References of "Khan, Nida 50026438"
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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain-enabled Traceability and Immutability for Financial Applications
Khan, Nida UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

􏰔􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁The dissertation explores the efficacy of exploiting the transparency and immutability characteristics of blockchain platforms in a financial ecosystem. It elaborates on blockchain ... [more ▼]

􏰔􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁The dissertation explores the efficacy of exploiting the transparency and immutability characteristics of blockchain platforms in a financial ecosystem. It elaborates on blockchain technology employing a succinct approach, which serves as the foundation to comprehend the contributions of the present research work. The dissertation gives a verified mathematical model, derived using Nash equilibrium, to function as a framework for blockchain governance. The work elucidates the design, implementation and evaluation of a management plane to monitor and manage blockchain-based decentralized applications. The dissertation also solves the problem of data privacy by the development and evaluation of a management plane for differential privacy preservation through smart contracts. Further, the research work discusses the compliance of the privacy management plane to GDPR using a permissioned blockchain platform. The dissertation is a pioneer in conducting an implementation-based, comparative and an exploratory analysis of tokenization of ethical investment certificates. The dissertation also verifies the utility of blockchain to solve some prevalent issues in social finance. It accomplishes this through the development and testing of a blockchain-based donation application. A qualitative review of the economic impact of blockchain-based micropayments has also been conducted. The discussion on the economic impact also includes a proposition for extending the access of blockchain-based financial services to the underbanked and unbanked people. The work concludes with a hypothetical model of a financial ecosystem, depicting the deployment of the major contributions of this dissertation. 􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰄􏰧􏰁􏰈􏰧􏰨 􏰞􏰇􏰉􏰈􏰏􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰆􏰕􏰨 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰄􏰉􏰊􏰅􏰁􏰋􏰃 􏰅􏰃􏰖􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰕􏰇􏰧􏰛 􏰩􏰁􏰅􏰓 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰅􏰇 􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰃􏰅􏰃􏰕􏰛 􏰇􏰋􏰃􏰄􏰓􏰆􏰉􏰕 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰃􏰪􏰁􏰂􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰁􏰈􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰉􏰄􏰃􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰂􏰃􏰖􏰅􏰇􏰄 􏰁􏰂 􏰕􏰃􏰆􏰏􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰃􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰛􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰇 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰇􏰕􏰋􏰃 􏰃􏰈􏰏􏰃􏰝􏰁􏰖 􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰉􏰃􏰂 􏰄􏰃􏰕􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰏 􏰅􏰇 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰈􏰂􏰊􏰆􏰄􏰃􏰈􏰖􏰛􏰨 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰄􏰏􏰘􏰊􏰆􏰄􏰅􏰛 􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰉􏰏 􏰆􏰂 􏰩􏰃􏰕􏰕 􏰆􏰂 􏰅􏰁􏰝􏰃􏰘 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰂􏰉􏰝􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰃􏰪􏰊􏰃􏰈􏰂􏰁􏰋􏰃 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰈􏰂􏰆􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰂􏰃􏰖􏰅􏰇􏰄 􏰓􏰆􏰂 􏰈􏰇􏰅 􏰙􏰃􏰃􏰈 􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰃 􏰅􏰇 􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰃 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰉􏰈􏰏􏰃􏰄􏰙􏰆􏰈􏰗􏰃􏰏 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰉􏰈􏰙􏰆􏰈􏰗􏰃􏰏 􏰊􏰇􏰊􏰉􏰕􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰕􏰏 􏰂􏰇 􏰞􏰆􏰄􏰍 􏰬􏰭􏰮􏰜􏰀􏰘􏰯􏰰 􏰁􏰈 