life and tested education, disease burden, adult cognition, and personality traits as potential mediators. Participants (N = 4494) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Data on IQ were obtained in 1957 when participants were in high school. Education, disease burden, cognition, and personality were assessed in 1992-1993, and subjective age was measured in 2011 at age 71 (SD = 0.93). Accounting for demographic factors, results revealed that higher IQ in adolescence was associated with a younger subjective age in late life. Bootstrap analysis further showed that this association was mediated by higher openness. The present study suggests that how old or young individuals feel is partly influenced by lifespan developmental processes that may begin with early life cognitive ability. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective remaining lifetime and concreteness of the future as differential predictors of preparation for age-related changes
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF AGEING (2018), 15(1), 67-76

Demographic changes have been linked to the expectation of cuts in government-provided social security services, emphasizing individual responsibility to prepare for old age and concomitant challenges and ... [more ▼]

Demographic changes have been linked to the expectation of cuts in government-provided social security services, emphasizing individual responsibility to prepare for old age and concomitant challenges and changes. Accordingly, the identification of psychological variables predicting preparation is a matter of theoretical as well as practical importance. We thus consider different aspects of a person's future time as theoretically prominent psychological predictors of preparation. The subjectively perceived quantity of remaining lifetime, the concreteness of future time, and preparation for life domains indicative of an active third age as well as of a more dependent fourth age were assessed in a longitudinal study in a core sample of N = 593 participants (30-80 years old at T (1)) at two measurement occasions 4 years apart. The quantity of subjective remaining lifetime predicted subsequent changes in preparation, but this effect was restricted to preparation for the fourth age. In contrast, a more open and concrete outlook on ones' personal future predicted changes in preparation for an active third age. Our findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different aspects of future time-its quantity versus its relation to goals and action plans-when predicting specific facets of developmental self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective Age Across the Life Span: A Differentiated, Longitudinal Approach
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hess, Thomas M.; Voss, Peggy et al

in JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES (2018), 73(5), 767-777

Objectives: How old people feel compared with their actual age, their so-called "subjective age" (SA), is a central indicator of individual aging experiences and predicts developmental outcomes, such as ... [more ▼]

Objectives: How old people feel compared with their actual age, their so-called "subjective age" (SA), is a central indicator of individual aging experiences and predicts developmental outcomes, such as health and mortality, across the life span. We investigated the multidimensional structure of SA with respect to specific life domains, focusing on domain differences as well as age group differences and age-related changes. Furthermore, we inspected the relationship between SA and how people perceive their future as old persons (future self-views). Method: We assessed these variables in a sample of 593 persons who completed a questionnaire at two time points 4 years apart (baseline-T 1; follow up-T 2) and who were aged 30-80 years at T 1. Results: SA differed across life domains and age groups, and the amount of change in SA across time was also contingent on life domain. Future self-views at T 1 predicted subsequent changes in SA, with more negative self-views being associated with an increase in SA, especially for middle-aged participants for whom the transition to older age is imminent. Discussion: Our results provide support for a multidimensional view of subjective aging experiences. They highlight the importance of a differentiated investigation of subjective aging constructs and their relations for understanding how these variables shape the aging process. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-Stereotype Internalization and Dissociation: Contradictory Processes or Two Sides of the Same Coin?
Weiss, David; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (2018), 27(6), 477-483

There is overwhelming evidence that age stereotypes have systematic effects on older adults' development. Regarding the direction of these effects, two seemingly opposing phenomena can be observed. On the ... [more ▼]

There is overwhelming evidence that age stereotypes have systematic effects on older adults' development. Regarding the direction of these effects, two seemingly opposing phenomena can be observed. On the one hand, it has been shown that older adults engage in self-stereotyping and assimilate their self-views and behavior to commonly held age stereotypes, a process described as stereotype internalization. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence for age-group dissociation, showing that when confronted with negative age stereotypes, older adults tend to distance and dissociate themselves from this negative stereotype. In addition to reviewing evidence for both processes and their respective adaptivity, we propose an integrated model of age-stereotype internalization and dissociation to explain when and why older adults internalize or dissociate from negative age stereotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic and Environmental Sources of Individual Differences in Views on Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2017), 32(4), 388-399

Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and ... [more ▼]

Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74. Individual differences in views on aging were mainly due to individual-specific environmental and genetic effects. However, depending on the domain, genetic and environmental contributions to the variance differed. Furthermore, for some domains, variability was larger for older participants; this was attributable to increases in environmental components. This study extends research on genetic and environmental sources of psychosocial variables and stimulates future studies investigating the etiology of views on aging across the life span. [less ▲]

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See detailContext Influences on the Relationship Between Views of Aging and Subjective Age: The Moderating Role of Culture and Domain of Functioning
Hess, Thomas M.; O'Brien, Erica L.; Voss, Peggy et al

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2017), 32(5), 419-431

Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as ... [more ▼]

Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning. More positive attitudes about aging were associated with older subjective ages, whereas more positive views of self in old age were associated with younger subjective age. It is hypothesized that these effects are reflective of social-comparison processes and self-protective mechanisms. These influences varied considerably over contexts, with views of aging having a greater impact in domains associated with stronger negative stereotypes of aging (e.g., health) compared to those with more positive ones (e.g., family). Culture also moderated the impact of aging views in terms of the strength of prediction, direction of effect, and age of greatest influence, presumably due to cultural differences in the salience and strength of aging-related belief systems across contexts. The results illustrate the contextual sensitivity of subjective age and highlight the role played by an individual's views of old age-both in general and regarding oneself-in determining their own experience of aging. [less ▲]

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