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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailBalancing approaches to Migration Security in Europe and Asia
Searle, Martin; Koff, Harlan UL

in Tan, See Sang; Christiansen, Thomas; Kirchner, Emil (Eds.) The European Union’s Security Relations with Asian Powers (2021)

Migration has recently been framed as a threat to security in many parts of the world. Numerous advanced industrial states have in fact, securitized migration by implementing measures to control and even ... [more ▼]

Migration has recently been framed as a threat to security in many parts of the world. Numerous advanced industrial states have in fact, securitized migration by implementing measures to control and even extend external borders, through increased policing and financial contributions to neighbouring countries that are linked to migration control strategies. This process has led to the spread of formal and informal regionalization strategies in migration affairs. However, levels and types of securitization of migration reflect different perspectives on regional integration. This chapter compares migration governance in Europe and Asia and illustrates how relatively uniform regionalization in Europe has led to institutionalized responses promoting securitization whereas the divergent bottom-up approach to regionalism in Asia has resulted in significant policy variation amongst Asian states. Consequently, Asia’s seeming patchwork response differs from the European Union’s blanket approach, thus impeding close inter-regional collaboration in this policy arena. [less ▲]

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See detailPerpetuating Crises at the Source?: (Inter)Regionalism and Normative Incoherence for Sustainable Migration in Africa
Koff, Harlan UL

in Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studiesjavascript:$('next-but').click(); (2020), 47(4), 1-22

In response to the 2015–2016 migration crisis, the European Union established the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa that aimed ‘to address the root causes of instability, forced displacement and irregular ... [more ▼]

In response to the 2015–2016 migration crisis, the European Union established the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa that aimed ‘to address the root causes of instability, forced displacement and irregular migration and to contribute to better migration management.’ This article questions the logic of this approach to migration management by asking whether African regions can ‘better manage migration.’ The article examines the normative bases of migration policies amongst the African Union (AU) and six regional economic communities (RECs), as well as the normative bases of the development strategies pursued by the AU and these RECs. The article proposes normative policy coherence for development as an approach to better understand the relationships between regional integration, sustainable development and migration management in Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailTen years of re-thinking regions from citizens’ perspectives
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen; De Lombaerde, Philippe et al

in Regions and Cohesion (2020), 10(3), -

This special issue commemorating Regions & Cohesion’s tenth anniversary continues the tradition described herein. Entitled “Re-thinking regions: A citizen perspective,” it has been conceptualized and ... [more ▼]

This special issue commemorating Regions & Cohesion’s tenth anniversary continues the tradition described herein. Entitled “Re-thinking regions: A citizen perspective,” it has been conceptualized and coordinated by the journal’s editors, associate editors, and editorial manager. We thank the contributing authors for accepting the challenge to respond to any of the following provocative questions: What contributed to the perceived decline of regions in global affairs? How can regions recover from this perceived decline? How can supranational, transnational, or sub-national regions respond better to the needs of citizens? How can regions better support the Sustainable Development Goals and the transformative development that they pursue? How can regions promote more sustainable usage of natural resources? What roles can regions play in global affairs in the near- to medium-term future? The articles published here provide a snapshot of the state of regional integration in the world today. These articles also engage the field of regional studies, discuss its strengths and weaknesses, and indicate interesting paths for future scholarship. We thank the authors for these proposed ways forward. [less ▲]

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See detailBarriers and Borders: Human Mobility and Building Inclusive Societies
Graham, Suzanne; Koff, Harlan UL

in Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies (2020), 47(4), 2-5

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See detailGuidelines for Operationalizing Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) as a Methodology for the Design and Implementation of Sustainable Development Strategies
Koff, Harlan UL; Challenger, Antony; Portillo, Israel

in Sustainability (2020), 12(4055), 1-23

Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) is considered a pillar of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. It aims to promote whole of government approaches to sustainable development. Despite its ... [more ▼]

Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) is considered a pillar of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. It aims to promote whole of government approaches to sustainable development. Despite its prominence in development cooperation discussions, many national development professionals or stakeholders have not heard of PCD, indicating that its effectiveness is significantly limited. This article contends that the impact of PCD has not been maximized because it has been presented as a political objective or a policy tool by multilateral organizations and their member states. Instead, the article argues that PCD should be implemented as a methodology that can be adopted by domestic government and non-governmental actors alike, in order to understand trade-offs and co-benefits within and between policy sectors, thus promoting a participative approach. I-GAMMA is a research project in Mexico that examines data-driven public policy in order to promote PCD. It is based on in-depth reviews of policy documents and interviews with development actors. It is committed to open data, evidence-based policymaking, and collaborative dialogue between academics, government officials, and representatives of civil society organizations in sustainable development discussions. In the results section of this article, the project proposes participative PCD as a methodology for policy analysis through which a plurality of actors can identify mechanisms that either reinforce or undermine sustainable development strategies. This section then applies the methodology to the governance of protected natural areas in Mexico. The discussion section and the conclusions highlight the relevance of this approach for participative policymaking in sustainable development. [less ▲]

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See detailTransboundary water diplomacy among small states: a giant dilemma for Central American regionalism
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen UL; Kauffer, Edith

in Water International (2020)

Water diplomacy aims to shift water disputes from zero-sum games into positive-sum cooperation models though actor-driven approaches. Small states are often viewed as facilitators of diplomacy through a ... [more ▼]

Water diplomacy aims to shift water disputes from zero-sum games into positive-sum cooperation models though actor-driven approaches. Small states are often viewed as facilitators of diplomacy through a commitment to regionalism and consensus, which highlights their influence in international affairs. Responding to the research question, ‘How do “non-decisions” lead to status quo in water diplomacy?’ this article discusses how regional water diplomacy based on influence is weakened by the domestic shortcomings of small states’ political systems, where authorities use non-decision-making to maintain a status quo that guarantees their legitimized power. [less ▲]

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See detailSaving the Baby While Discarding the Bathwater: the application of policy coherence for development analysis to payment for watershed services
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen

in Madera y Bosques (2019), 25(3), 2531760

One of the most debated tools for the implementation of sustainable development is “payment for ecosystem services”, of which “payment for watershed services” (PWS) is one of the most developed. While ... [more ▼]

One of the most debated tools for the implementation of sustainable development is “payment for ecosystem services”, of which “payment for watershed services” (PWS) is one of the most developed. While proponents argue that such payments provide market value to the services that ecosystems provide for development, opponents claim that this approach commodifies the environment and promotes inequalities. This article presents an analysis of PWS programs by applying methodologies based on policy coherence for development (PCD), defined as a policy tool aimed at eliminating incoherence within sustainable development strategies that undermine their effectiveness as well as between such strategies and other policy arenas, which are also considered harmful to sustainability. By employing a PCD methodology, the article aims to identify policy mechanisms that undermine PWS programs so that stakeholders can make adjustments, thus, metaphorically ensuring that “the baby” (PWS) is not discarded with “the bathwater” (policy incoherence for sustainable development). [less ▲]

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See detailOutside-In region-building: The role of border integration zones in Andean regional integration
Koff, Harlan UL

in Nadalutti, Elisabetta; Kallscheuer, Otto (Eds.) Region-Making and Cross-Border Cooperation: New Evidence from Four Continents (2018)

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See detailThe EU-Japan Security Dialogue and Migration: A Search for Common Ground
Koff, Harlan UL; Akashi, Jun'ichi; Okabe, Midori

in Kirchner, Emil; Dorussen, Han (Eds.) EU-Japan Security Cooperation: Trends and Prospects (2018)

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See detailDiaspora Philanthropy in the Context of Policy Coherence for Development: Implications for the post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda
Koff, Harlan UL

in International Migration (2017), 55(1), 5-19

Thus far, there has been a dearth of studies that systemically examine the relationship between diaspora philanthropy, the development community and securitised migration regimes. This article addresses ... [more ▼]