􏰱􏰲􏰱􏰲 􏰓􏰆􏰂 􏰁􏰈􏰏􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰏 􏰅􏰓􏰆􏰅 􏰆 􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰇􏰈􏰧 􏰏􏰁􏰧􏰁􏰅􏰆􏰕 􏰁􏰈􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰉􏰄􏰃 􏰁􏰂 􏰈􏰃􏰃􏰏􏰃􏰏 􏰅􏰇 􏰙􏰃 􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰃 􏰅􏰇 􏰏􏰃􏰆􏰕 􏰙􏰃􏰅􏰅􏰃􏰄 􏰩􏰁􏰅􏰓 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰄􏰉􏰊􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰖􏰆􏰈 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰛 􏰆 􏰊􏰁􏰋􏰇􏰅􏰆􏰕 􏰄􏰇􏰕􏰃 􏰁􏰈 􏰃􏰂􏰅􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰁􏰂􏰓􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰏􏰁􏰧􏰁􏰅􏰆􏰕 􏰁􏰈􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰉􏰄􏰃􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰃􏰪􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰄􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰃􏰳􏰖􏰆􏰖􏰛 􏰇􏰞 􏰃􏰪􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰁􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰈􏰂􏰊􏰆􏰄􏰃􏰈􏰖􏰛 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰁􏰝􏰝􏰉􏰅􏰆􏰙􏰁􏰕􏰁􏰅􏰛 􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰄􏰆􏰖􏰅􏰃􏰄􏰁􏰂􏰅􏰁􏰖􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰅􏰞􏰇􏰄􏰝􏰂 􏰁􏰈 􏰆 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰃􏰖􏰇􏰂􏰛􏰂􏰅􏰃􏰝􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰃􏰕􏰆􏰙􏰇􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰂 􏰇􏰈 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰃􏰖􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰕􏰇􏰧􏰛 􏰃􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰛􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰆 􏰂􏰉􏰖􏰖􏰁􏰈􏰖􏰅 􏰆􏰊􏰊􏰄􏰇􏰆􏰖􏰓􏰨 􏰩􏰓􏰁􏰖􏰓 􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰃􏰂 􏰆􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰞􏰇􏰉􏰈􏰏􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰅􏰇 􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰓􏰃􏰈􏰏 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰅􏰄􏰁􏰙􏰉􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰆􏰄􏰖􏰓 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗􏰍 􏰔􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰧􏰇􏰋􏰘 􏰃􏰄􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰁􏰂 􏰆􏰈 􏰉􏰈􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰇􏰕􏰋􏰃􏰏 􏰞􏰆􏰖􏰃􏰅 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰅􏰃􏰖􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰕􏰇􏰧􏰛􏰨 􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰆􏰙􏰂􏰃􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰩􏰓􏰁􏰖􏰓􏰨 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰁􏰙􏰉􏰅􏰃􏰏 􏰈􏰃􏰅􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰖􏰆􏰈 􏰞􏰆􏰁􏰕 􏰅􏰇 􏰞􏰉􏰈􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰇􏰊􏰅􏰁􏰝􏰆􏰕􏰕􏰛 􏰇􏰄 􏰃􏰋􏰃􏰈 􏰂􏰅􏰆􏰕􏰕􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰧􏰁􏰋􏰃􏰂 􏰆 􏰋􏰃􏰄􏰁􏰫􏰃􏰏 􏰝􏰆􏰅􏰓􏰃􏰝􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰕 􏰝􏰇􏰏􏰃􏰕􏰨 􏰏􏰃􏰘 􏰄􏰁􏰋􏰃􏰏 􏰉􏰂􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰑􏰆􏰂􏰓 􏰃􏰴􏰉􏰁􏰕􏰁􏰙􏰄􏰁􏰉􏰝􏰨 􏰅􏰇 􏰞􏰉􏰈􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰆􏰂 􏰆 􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰝􏰃􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰞􏰇􏰄 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰧􏰇􏰋􏰃􏰄􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰉􏰂􏰆􏰧􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰁􏰈 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰇􏰄􏰧􏰆􏰈􏰁􏰵􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂 􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰆􏰁􏰕􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰄􏰃􏰴􏰉􏰁􏰄􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰇􏰞 􏰆 􏰂􏰇􏰉􏰈􏰏 􏰝􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰧􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰧􏰛 􏰅􏰇 􏰇􏰙􏰘 􏰞􏰉􏰂􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰃 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰃􏰪􏰁􏰅􏰁􏰃􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰅􏰃􏰖􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰕􏰇􏰧􏰛 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰄􏰃􏰊􏰕􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰃 