References of "Koenig, Vincent 50002114"
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See detailEmpathy in Design Scale: Development and Initial Insights
Drouet, Luce UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end ... [more ▼]

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end-users. However, there is a lack of empathy measurement instruments in design. Most previous work focused on designers, overlooking the need for other stakeholders to develop empathy towards the users to break organizational silos and deliver high-quality user-centered services and products. In this contribution, we share the preliminary stages of the development of an empathy scale for service design. We build on empathy literature from psychology and design to define 18 items representing four empathy dimensions. We report on the definition of these dimensions and their underlying items, and present preliminary studies in which we reviewed the first version of the scale with experts and stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailImpressions that last: representing the meaningful museum experience
Morse, Christopher UL; Niess, Jasmin UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL et al

in Behaviour and Information Technology (2022)

Research in human–computer interaction (HCI) has identified meaning as an important, yet poorly understood concept in interaction design contexts. Central to this development is the increasing emphasis on ... [more ▼]

Research in human–computer interaction (HCI) has identified meaning as an important, yet poorly understood concept in interaction design contexts. Central to this development is the increasing emphasis on designing products and technologies that promote leisure, personal fulfillment, and well-being. As spaces of profound historical significance and societal value, museums offer a unique perspective on how people construct meaning during their interactions in museum spaces and with collections, which may help to deepen notions of the content of meaningful interaction and support innovative design for cultural heritage contexts. The present work reports on the results of two studies that investigate meaning-making in museums. The first is an experience narrative study (N = 32) that analyzed 175 memorable museum visits, resulting in the establishment of 23 triggers that inform meaningful interaction in museums. A second study (N = 354) validated the comprehensiveness and generalisability of the triggers by asking participants to apply them to their own memorable museum experiences. We conclude with a framework of meaning in museums featuring the 23 triggers and two descriptive categories of temporality and scope. Our findings contribute to meaning research in HCI for museums through an articulation of the content of meaning-making in the cultural sector. [less ▲]

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See detailCreating positive learning experiences with technology: A field study on the effects of user experience for digital concept mapping
Rohles, Björn UL; Backes, Susanne UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

in Heliyon (2022), 8(4),

Learning and assessment are increasingly mediated by digital technologies. Thus, learners’ experiences with these digital technologies are growing in importance, as they might affect learning and ... [more ▼]

Learning and assessment are increasingly mediated by digital technologies. Thus, learners’ experiences with these digital technologies are growing in importance, as they might affect learning and assessment. The present paper explores the impact of user experience on digital concept mapping. It builds on user experience theory to explain variance in the intention to use digital concept mapping tools and in concept map-based assessment scores. Furthermore, it identifies fulfillment of psychological needs as an important driver of positive experiences. In a field study in three schools and a university (N = 71), we tested two concept mapping prototypes on computers and tablets. We found that user experience is a significant factor explaining variance in intention to use. User experience also explained variance in three out of four concept mapping scores on tablets, potentially related to the lower pragmatic quality of the tablet prototypes. Fulfillment of psychological needs strongly affected perceptions of different qualities of user experience with digital concept mapping. These results indicate that user experience needs to be considered in digital concept mapping to provide a positive and successful environment for learning and assessment. Finally, we discuss implications for designers of digital learning and assessment tools. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex, but in a good way? How to represent encryption to non-experts through text and visuals – Evidence from expert co-creation and a vignette experiment
Distler, Verena UL; Gutfleisch, Tamara; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior Reports (2022), 4

An ongoing discussion in the field of usable privacy and security debates whether security mechanisms should be visible to end-users during interactions with technology, or hidden away. This paper ... [more ▼]

An ongoing discussion in the field of usable privacy and security debates whether security mechanisms should be visible to end-users during interactions with technology, or hidden away. This paper addresses this question using a mixed-methods approach, focusing on encryption as a mechanism for confidentiality during data transmission on a smartphone application. In study 1, we conducted a qualitative co-creation study with security and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts (N = 9) to create appropriate textual and visual representations of the security mechanism encryption in data transmission. We investigated this question in two contexts: online banking and e-voting. In study 2, we put these ideas to the test by presenting these visual and textual representations to non-expert users in an online vignette experiment (N = 2180). We found a statistically significant and positive effect of the textual representation of encryption on perceived security and understanding, but not on user experience (UX). More complex text describing encryption resulted in higher perceived security and more accurate understanding. The visual representation of encryption had no statistically significant effect on perceived security, UX or understanding. Our study contributes to the larger discussion regarding visible instances of security and their impact on user perceptions. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom #MuseumAtHome to #AtHomeAtTheMuseum: Digital Museums and Dialogical Engagement beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Morse, Christopher UL; Landau, Blandine UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in ACM Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage (2022), 15(2),

