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See detailPatient-derived organoids and orthotopic xenografts of primary and recurrent gliomas represent relevant patient avatars for precision oncology.
Golebiewska, Anna UL; Hau, Ann-Christin; Oudin, Anaïs et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2020)

Patient-based cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and for the assessment of drug responses in a translational context. We report the establishment a large cohort of unique ... [more ▼]

Patient-based cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and for the assessment of drug responses in a translational context. We report the establishment a large cohort of unique organoids and patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) of various glioma subtypes, including gliomas with mutations in IDH1, and paired longitudinal PDOX from primary and recurrent tumors of the same patient. We show that glioma PDOXs enable long-term propagation of patient tumors and represent clinically relevant patient avatars that retain histopathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic features of parental tumors. We find no evidence of mouse-specific clonal evolution in glioma PDOXs. Our cohort captures individual molecular genotypes for precision medicine including mutations in IDH1, ATRX, TP53, MDM2/4, amplification of EGFR, PDGFRA, MET, CDK4/6, MDM2/4, and deletion of CDKN2A/B, PTCH, and PTEN. Matched longitudinal PDOX recapitulate the limited genetic evolution of gliomas observed in patients following treatment. At the histological level, we observe increased vascularization in the rat host as compared to mice. PDOX-derived standardized glioma organoids are amenable to high-throughput drug screens that can be validated in mice. We show clinically relevant responses to temozolomide (TMZ) and to targeted treatments, such as EGFR and CDK4/6 inhibitors in (epi)genetically defined subgroups, according to MGMT promoter and EGFR/CDK status, respectively. Dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083), a promising bifunctional alkylating agent in the current clinical trial, displayed high therapeutic efficacy, and was able to overcome TMZ resistance in glioblastoma. Our work underscores the clinical relevance of glioma organoids and PDOX models for translational research and personalized treatment studies and represents a unique publicly available resource for precision oncology. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary and recurrent glioma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) represent relevant patient avatars for precision medicine
Golebiewska, Anna UL; Hau, Ann-Christin; Oudin, Anais et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Patient-derived cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and preclinical interventions. Here, we show that glioma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOXs) enable long-term ... [more ▼]

Patient-derived cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and preclinical interventions. Here, we show that glioma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOXs) enable long-term propagation of patient tumors and represent clinically relevant patient avatars. We created a large collection of PDOXs from primary and recurrent gliomas with and without mutations in IDH1, which retained histopathological, genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic features of patient tumors with no mouse-specific clonal evolution. Longitudinal PDOX models recapitulate the limited genetic evolution of gliomas observed in patient tumors following treatment. PDOX-derived standardized tumor organoid cultures enabled assessment of drug responses, which were validated in mice. PDOXs showed clinically relevant responses to Temozolomide and to targeted treatments such as EGFR and CDK4/6 inhibitors in (epi)genetically defined groups, according to MGMT promoter and EGFR/CDK status respectively. Dianhydrogalactitol, a bifunctional alkylating agent, showed promising potential against glioblastoma. Our study underlines the clinical relevance of glioma PDOX models for translational research and personalized treatment studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSide population in human glioblastoma is non-tumorigenic and characterizes brain endothelial cells.
Golebiewska, Anna; Bougnaud, Sebastien; Stieber, Daniel et al

in Brain : a journal of neurology (2013), 136(Pt 5), 1462-75

The identification and significance of cancer stem-like cells in malignant gliomas remains controversial. It has been proposed that cancer stem-like cells display increased drug resistance, through the ... [more ▼]

The identification and significance of cancer stem-like cells in malignant gliomas remains controversial. It has been proposed that cancer stem-like cells display increased drug resistance, through the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters that detoxify cells by effluxing exogenous compounds. Here, we investigated the 'side population' phenotype based on efflux properties of ATP-binding cassette transporters in freshly isolated human glioblastoma samples and intracranial xenografts derived thereof. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on sorted cells obtained from glioblastoma biopsies, as well as human tumour xenografts developed in immunodeficient enhanced green fluorescence protein-expressing mice that allow an unequivocal tumour-stroma discrimination, we show that side population cells in human glioblastoma are non-neoplastic and exclusively stroma-derived. Tumour cells were consistently devoid of efflux properties regardless of their genetic background, tumour ploidy or stem cell associated marker expression. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we identified the stromal side population in human glioblastoma to be brain-derived endothelial cells with a minor contribution of astrocytes. In contrast with their foetal counterpart, neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult brain did not display the side population phenotype. Of note, we show that CD133-positive cells often associated with cancer stem-like cells in glioblastoma biopsies, do not represent a homogenous cell population and include CD31-positive endothelial cells. Interestingly, treatment of brain tumours with the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab reduced total vessel density, but did not affect the efflux properties of endothelial cells. In conclusion our findings contribute to an unbiased identification of cancer stem-like cells and stromal cells in brain neoplasms, and provide novel insight into the complex issue of drug delivery to the brain. Since efflux properties of endothelial cells are likely to compromise drug availability, transiently targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters may be a valuable therapeutic strategy to improve treatment effects in brain tumours. [less ▲]

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