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰆􏰏􏰝􏰁􏰈􏰁􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰋􏰃 􏰞􏰉􏰈􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂 􏰃􏰪􏰁􏰂􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰁􏰈 􏰕􏰃􏰧􏰆􏰖􏰛 􏰂􏰛􏰂􏰅􏰃􏰝􏰂􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰆􏰄􏰖􏰓 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰃􏰕􏰉􏰖􏰁􏰏􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰃􏰂􏰁􏰧􏰈􏰨 􏰁􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰃􏰋􏰆􏰕􏰉􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰇􏰞 􏰆 􏰝􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰧􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰈􏰃 􏰅􏰇 􏰝􏰇􏰈􏰁􏰅􏰇􏰄 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰝􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰧􏰃 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰘􏰙􏰆􏰂􏰃􏰏 􏰏􏰃􏰖􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰕􏰁􏰵􏰃􏰏 􏰆􏰊􏰊􏰕􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂􏰍 􏰶􏰄􏰁􏰋􏰆􏰖􏰛 􏰇􏰞 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰏􏰆􏰅􏰆 􏰁􏰂 􏰃􏰪􏰅􏰄􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰕􏰛 􏰁􏰝􏰊􏰇􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰈􏰅 􏰞􏰇􏰄 􏰆􏰈􏰛 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰇􏰄􏰧􏰆􏰈􏰁􏰵􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰙􏰉􏰅 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰨 􏰙􏰛 􏰋􏰁􏰄􏰅􏰉􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰁􏰅􏰂 􏰁􏰈􏰓􏰃􏰄􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰁􏰈􏰞􏰄􏰆􏰂􏰘 􏰅􏰄􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰉􏰄􏰃􏰨 􏰊􏰇􏰂􏰃􏰂 􏰆 􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰕􏰕􏰃􏰈􏰧􏰃 􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰊􏰃􏰖􏰅􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰁􏰂 􏰆􏰕􏰂􏰇 􏰇􏰈􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰇􏰋􏰃􏰄􏰆􏰄􏰖􏰓􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰞􏰆􏰖􏰅􏰇􏰄􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰆􏰅 􏰝􏰆􏰗􏰃􏰂 􏰉􏰂􏰆􏰧􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰴􏰉􏰃􏰂􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰃 􏰞􏰄􏰇􏰝 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰷􏰉􏰄􏰇􏰊􏰃􏰆􏰈 􏰸􏰀􏰶􏰎 􏰊􏰃􏰄􏰂􏰊􏰃􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰋􏰃􏰍 􏰶􏰄􏰁􏰋􏰆􏰖􏰛􏰘􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰅􏰞􏰇􏰄􏰝􏰂 􏰓􏰆􏰋􏰃 􏰆􏰕􏰂􏰇 􏰊􏰄􏰇􏰋􏰃􏰏 􏰅􏰇 􏰙􏰃 􏰋􏰉􏰕􏰈􏰃􏰄􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰃 􏰅􏰇 􏰏􏰆􏰅􏰆 􏰙􏰄􏰃􏰆􏰖􏰓􏰃􏰂􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰂􏰇􏰕􏰋􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰊􏰄􏰇􏰙􏰕􏰃􏰝 􏰙􏰛 􏰁􏰋 􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰂􏰉􏰊􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰁􏰂􏰇􏰄􏰌 􏰀􏰄􏰍 􏰎􏰆􏰏􏰉 􏰐􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰃 􏰑􏰁􏰏􏰆 􏰒􏰓􏰆􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰃􏰋􏰃􏰕􏰇􏰊􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰃􏰋􏰆􏰕􏰉􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰇􏰞 􏰆 􏰝􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰧􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰈􏰃 􏰞􏰇􏰄 􏰏􏰁􏰹􏰃􏰄􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰊􏰄􏰁􏰋􏰆􏰖􏰛 􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰄􏰇􏰉􏰧􏰓 􏰂􏰝􏰆􏰄􏰅 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰖􏰅􏰂􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰆􏰄􏰖􏰓 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰖􏰉􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰁􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰊􏰄􏰁􏰋􏰆􏰖􏰛 􏰝􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰧􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰈􏰃 􏰅􏰇 􏰸􏰀􏰶􏰎 􏰉􏰂􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰆 􏰊􏰃􏰄􏰝􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰃􏰏 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰊􏰕􏰆􏰅􏰞􏰇􏰄􏰝􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰈􏰃􏰩 􏰃􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰇􏰝􏰁􏰖 􏰊􏰆􏰄􏰆􏰏􏰁􏰧􏰝 􏰃􏰈􏰞􏰇􏰄􏰖􏰃􏰏 􏰙􏰛 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰨 􏰏􏰃􏰖􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰕􏰁􏰵􏰃􏰏 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃􏰨 􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰂 􏰈􏰇􏰋􏰃􏰕 􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰕􏰘 􏰕􏰃􏰈􏰧􏰃􏰂 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰉􏰈􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰖􏰃􏰏􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰃􏰏 􏰂􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰧􏰁􏰖 􏰆􏰏􏰋􏰆􏰈􏰅􏰆􏰧􏰃􏰂􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰁􏰂 􏰆 􏰊􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰃􏰃􏰄 􏰁􏰈 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰏􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰆􏰈 􏰁􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰃􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰘􏰙􏰆􏰂􏰃􏰏􏰨 􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰆􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰋􏰃 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰆􏰈 􏰃􏰪􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰄􏰆􏰅􏰇􏰄􏰛 􏰆􏰈􏰆􏰕􏰛􏰂􏰁􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰇􏰗􏰃􏰈􏰁􏰵􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰇􏰞 􏰃􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰕 􏰁􏰈􏰋􏰃􏰂􏰅􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰖􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰁􏰫􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰃􏰂􏰍 􏰐􏰇􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰝􏰆􏰄􏰗􏰃􏰅􏰂 􏰓􏰆􏰋􏰃 􏰙􏰃􏰃􏰈 􏰏􏰃􏰋􏰃􏰕􏰇􏰊􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰁􏰈 􏰷􏰉􏰄􏰇􏰊􏰃 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰆􏰄􏰃 􏰋􏰁􏰃􏰩􏰃􏰏 􏰆􏰂 􏰂􏰉􏰂􏰅􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰆􏰙􏰕􏰃 􏰫􏰘 􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃 􏰙􏰛 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰷􏰉􏰄􏰇􏰊􏰃􏰆􏰈 􏰬􏰇􏰝􏰝􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰄􏰃􏰂􏰃􏰆􏰄􏰖􏰓 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰋􏰃􏰄􏰁􏰫􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰉􏰅􏰁􏰕􏰁􏰅􏰛 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈 􏰅􏰇 􏰂􏰇􏰕􏰋􏰃 􏰂􏰇􏰝􏰃 􏰊􏰄􏰃􏰋􏰆􏰕􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰉􏰃􏰂 􏰁􏰈 􏰂􏰇􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰃􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰆􏰖􏰖􏰇􏰝􏰊􏰕􏰁􏰂􏰓􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰅􏰓􏰄􏰇􏰉􏰧􏰓 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰃􏰋􏰃􏰕􏰇􏰊􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰅􏰃􏰂􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰇􏰞 􏰆 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰘􏰙􏰆􏰂􏰃􏰏 􏰏􏰇􏰈􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰆􏰊􏰊􏰕􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰍 􏰠 􏰴􏰉􏰆􏰕􏰁􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰋􏰃 􏰄􏰃􏰋􏰁􏰃􏰩 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰃􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰇􏰝􏰁􏰖 􏰁􏰝􏰊􏰆􏰖􏰅 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰘􏰙􏰆􏰂􏰃􏰏 􏰝􏰁􏰖􏰄􏰇􏰊􏰆􏰛􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅􏰂 􏰓􏰆􏰂 􏰆􏰕􏰂􏰇 􏰙􏰃􏰃􏰈 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰏􏰉􏰖􏰅􏰃􏰏􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰖􏰉􏰂􏰂􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰇􏰈 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰃􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰇􏰝􏰁􏰖 􏰁􏰝􏰊􏰆􏰖􏰅 􏰆􏰕􏰂􏰇 􏰁􏰈􏰖􏰕􏰉􏰏􏰃􏰂 􏰆 􏰊􏰄􏰇􏰊􏰇􏰂􏰁􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈 􏰞􏰇􏰄 􏰃􏰪􏰅􏰃􏰈􏰏􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰆􏰖􏰖􏰃􏰂􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰙􏰕􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰖􏰓􏰆􏰁􏰈􏰘􏰙􏰆􏰂􏰃􏰏 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰋􏰁􏰖􏰃􏰂 􏰅􏰇 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰉􏰈􏰘 􏰏􏰃􏰄􏰙􏰆􏰈􏰗􏰃􏰏 􏰆􏰈􏰏 􏰉􏰈􏰙􏰆􏰈􏰗􏰃􏰏 􏰊􏰃􏰇􏰊􏰕􏰃􏰍 􏰚􏰓􏰃 􏰩􏰇􏰄􏰗 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰖􏰕􏰉􏰏􏰃􏰂 􏰩􏰁􏰅􏰓 􏰆 􏰓􏰛􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰓􏰃􏰅􏰁􏰖􏰆􏰕 􏰝􏰇􏰏􏰃􏰕 􏰇􏰞 􏰆 􏰫􏰈􏰆􏰈􏰖􏰁􏰆􏰕 􏰃􏰖􏰇􏰂􏰛􏰂􏰅􏰃􏰝􏰨 􏰏􏰃􏰊􏰁􏰖􏰅􏰁􏰈􏰧 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰏􏰃􏰊􏰕􏰇􏰛􏰝􏰃􏰈􏰅 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰃 􏰝􏰆􏰺􏰇􏰄 􏰖􏰇􏰈􏰅􏰄􏰁􏰙􏰉􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰂 􏰇􏰞 􏰅􏰓􏰁􏰂 􏰏􏰁􏰂􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅􏰆􏰅􏰁􏰇􏰈􏰍 [less ▲]

