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See detailExperimental Studies on Subjective Views of Aging: Overview, Challenges, and Future Directions
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Diehl, Manfred; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit (Eds.) Subjective Views of Aging: Theory, Research, and Practice (in press)

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from ... [more ▼]

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from longitudinal studies, research on VoA has also been strongly experimental since its inception. Our chapter aims to provide an overview about the major lines of prior experimental research on VoA and by this means derive its role for present and future VoA research overall. We first offer an organizing scheme for the existing body of experimental work on VoA. We arrive at the conclusion that previous experimental research on VoA with older adults has been conducted in a broad range of studies with different dependent variables and experimental manipulations, showing the importance of VoA and their impact on a wide range on phenomena. We then go into more detail of VoA research that has been done in the past decade. Here, our conclusion is that recent experimental research on VoA is taking up societal challenges, such as the aging workforce, older people in the health care system, and stereotype threat elicited by digital technologies. At the same time, current VoA research is adding to the differentiation of established effects in the prior literature as well as helped to identify moderating and contextual conditions not considered previously. We end with a set of recommendations for future experimental VoA research including strengthening the needed liaison with other research formats. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates Of Resilience In The Context Of Social Isolation In Seniors (CRISIS)
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Presentation (2021, April 21)

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See detailLongitudinal Associations between Perceived Stress and Views on Aging: Evidence for Reciprocal Relations
Wettstein, Markus; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(6), 752-766

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See detailThe effects of age stereotypes on physical and mental health are mediated by self-perceptions of aging
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021), 76(5), 845-857

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See detailAgeism and Older People's Health and Well-Being during the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Role of Subjective Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2021), 18

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See detailPerceived Ageism During the Covid-19-Crisis is Longitudinally Related to Subjective Perceptions of Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in Frontiers in Public Health (2021)

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether ... [more ▼]

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether perceived ageism during the crisis longitudinally affects how people perceive their own aging. In June 2020, N = 611 older adults from Luxembourg [aged 60 – 98 years, Mage(SD) = 69.92(6.97)] participated in a survey on their perception of the crisis. In October 2020, N = 523 participated in a second measurement occasion. Participants reported on perceived ageism during the crisis in different domains, their self-perceptions of aging and subjective age. In latent longitudinal regression models, we predicted views on aging at T2 with perceived ageism at T1, while controlling for baseline views on aging and covariates. Perceived ageism at T1 increased self-perceptions of aging as social loss and yielded a trend for physical decline, while there were no effects on subjective age and self-perceptions of aging as continued growth. Views on aging are powerful predictors of well-being and health outcomes in later life. Our data suggest that being the target of ageism during the crisis negatively affects older adults’ self-perceptions of aging and this impact may be felt beyond the current crisis. [less ▲]

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See detail“I Felt so Old This Morning.” Short-Term Variations in Subjective Age and the Role of Trait Subjective Age: Evidence from the ILSE/EMIL Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(3), 373-382

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept in previous research, recent studies employing experimental designs and daily assessments suggest that subjective age can vary after experimental manipulations or between days. However, less is known about whether subjective age varies over even shorter time frames such as within moments on a given day, how such short-term variability differs by age and its association with trait subjective age. We examined these questions with data obtained from 123 young–old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old–old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over 7 consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Within-person variability in subjective age amounted to an average of about 3 years from one moment to the next and did not differ between age groups. However, those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis and that state and trait components of subjective age are related. Further research should investigate the contextual predictors of variability in subjective age and the links between trait and state concepts and developmental outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitale Kommunikation im Alter – Erste Ergebnisse der CRISIS-Studie
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer ... [more ▼]

