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See detailThe Sexualized-Body-Inversion-Hypothesis Revisited: Valid Indicator of Sexual Objectification or Methodological Artifact?
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Kistemaker, Lisa M.

in Cognition (2015), 134(1), 77-84

Recently, Bernard, Gervais, Allen, Campomizzi, and Klein (2012) reported that individuals were less able to recognize inverted vs. upright pictures of sexualized men as compared to women. Based on their ... [more ▼]

Recently, Bernard, Gervais, Allen, Campomizzi, and Klein (2012) reported that individuals were less able to recognize inverted vs. upright pictures of sexualized men as compared to women. Based on their formulation of the sexualized-body-inversion hypothesis (SBIH) it was concluded that sexualized women as compared to men are perceived in a more object-like manner supporting sexual objectification (SO) of females – independent from observer gender. We challenge this interpretation and hypothesize that the originally reported effect is the result of a methodological artifact due to gender-symmetry and stimuli setup-symmetry confounds in the original stimulus set. We tested this theoretically more parsimonious account in a methodologically stricter and extended conceptual replication of the putative SO-effect. Results from two studies showed that the original stimulus set indeed suffered from symmetry confounds and that these are necessary boundary-conditions in order for the hypothetical SO-effect to occur. It is concluded that the SBIH as postulated by Bernard et al. (2012) is based on a methodological artifact and cannot be related to SO but symmetry detection. [less ▲]

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See detailPro-criminal attitudes, intervention, and recidivism
Banse, Rainer; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Kistemaker, Lisa M. et al

in Aggression and Violent Behavior (2013), 18(6), 673-685

We review the recent research literature on pro-criminal attitudes (PCAs) as dcausal factor of recidivism with a focus on studies on the effectiveness of offender treatment programs targeting PCAs to ... [more ▼]

We review the recent research literature on pro-criminal attitudes (PCAs) as dcausal factor of recidivism with a focus on studies on the effectiveness of offender treatment programs targeting PCAs to prevent recidivism. The main conclusions that can be derived from the literature are: (1) the evidence supports the hypothesis that PCAs are related to reoffending; (2) most investigated offender treatment programs tend to reduce PCAs, although the general lack of adequate control group designs does not rule out alternative explanations for this reduction; and (3) there is no conclusive empirical evidence that intervention programs designed to reduce PCAs are effective in reducing recidivism. Empirical research in this area lacks the theoretical and methodological rigor to test causal models of the influence of treatment on reducing PCAs, and effects of PCAs on recidivism. Limitations of the empirical evidence are related to inadequate research designs and/or suboptimal data analysis strategies. Recommendations concerning optimized research designs and data analysis strategies that are likely to provide more conclusive evidence on the relation of PCAs, PCA treatment, and recidivism are given. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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