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period ... [more ▼]

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period. In this study, we investigated the use of digital technologies by museums during a period when in-person interaction was not possible. The aim of the study was to better understand the impact of the confinement period on the use of museum technologies in order to identify implications for future museum experience design. We compared museums across four countries – France, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United States – by conducting an international survey in three languages on the use of digital technologies during the early phase of the pandemic. Additionally, we analyzed the Facebook activity of museums in each country and conducted a series of interviews with digital museology professionals in academia and the private sector. We found that despite a flurry of online activities, especially during the early phase of the pandemic, museums confronted a number of internal and external challenges that were often incongruent with their ability to offer new forms of digital engagement. In general, digital solutions served only as a temporary substitute for the museum experience rather than as an opportunity to usher in a new digital paradigm for cultural mediation, and many cultural professionals cited a lack of digital training as a limiting factor in robust ICT implementation. We also argue that the most successful digital engagement came from those activities that promoted a sense of community or an invitation for self-expression by visitors. We conclude with a framework that describes a ‘virtuous circle of museum participation’, aiming to support public engagement with museums through the development of content that builds on the interconnectedness of on-site and online interactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat's in a Cyber Threat Intelligence sharing platform?: A mixed-methods user experience investigation of MISP
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC ’21) (2021, December)

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and ... [more ▼]

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and communities. CTI sharing platforms are becoming indispensable tools for cooperative and collaborative cybersecurity. Nevertheless, despite the growing research in this area, the emphasis is often placed on the technical aspects, incentives, or implications associated with CTI sharing, as opposed to investigating challenges encountered by users of such platforms. To date, user experience (UX) aspects remain largely unexplored. This paper offers a unique contribution towards understanding the constraining and enabling factors of security information sharing within one of the leading platforms. MISP is an open source CTI sharing platform used by more than 6,000 organizations worldwide. As a technically-advanced CTI sharing platform it aims to cater for a diverse set of security information workers with distinct needs and objectives. In this respect, MISP has to pay an equal amount of attention to the UX in order to maximize and optimize the quantity and quality of threat information that is contributed and consumed. Using mixed methods we shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of MISP from an end-users’ perspective and discuss the role UX could play in effective CTI sharing. We conclude with an outline of future work and open challenges worth further exploring in this nascent, yet highly important socio-technical context. [less ▲]

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See detailA Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Methods and Risk Representation in Usable Privacy and Security Research
Distler, Verena UL; Fassl, Matthias; Habib, Hana et al

in ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (2021), 28(6), 50

Usable privacy and security researchers have developed a variety of approaches to represent risk to research participants. To understand how these approaches are used and when each might be most ... [more ▼]

Usable privacy and security researchers have developed a variety of approaches to represent risk to research participants. To understand how these approaches are used and when each might be most appropriate, we conducted a systematic literature review of methods used in security and privacy studies with human participants. From a sample of 633 papers published at five top conferences between 2014 and 2018 that included keywords related to both security/privacy and usability, we systematically selected and analyzed 284 full-length papers that included human subjects studies. Our analysis focused on study methods; risk representation; the use of prototypes, scenarios, and educational intervention; the use of deception to simulate risk; and types of participants. We discuss benefits and shortcomings of the methods, and identify key methodological, ethical, and research challenges when representing and assessing security and privacy risk. We also provide guidelines for the reporting of user studies in security and privacy. [less ▲]

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See detailChild–Computer Interaction: From a systematic review towards an integrated understanding of interaction design methods for children
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Niess, Jasmin; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in International Journal of Child - Computer Interaction (2021), 100398

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC ... [more ▼]