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See detailThe Future Food Chain: Digitization as an Enabler of Society 5.0
Keogh, John G.; Dube, Laurette; Rejeb, Abderahman et al

in Building the Future of Food Safety Technology, 1st Edition, Blockchain and Beyond (2020)

Food systems and food supply chains (FSCs) have undergone significant changes in their operations and structure over the last decade as globalization expands both food choice and availability. As FSCs ... [more ▼]

Food systems and food supply chains (FSCs) have undergone significant changes in their operations and structure over the last decade as globalization expands both food choice and availability. As FSCs lengthen, and food passes through extended trading relationships, transparency on food origins, methods of cultivation, harvest, processing as well as labor conditions and sustainability is reduced, along with food trust. Moreover, while the rapid pace of technology innovation benefits FSCs, we are witness to the usage of social media platforms by citizen-consumers to amplify the rhetoric related to recurring incidents and crises in food quality, food safety, food fraud, food security, sustainability, and other ethical lapses. Furthermore, we are witness to new evidence on the global burden of foodborne diseases, including non-communicable diseases that range from severe malnutrition to morbid obesity and from severe illnesses requiring hospitalization to mortality. The World Health Organization claims that thirty-one foodborne hazards cause six-hundred million illnesses and four-hundred and twenty thousand deaths annually. Overcoming these challenges requires a holistic reframing of our food systems and societal challenges. The emergence of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provides an overarching framework for collaboration and alignment. Japan has put forward a vision for a human-centric, technology-enabled future branded as "Society 5.0". Increasingly, the redesign of FSCs necessitates a concerted, multi-stakeholder effort and the development of digitization strategies in order to cope with the evolution toward the vision of Society 5.0 and to achieve the UN SDGs. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain and GS1 Standards in the Food Chain: A Review of the Possibilities and Challenges
Keogh, John G.; Rejeb, Abderahman; Khan, Nida UL et al

in Building the Future of Food Safety Technology, 1st Edition, Blockchain and Beyond (2020)

The globalization of food systems has engendered significant changes to the operation and structure of food supply chains (FSCs). Alongside increasing consumer demands for safe and sustainable food ... [more ▼]