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer Kontakte berichtet. Die vorliegende Studie liefert erste Hinweise darauf, inwiefern sich das Kommunikationsverhalten älterer Menschen während der COVID-19 Krise verändert hat, wie der Gebrauch verschiedener Kommunikationsmittel mit der Reduktion von Einsamkeit und sozialer Isolation zusammenhängt und ob digitale Medien traditionelle Formen der Kommunikation verdrängen oder ergänzen. Im Juni 2020 wurden im Rahmen des vom FNR Luxemburg geförderten CRISIS-Projekts N = 611 in Privathaushalten lebende Personen im Alter zwischen 60 und 98 Jahren zu ihrem Erleben während der COVID-19 Krise befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Telefon insgesamt zwar weiterhin das wichtigste Kommunikationsmittel älterer Menschen bleibt, jedoch nehmen digitale Medien insbesondere in der Gruppe der 60-69-jährigen einen wichtigen Stellenwert ein, um mit anderen in Kontakt zu bleiben. Dabei reduzierte ein gestiegener Gebrauch digitaler Medien (wie auch traditioneller Medien) das Gefühl, nicht genug Gesellschaft zu haben. Außerdem scheinen neue Arten der Kommunikation traditionelle Arten in unserer Zielgruppe nicht zu ersetzen, sondern sie ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Bezug auf Maßnahmen zur Reduktion sozialer Isolation und Einsamkeit im Alter und im Kontext von COVID-19 diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Uniqueness of Subjective Ageing. Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Spuling, Svenja M.; Klusmann, Verena; Bowen, Catherine E. et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2020), 17

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See detailViews on Ageing - A Lifespan Approach
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kessler, Eva-Marie; Wurm, Susanne et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2020), 17

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See detailExamining the Interplay of Generalized and Personal Views on Aging on Physical and Mental Health Across 2.5 Years
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 588-588

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized ... [more ▼]

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized views on aging (assessed as Age Stereotypes (AS)) would influence personal views on aging (assessed as Self-Perceptions of Aging (SPA)), which in-turn would influence later physical and mental health. Data came from a longitudinal survey on VoA (N= 537, MageT1 = 64.13, age rangeT1 = 40-98). As expected, SPA mediated the effect of AS on physical (loss-SPA: β = .23, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .06, p< .001; R2 = .62) and mental health (loss-SPA: β = .13, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .03, p< .01, ; R2 = .31). Congruent with theoretical assumptions, our findings provide empirical support for a directional pathway by which generalized views on aging affect health outcomes via personal views of aging. [less ▲]

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See detailYoung people feel wise and older people feel energetic: Comparing age stereotypes and self-evaluations across adulthood
Bowen, Catherine E.; Spuling, Svenja M.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2020), 17

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See detailSocial Isolation, Loneliness and Well-being in the Covid-19 Crisis: A Look at Nursing Home Residents in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 957-958

During the COVID-19 crisis, older adults, in particular those with underlying health conditions, were at a special risk for severe illness and mortality, and efforts were made to shield them from exposure ... [more ▼]

During the COVID-19 crisis, older adults, in particular those with underlying health conditions, were at a special risk for severe illness and mortality, and efforts were made to shield them from exposure to the virus. While measures of physical distancing and reduction of in-person contacts were necessary to prevent contraction, they hit residents of care settings particularly hard since visits from family and friends were banned and the risk for loneliness and social isolation increased. In the present study, we therefore gave the voice to nursing home residents and focused on their perceived loneliness and subjective well-being during the crisis. We were both interested in difficulties but also in personal resources and resilience factors that might protect older adults from negative mental health outcomes and help to maintain subjective well-being. A sample of N = 76 residents in care homes in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were interviewed by use of a standardized questionnaire during July and August 2020. Participants reported on their loneliness and life satisfaction during the crisis, on their self-regulatory strategies as well as on personal and social resources (e.g. self-efficacy, generativity, social support). Data will be analyzed by use of regression analysis to predict loneliness and well-being by risk and protective factors. Results will be discussed applying a life-span developmental and systemic perspective to understand the mutual interplay of individual, social and institutional resources to mitigate negative side effects of protective measures on care home residents. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on Aging and Well-Being in the Covid Crisis – A Longitudinal Study in Luxembourg
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 961-961