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC) community has developed, extended, and advanced research and design methods for children’s involvement in designing and evaluating interactive technologies. However, as the CCI field evolves, the need arises for an integrated understanding of interaction design methods currently applied. To that end, we analyzed 272 full papers across a selection of journals and conference venues from 2005 to 2020. Our review contributes to the literature on this topic by (1) examining a holistic child population, including developmentally diverse children and children from 0 to 18 years old, (2) illustrating the interplay of children’s and adults’ roles across different methods, and (3) identifying patterns of triangulation in the methods applied while taking recent ethical debates about children’s involvement in design into account. While we found that most studies were conducted in natural settings, we observed a preference for evaluating interactive artifacts at a single point in time. Method triangulation was applied in two-thirds of the papers, with a preference for qualitative methods. Researchers used triangulation predominantly with respect to mainstream methods that were not specifically developed for child participants, such as user observation combined with semi-structured interviews or activity logging. However, the CCI field employs a wide variety of creative design methods which engage children more actively in the design process by having them take on roles such as informant and design partner. In turn, we see that more passive children’s roles, e.g., user or tester, are more often linked to an expert mindset by the adult. Adults take on a wider spectrum of roles in the design process when addressing specific developmental groups, such as children with autism spectrum disorder. We conclude with a critical discussion about the constraints involved in conducting CCI research and discuss implications that can inform future methodological advances in the field and underlying challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge assessment with concept maps: Opportunities and challenges
Rohles, Björn UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives ... [more ▼]

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives. Concept mapping is a promising approach to address these issues. It is a method that uses concepts connected by labeled links to visualize a semantic network of knowledge. Concept mapping is predestined for a digital approach because it allows for easy interactive editing, innovative test items, and incorporation of multimodal information. Concept mapping is available for summative and formative assessment and, thus, provides the opportunity to become a vital part of modern education. The biggest advantage of concept mapping (i.e., a comprehensive and yet comprehensible visualization of complex relations) also represents the biggest challenge when it comes to assessment with - and scoring of - concept maps. The first challenge is the enormous amount of indicators used for scoring concept maps in assessment. A second challenge comes from the fact that educators using concept mapping in their assessment have to understand and interpret the indicators that are used in scoring concept maps. This presentation reports on a Ph.D. project that investigates digital concept mapping in the context of knowledge assessment from a user experience perspective. The results are based on, first, a comprehensive international systematic literature review on concept map scoring, and second, three empirical studies covering the needs and experiences of learners and educators in concept mapping. It presents key findings from the iterative user experience design of a concept mapping tool as part of the online assessment platform OASYS, an overview of indicators used in concept map scoring, and research opportunities in knowledge assessment with concept maps. Finally, it stresses the value that user experience design brings to knowledge assessment with concept maps. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual Masterpieces: Innovation through Public Co-creation for Digital Museum Collections
Morse, Christopher UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Wieneke, Lars UL et al

in International Journal of the Inclusive Museum (2021), 15(1), 65-83

In this study, we describe the results of a series of co-creation workshops in museums with the goal of designing future digital cultural collections. Ranging from exhibition teasers to comprehensive ... [more ▼]

In this study, we describe the results of a series of co-creation workshops in museums with the goal of designing future digital cultural collections. Ranging from exhibition teasers to comprehensive virtual galleries, digital collections are an increasingly prominent feature of many museum websites but remain a largely unexplored facet of the visitor experience. Building on research in museum experience design, which suggests that involving the public in the development of on-site museum spaces and technologies supports better engagement, we investigated how this translates into digital-only contexts. We invited members of the public (N = 12) to the Luxembourg National Museum of History and Art for a series of design jams to investigate how non-experts envision the future of digital interactivity with museums through a series of ideation and rapid prototyping activities. Our analysis of the workshops and resulting prototypes reveals the design space of digital collections across three continuums of experience: individual/social, creation/consumption, and complementary/standalone. We conclude with design implications, namely how museum professionals can apply these dimensions to the design and implementation of digital collections. [less ▲]

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See detailCasual Leisure in Rich-Prospect: Advancing Visual Information Behavior for Digital Museum Collections
Morse, Christopher UL; Niess, Jasmin; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2021), 14(3),

As digital cultural collections become increasingly sophisticated in their scope and functionality, there is a need to build an in-depth understanding concerning the information behaviors of users in this ... [more ▼]

As digital cultural collections become increasingly sophisticated in their scope and functionality, there is a need to build an in-depth understanding concerning the information behaviors of users in this new domain. Research has demonstrated that many digital museum visitors are engaged in casual leisure during exploration of a collection, suggesting that they do not have an inherent information goal but rather seek new experiences or learning opportunities based on personal curiosity and moments of discovery. Consequently, understanding how to translate casual leisure contexts into meaningful interaction design may play a critical role in designing engaging digital collections. Our study reports on the user experience of a largely unexplored user interface design framework called rich-prospect, which was originally developed to enhance browsing and discovery for complex visual collections. We performed a mixed-method, within-subjects study (N=30) that simulated a casual leisure approach to information browsing and retrieval across three different rich-prospect interfaces for digital cultural heritage. Our results show that rich-prospect scores well in the hedonic facets of its user experience, whereas pragmatic aspects have room for improvement. Additionally, through our qualitative analysis of participant feedback, we derived salient themes relating to the exploratory browsing experience. We conclude with a series of design implications to better connect interactive elements with casual leisure contexts for digital cultural collections. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisation du diagnostic pédagogique : De l’évolution à la révolution
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l’éducation au Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detail"I Personally Relate It to the Traffic Light": A User Study on Security & Privacy Indicators in a Secure Email System Committed to Privacy by Default
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2021)