The globalization of food systems has engendered significant changes to the operation and structure of food supply chains (FSCs). Alongside increasing consumer demands for safe and sustainable food products, FSCs are challenged with issues related to information transparency and consumer trust. Uncertainty in matters of transparency and trust arises from the growing information asymmetry between food producers and food consumers. In particular: how and where food is cultivated, harvested, processed, and under what conditions. FSCs are tasked with guaranteeing the highest standards in food quality and food safety-ensuring the use of safe and authentic ingredients, limiting product perishability, and mitigating the risk of opportunism such as quality cheating or falsification of information. A sustainable, food-secure world will require multidirectional sharing of information and enhanced information symmetry between food producers and food consumers. The need for information symmetry will drive transformational changes in FSCs methods of practice and will require a coherent standardized framework of best practice recommendations to manage logistic units in the food chain A standardized framework will enhance food traceability, drive FSC efficiencies, enable data interoperability, improve data governance practices, and set supply chain identification standards for products and assets (what), exchange parties (who), locations (where), business processes (why) and sequence (when). FSCs began to adopt industry-driven supply chain standards in 1974 when the first barcode was scanned at a point-of-sale at Marsh's Supermarket in Troy, Ohio. However, the adoption of standards alone will not adequately address the challenges created by the information asymmetry between food producers and food consumers. Therefore, this paper examines the integration of GS1 standards with the functional components of Blockchain technology as an approach to realize a coherent standardized framework of industry-based tools for successful FSC transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailTokenization of Sukuk: Ethereum Case Study
Khan, Nida UL; Kchouri, Bilal UL; Yatoo, Nissar Ahmad et al

in Global Finance Journal (2020)

Sukuk is a financial instrument that provides returns similar to conventional bonds. It has served to cater to the capital requirements of big corporations and governments, while circumventing interest to ... [more ▼]

Sukuk is a financial instrument that provides returns similar to conventional bonds. It has served to cater to the capital requirements of big corporations and governments, while circumventing interest to adhere to the Shariah law. Sukuk can be touted as Shariah-compliant bonds that rank amongst the most successful and the fastest growing financial instrument in the Islamic economy. The sukuk research area is marked by a dearth of quantitative literature, compared to qualitative academic work. This paper seeks to fill this existing gap, and introduces a novel, exploratory analysis of sukuk tokenization based on a case study. The funding needs of small and medium enterprises remains largely unmet through sukuk on account of the high costs involved, among other reasons. As we show in this paper, blockchains can aid to lower the cost incurred through the tokenization of sukuk. We highlight some of the key challenges involved in the issuance of sukuk and discuss their resolution using blockchain. We also provide a taxonomy of blockchain applications in finance, with a particular focus on Islamic finance. Our paper reviews different blockchain architectures to assess their viability for tokenization. We conduct a novel case study on sukuk tokenization by implementing a basic smart contract for Sukuk al-Murabaha on Ethereum. The paper concludes by a conceptual analysis of feasibility concerns, based on a comparison of the conducted cost-benefit analysis of conventional sukuk issuance with tokenization. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockPGP: A Blockchain-based Framework for PGP Key Servers
Yakubov, Alexander UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Khan, Nida UL et al

in International Journal of Networking and Computing (2020), 10(1), 1-24

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is one of the most prominent cryptographic standards offering end-to-end encryption for email messages and other sensitive information exchange. PGP allows to verify the identity ... [more ▼]

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is one of the most prominent cryptographic standards offering end-to-end encryption for email messages and other sensitive information exchange. PGP allows to verify the identity of the correspondent in information exchange as well as the information integrity. PGP implements asymmetric encryption with certificates shared through a network of PGP key servers. In this paper, we propose a new PGP management framework with the key servers infrastructure implemented using blockchain technology. Our approach offers fast propagation of certificate revocation among PGP key servers and elimination of man-in-the-middle risks. It also grants users the required access control to update their own PGP certificates, which is not the case with the current PGP key servers. A prototype has been implemented using Ethereum blockchain and an open source key server, named Hockeypuck. Finally, we evaluated the prototype with extensive experiments. Our results show that our solution is practical and it could be integrated with the existing public PGP key servers infrastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailA Look into Privacy-Preserving Blockchains
Khan, Nida UL; Nassar, Mohamed

in IEEE BCA @AICCSA 2019 - Workshop on Blockchain and it's Applications (2020)