Thus far, there has been a dearth of studies that systemically examine the relationship between diaspora philanthropy, the development community and securitised migration regimes. This article addresses this by responding to the research question, “How coherent are securitised migration policies with diaspora philanthropy and the transformative development objectives that characterise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda?” The analysis is based on the concept of policy coherence for development (PCD). The article compares the simultaneous regionalization and securitization of European Union and United States migration policies and contends that these policy strategies undermine diaspora philanthropy, development partnerships and transformative development. Normative change must be introduced in order to establish coherence between globalized migration policies and diaspora philanthropy objectives. Normative coherence for development can be achieved by introducing principles from the SDG's and the Busan Development Partnership Agreement amongst other international development agendas, into migration policy-making at the national and regional levels. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy Coherence for Development and Migration: Analysing US and EU Policies through the Lens of Normative Transformation
Koff, Harlan UL

in Regions & cohesion = Regiones y Cohesión = Regions and Cohesion (2017), 7(2), 5-33

The European Union’s (EU) 2015–2016 “migration/asylum crisis” gave discussions over the relationships between migration, security and development renewed prominence in global affairs. In response to ... [more ▼]

The European Union’s (EU) 2015–2016 “migration/asylum crisis” gave discussions over the relationships between migration, security and development renewed prominence in global affairs. In response to record migratory flows, the EU, like the United States (US), has implemented security responses to migration aimed at protecting territorial integrity. This article addresses the migration–security–development nexus through the lens of policy coherence for development (PCD). It compares EU and US migration policies within the framework of the “transformative development” associated with the Sustainable Development Goals. It contends that these donors have undermined transformative development through the regionalization of development aid, which has contributed to the securitization of both development and migration policies. Thus, the article contends that new mechanisms for change need to be identified. It introduces the notion of “normative coherence” and proposes a potential role for regional human rights courts in fostering migration-related PCD. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Migration-Security-Development Nexus: A Caparison of Chinese and EU Migration Policies
Koff, Harlan UL; Meng-Hsuan, Chou; Van Dongen, Els

in Kirchner, Emil; Christiansen, Thomas; Dorussen, Han (Eds.) Security Relations Between the European Union and China: From Convergence to Cooperation? (2016)

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See detailThe EU and The Human Right to Water and Sanitation: Normative Coherence as the Key to Transformative Development
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen

in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH (2016), 28(1), 91-110

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See detailEnvironmental Security in Transnational Contexts: What Relevance for Regional Human Security Regimes?
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen

in Globalizations (2016), 13(6), 653-663

AbstractThe year 2015 was meant to be a seminal year in global geopolitics due to the transition from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This transition ... [more ▼]

AbstractThe year 2015 was meant to be a seminal year in global geopolitics due to the transition from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This transition was significant because the MDGs, even though they raised global consciousness around the need to combat poverty, remained indicator-based, and thus, they did not adequately address socio-economic inequalities and power imbalances in global affairs. For this reason, much of the discussion surrounding the definition of the SDGs and the post-2015 global development agenda contextualized sustainable development within the framework of ‘transformation’, specifically prioritizing concepts such as equity, security, justice, and rights. While these debates correctly discussed power imbalances and relational obstacles to human development they remained abstract because they focused only on the international level. In this regard, discussions did not adequately examine mechanisms that facilitate or block the emergence of sustainable development as a political priority, nor did they address specific policy proposals to link environmental justice to human development strategies. Thus, this special issue introduction argues that human and environmental security should be framed in terms of transnational discussions rather than being limited to international debates. The special issue undertakes an examination of the interactions between human and environmental security, border studies, and comparative regional integration; and interactions between competing globalizations. The articles in the special issue address the relationships between international norms, transnational human and environmental security issues, and the regionalization of governance. [less ▲]

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See detail“Cross-border environmental peace” in development contexts: the convergence of peace with de-territorialized development
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen UL; Conde, Gilberto

in Revista de Paz y Conflictos (2016), 9(1), 7-16

This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing ... [more ▼]

This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. [less ▲]

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