During the Covid-Crisis, stereotypes of older adults as helpless and vulnerable were spread, and intergenerational conflict was stirred more or less openly. We thus focused on perceived ageism during the ... [more ▼]

During the Covid-Crisis, stereotypes of older adults as helpless and vulnerable were spread, and intergenerational conflict was stirred more or less openly. We thus focused on perceived ageism during the crisis and its effects on well-being and health of older adults. Since views on aging are multifaceted and can be both, risk and resource for individual development, we assessed people’s self-perceptions of aging (SPA) as social loss, continued growth and physical decline and subjective age (SA). We hypothesized that people with SPA of social loss and physical decline would be more susceptible to negative effects of perceived ageism, whereas those with SPA of continued growth and younger SA would be less affected. NT1 = 611 community-dwelling adults aged 60 – 98 (Mage = 69.92 years) were recruited in June 2020 online and via phone in Luxembourg. In September 2020, participants will be contacted again for a follow-up. Analyses with cross-sectional data show that participants who felt more discriminated reported lower life satisfaction after the onset of the crisis (r = -.35) and worse subjective health (r = -.14). SPA of social loss and higher SA increased the negative effect of ageism on well-being (beta = -.57) and subjective health (beta = -.53), respectively. Our results point to mid- and long-term consequences of age discriminatory and stereotype-based crisis communication for the well-being of older adults and the importance of individual SPA in critical situations. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent directions in views on aging. Editorial for the Special Section.
Klusmann, Verena; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in European Journal of Ageing (2020), 17

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See detailDie Corona-Pandemie und die ältere Bevölkerung: Psychologische Aspekte
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Boll, Thomas UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis. Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

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See detailSocial Roles, Subjective Age, and Gender: Exploring the Links in Later Life
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 556-556

Subjective age (SA) is strongly linked to positive developmental outcomes and successful aging. The social roles people assume are supposed to impact SA, since they incorporate age-graded social ... [more ▼]

Subjective age (SA) is strongly linked to positive developmental outcomes and successful aging. The social roles people assume are supposed to impact SA, since they incorporate age-graded social experiences and age-stereotypic role expectations. Social roles are also strongly gendered, providing the opportunity to understand gender-specific processes of SA. This study investigates a broad range of social roles and their relation to older men and women’s SA in later life. N = 285 participants aged 50 to 86 years (Mage = 65.04, SD = 8.88) reported on 19 social roles and their SA. Higher commitment to social roles of continued development and engagement was related to a younger subjective age, above and beyond sociodemographic variables, physical and mental health, but only for younger men. Commitment to family roles was related to a younger subjective age only for older men. Implications for the gender-specific understanding of antecedents of SA are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the Relation Among Subjective Age and Working Memory in Old Age on a High-Frequency Basis Across 7 Days
Lücke, Anna; Siebert, Jelena; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 598-598

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make ... [more ▼]

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make use of subjective age and working memory performance data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as people went about their daily routines from 123 young-old (aged 66-69 years, 47.2% women) and 42 old-old (aged 86-90 years, 55.8% women) adults. Notably, multilevel models revealed considerably-sized short-term intra-individual variation of subjective age and working memory within days and these short-term within-day fluctuations in subjective age and working memory were coupled as expected. Hence, increased subjective age went along with lowered working memory confirming previous research. However, the respective between-day associations appeared reversed. Given this evidence of correlated short-term variability, we also discuss implications of different change dynamics that might explain moment-to-moment versus day-to-day associations between subjective age and working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailGesund Altern - Ergebnisse einer Repräsentativumfrage zu Altersbildern junger Erwachsener
Blawert, Anne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Schröder, Helmut et al

Report (2020)

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See detailGenetic and environmental variation in political orientation in adolescence and early adulthood: A Nuclear Twin Family Analysis.
Hufer, Anke; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian et al

in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2020), 118(4), 762-766

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