Blockchain is a revolutionary technology promising a new generation of decentralized, transparent and tamper-proof database systems. However, one of the main challenges of the emerging blockchain systems ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is a revolutionary technology promising a new generation of decentralized, transparent and tamper-proof database systems. However, one of the main challenges of the emerging blockchain systems remains to address data privacy. While in Bitcoin and similar e-cash systems, privacy was limited to anonymity and addressed by using cryptographic pseudonyms for identification and authentication of parties, the question of privacy has more breadth in systems maintaining actual data such as medical records or energy meters. In this paper, we look into recently proposed privacy-preserving blockchains, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight research questions requiring future investigation. We conclude that privacy-preserving blockchains are still in their infancy and more research is definitely needed in this area. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of Stellar as a Blockchain-based Micropayment System
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; State, Radu UL

in Springer SmartBlock 2019 - 2nd International Conference on Smart Blockchain (2019, November)

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time ... [more ▼]

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time. The divisibility of a blockchain cryptocurrency to even fractions of a cent, caused microtransactions to become feasible to formerly non-existent denominations. These microtransactions have spurred the development of novel ways of monetizing online resources and hold the potential to aid in alleviation of poverty. The paper conducts a feasibility study on Stellar as a blockchain-based micropayment system. It highlights the computational and other issues that impedes its progress and utilizes a characterization model for micropayment systems to evaluate the efficacy of the Stellar platform. The paper conducts a comparison with the micropayment solutions from Bitcoin, Ethereum and PayPal. The paper analyzes a subset of transactions from the Stellar blockchain to aid in drawing a conclusion on the undertaken study and elaborates on the mitigation tools to enable fraud prevention in online monetary transactions. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility Analysis of Blockchain for Donation-based Crowdfunding of Ethical Projects
Khan, Nida UL; Ouaich, Rachid

in Springer Smart Technologies and Innovation for a Sustainable Future. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). (2019)

Donation is a necessary social tool that is plagued by many inherent shortcomings. A novel model in the form of a decentralized app was designed in the Ethereum blockchain to solve the challenges present ... [more ▼]

Donation is a necessary social tool that is plagued by many inherent shortcomings. A novel model in the form of a decentralized app was designed in the Ethereum blockchain to solve the challenges present and optimize the process of Zakaah donation. Load and stress tests on the prototype of the smart contract in the public testnet of Ethereum were analyzed to gauge the feasibility of mass usage. Similar tests were done in Hyperledger to conclude on the optimum blockchain platform for Zakaah. An anomaly was detected during the testing phase of the decentralized app in the public testnet of Ethereum and it was exploited to propose a novel strategy to enhance the throughput of Ethereum. The testing is a pioneer in evaluating the throughput and feasibility of a blockchain based financial product and provides a benchmark to validate the business and technical hypotheses of other similar financial products and services. [less ▲]

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See detailLightning Network: A Comparative Review of Transaction Fees and Data Analysis
Khan, Nida UL; State, Radu UL

in Springer Blockchain and Applications (2019)

Blockchain is a revolutionary, immutable database disrupting the finance industry with a potential to provide payments in a secure environment, unhindered by intermediaries. However, scalability and ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is a revolutionary, immutable database disrupting the finance industry with a potential to provide payments in a secure environment, unhindered by intermediaries. However, scalability and throughput issues plague the technology and prevent it's mass scale adoption. The paper focusses on Lightning Network, the off-chain, scalable and high throughput payment solution from Bitcoin. A comparison is conducted to highlight the fee incurred for payment transactions through Lightning Network, Raiden, Stellar, Bitcoin and conventional payment systems to assess its viability as a blockchain-based payment sys-tem. The paper also provides an analysis of the data of Lightning Network, to give a global overview of its usage and reachability. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain-based Micropayment Systems: Economic Impact
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; State, Radu UL

in ACM IDEAS '19 Proceedings of the 23rd International Database Engineering & Applications Symposium (2019)

The inception of blockchain catapulted the development of innovative use cases utilizing the trustless, decentralized environment, empowered by cryptocurrencies. The envisaged benefits of the technology ... [more ▼]