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of ... [more ▼]

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of information that should be communicated to users to inform them of the security and privacy properties with respect to different messages or correspondents. Contributing to the ongoing discussion on the usability and effectiveness of security and privacy indicators, particularly in the context of systems targeting non-expert users, this paper sheds light on users' evaluation of traffic light-inspired indicators, as a metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees, provided by a new system for email end-to-end encryption called p≡p. Using a mixed-methods approach, based on input gathered from 150 participants in three online studies, we highlight the pros and cons of the traffic light semantic in p≡p's context and beyond, and discuss the potential implications on the perceived security and use of such systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung der pädagogischen Diagnostik: Von Evolution zu Revolution
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL et al

in LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimenter Effects in Children Using the Smileyometer Scale
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 19)

Researchers in the social sciences like human-computer interaction face novel challenges concerning the development of methods and tools for evaluating interactive technology with children. One of these ... [more ▼]

Researchers in the social sciences like human-computer interaction face novel challenges concerning the development of methods and tools for evaluating interactive technology with children. One of these challenges is related to the validity and reliability of user experience measurement tools. Scale designs, like the Smileyometer, have been proven to contain biases such as the tendency for children to rate almost every technology as great. This explorative paper discusses a possible effect of two experimenter styles on the distribution of 6-8 years old pupils' ratings (N= 73) to the Smileyometer. We administered the scale before and after a tablet-based assessment in two schools. Experimenter 1 employed a child-directed speech compared to a monotone speech of Experimenter 2. While brilliant (5 out of 5) was the most frequent answer option in all conditions, the mean scores were higher and associated with a lower variability across both conditions for Experimenter 2. We discuss a possible experimenter effect in the Smileyometer and implications for evaluating children’s user experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do pupils experience Technology-Based Assessments? Implications for methodological approaches to measuring the User Experience based on two case studies in France and Luxembourg
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at ... [more ▼]

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at their best (i.a. independent of individual differences in computer literacy), we must ensure reliable and valid data collection. By reducing Human-Computer Interaction issues, we provide the best possible assessment conditions and user experience (UX) with the TBA and reduce educational inequalities. Good UX is thus a prerequisite for better data validity. Building on a recent case study, we investigated how pupils perform TBAs in real-life settings. We addressed the context-dependent factors resulting from the observations that ultimately influence the UX. The first case study was conducted with pupils age 6 to 7 in three elementary schools in France (n=61) in collaboration with la direction de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP). The second case study was done with pupils age 12 to 16 in four secondary schools in Luxembourg (n=104) in collaboration with the Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET). This exploratory study focused on the collection of various qualitative datasets to identify factors that influence the interaction with the TBA. We also discuss the importance of teachers’ moderation style and mere system-related characteristics, such as audio protocols of the assessment data. This study contribution comprises design recommendations and implications for methodological approaches to measuring pupils’ user experience during TBAs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Framework of Security-Enhancing Friction: How UX Can Help Users Behave More Securely
Distler, Verena UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in New Security Paradigms Workshop (2020, October 26)

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by ... [more ▼]

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by integrating the concept of user experience (UX) into empirical usable privacy and security studies that attempt to change risktaking behavior. UX enables us to study the complex interplay between user-related, system-related and contextual factors and provides insights into the experiential aspects underlying behavior change, including negative experiences. We first compare and contrast existing security-enhancing interventions (e.g., nudges, warnings, fear appeals) through the lens of friction. We then build on these insights to argue that it can be desirable to design for moments of negative UX in security-critical situations. For this purpose, we introduce the novel concept of security-enhancing friction, friction that effectively reduces the occurrence of risk-taking behavior and ensures that the overall UX (after use) is not compromised. We illustrate how security-enhancing friction provides an actionable way to systematically integrate the concept of UX into empirical usable privacy and security studies for meeting both the objectives of secure behavior and of overall acceptable experience. [less ▲]

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