The inception of blockchain catapulted the development of innovative use cases utilizing the trustless, decentralized environment, empowered by cryptocurrencies. The envisaged benefits of the technology includes the divisible nature of a cryptocurrency, that can facilitate payments in fractions of a cent, enabling micropayments through the blockchain. Micropayments are a critical tool to enable financial inclusion and to aid in global poverty alleviation. The paper conducts a study on the economic impact of blockchain-based micropayment systems, emphasizing their significance for socioeconomic benefit and financial inclusion. The paper also highlights the contribution of blockchain-based micropayments to the cybercrime economy, indicating the critical need of economic regulations to curtail the growing threat posed by the digital payment mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailFAST: A MapReduce Consensus for High Performance Blockchains
Khan, Nida UL

in ACM BlockSys'18 Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Blockchain-enabled Networked Sensor Systems (2018, November 04)

Blockchain platforms when used as a database for IoT systems can resolve data reliability fault-tolerance, consistency and non-repudiation issues. However, their inherent shortcomings related to their ... [more ▼]

Blockchain platforms when used as a database for IoT systems can resolve data reliability fault-tolerance, consistency and non-repudiation issues. However, their inherent shortcomings related to their throughput in terms of processed transactions, limit their applicability in such environments in a decentralized way as the underlying network is unable to sustain high workloads. In this paper a fully decentralized high performance consensus mechanism, named FAST, is proposed for a public blockchain. FAST is based on mapreduce paradigm for aggregating and adding transactions on blockchain blocks. FAST was implemented and evaluated in a basic blockchain prototype. A light client for FAST using IPFS, was developed to bring about a reduction in the data stored locally. The obtained results from tests conducted on the prototype depict that FAST exceeds the performance of not just other existing blockchain platforms but comes very close to the throughput of traditional electronic payment networks such as Visa. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Management Plane for Smart Contracts: Ethereum Case Study
Khan, Nida UL; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Francois, Jerome et al

in NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (2018)

Blockchain is an emerging foundational technology with the potential to create a novel economic and social system. The complexity of the technology poses many challenges and foremost amongst these are ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is an emerging foundational technology with the potential to create a novel economic and social system. The complexity of the technology poses many challenges and foremost amongst these are monitoring and management of blockchain-based decentralized applications. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate a novel system to enable management operations in smart contracts. A key aspect of our system is that it facilitates the integration of these operations through dedicated ’managing’ smart contracts to provide data filtering as per the role of the smart contract-based application user. We evaluate the overhead costs of such data filtering operations after post-deployment analyses of five categories of smart contracts on the Ethereum public testnet, Rinkeby. We also build a monitoring tool to display public blockchain data using a dashboard coupled with a notification mechanism of any changes in private data to the administrator of the monitored decentralized application. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Technology - Arsenal for a Shariah-Compliant Financial Ecosystem
Lacasse, Richard-Marc; Lambert, Berthe; Khan, Nida UL

in Journal of Business and Economics (2017, December 05)

The authors’ first challenge is to decipher the complexity of Islamic Finance despite the opacity of the sector. A second focal point is the agent’s agenda; in the Islamic Finance industry, contributors ... [more ▼]

The authors’ first challenge is to decipher the complexity of Islamic Finance despite the opacity of the sector. A second focal point is the agent’s agenda; in the Islamic Finance industry, contributors mandate intermediaries (agents) to transfer their contributions to social causes according to the Shariah; in principle, Islamic financial institutions must create value for their stakeholders by offering Shariah-compliant products and services. An underlying assumption of agency theory is that agents attempt to maximize their personal welfare and compensation, but such behaviour may not always be in the best interests of other stakeholders, and an analysis of the agent’s agenda can help explain how agents can fall off the pedestal of altruism. Relationships between Islamic banks and three key stakeholders (contributors, beneficiaries and regulators) are also explored via a complexity-aware monitoring process. Contributors provide funds to an Islamic bank (agent), and in return, the agent should be accountable to the contributors, but the form and degree of accountability can vary depending on the organization’s mission. There are many unanswered questions regarding the monitoring process. One objective of the article is to consider whether agents act in the best interests of the stakeholders. Finally, the authors explore the following question: Can blockchain technology and smart contracts support and enhance the transparency feature, which is the core underlying principle of all transactions in the Islamic Finance industry? A qualitative research framework was adopted because of the constraints of the enigmatic, secretive Islamic Finance culture. [less ▲]

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