References of "Hesse, Markus 50001977"
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See detailZones and zoning: Linking the geographies of freeports with ArtTech and financial market making
Dörry, Sabine UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Geoforum (2022)

Freeports and special economic zones (SEZs) are established policy tools to attract foreign investment at specific locations, based on the de-coupling of sovereignty and territory. As a result, they ... [more ▼]

Freeports and special economic zones (SEZs) are established policy tools to attract foreign investment at specific locations, based on the de-coupling of sovereignty and territory. As a result, they emerged not only in developmental contexts, but also in tax havens and financial centres. Recently, freeports and SEZs have shifted from responding to global competition for spaces best suited to attract tangible manufacturing to responding to competition for spaces with best conditions to enable value extraction and wealth shielding. We develop the argument on the emerging industry of ArtTech and new ‘fine art freeports’ that thrive on two core social practices: fracturing property rights to enhance financial liquidity and trading activity in highly exclusive fine-art markets, and offshoring – or zoning – to exploit freeport-facilitated relations for market making and rent-seeking.Besides such practices to make and game markets, freeports supply important physical infrastructure for fine-art technical and custody services that precondition any form of value creation. As such, freeports are important spaces for policy experimentation. Contrary to the conventional belief about free zones in general and freeports in particular, however, their economic impact remains limited. We explain this by conceptualising freeports as ‘zones’ defined or designed by specific processes of ‘zoning’ that link their multiple geographies. We conclude that freeports are no sites of exception but spaces that help legitimise novel institutional and economic arrangements emergent in the economy at large. [less ▲]

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See detailInformalität im regionalen Wachstumsprozess. Einblick in eine „Black Box“ der Planungspraxis am Beispiel Luxemburgs
Schmitz, Nicolas; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2022)

Der Beitrag behandelt die Steuerung des Siedlungsflächenwachstums im Großherzogtum Luxemburg aus der Perspektive von Informalität. Luxemburg steht unter einem hohen demographischen und ökonomischen ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag behandelt die Steuerung des Siedlungsflächenwachstums im Großherzogtum Luxemburg aus der Perspektive von Informalität. Luxemburg steht unter einem hohen demographischen und ökonomischen Wachstumsdruck in allen Landesteilen (Hauptstadt, altindustrialisierter Süden, ländlicher Norden), der das Planungssystem stark herausfordert. Zugleich gibt es keine formelle Regionalplanung, allenfalls Ansätze interkommunaler Kooperation, die überwiegend freiwilliger Natur sind. Anhand von empirischen Fallstudien in zwei wachstumsstarken Gemeinden (Junglinster, Schuttrange) skizziert der Beitrag Planungsentscheidungen im institutionellen Dreieck zwischen Kommune, Staat und privaten Trägern. Informalität dient hier nicht nur zur Kompensation fehlender planerischer Steuerung, sondern auch dem Umgang mit der komplexen Rechtsmaterie des Landes. Informell kommen auch die vitalen Interessen der Grundeigentümer ins Spiel: Da ein Teil der Wohlfahrtseffekte des Landes über Grund und Boden realisiert wird, sind Spekulationsinteressen immanent, haben ein hohes Blockadepotenzial. In diesem Kontext formuliert der Beitrag erste Überlegungen für ein regionales Wachstumsmanagement, das die Lücke zwischen staatlicher Landesplanung und kommunalem Eigensinn schließen könnte. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg-Kirchberg: heading towards the new European city
Hesse, Markus UL

in Briesen, Detlef; Strubelt, Wendelin (Eds.) A New Beginning? Spatial Planning and Research in Europe between 1945 and 1975 (2022)

This chapter explores spatial planning and spatial research in post-World War II Europe from the perspective of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. While spatial planning and, even more so, spatial research ... [more ▼]

This chapter explores spatial planning and spatial research in post-World War II Europe from the perspective of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. While spatial planning and, even more so, spatial research were established in the country only recently, both the Grand Duchy and its capital city have undergone a remarkable trajectory of growth and change over the past decades. Within roughly forty years, a diminutive Luxembourg has almost doubled its population and reached a top position measured by global economic indicators. One of the major sites implicated in this economic success is the Kirchberg Plateau, a 365-hectares area that now hosts the European and banking district and also some components of nationally important infrastructure. Initially agricultural land, it was developed by the central government from the early 1960s. It was mainly designed in the fashion of a modern office town, with high-rises, ‘starchitecture’ and wide boulevards, dedicated to localising employment in future sectors, aimed at compensating for the decline of the country’s once dominant steel industry. Kirchberg provided space for expansion by experimentation, put in place by a state fund through state power and with the ability to expropriate land, offering a blank sheet of territory for development and clearly offering direction and momentum for a new trajectory. This is the known part of Kirchberg. The unknown part is also addressed here: Kirchberg has a pre-1945 history of planning, a dark side related to Nazi occupation and the attempt to “Germanise” Luxembourg’s development and building policies. While initial ideas for development were based on Hubert Ritters Generalbebauungsplan of 1943, and none of these had been implemented, some features laid the ground for the site's development afterwards. And the overall modernist function and layout of the Kirchberg, to become a template post-war European city, still challenge current attempts to further urbanise the site. [less ▲]

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See detailSprachregelungen. Grund und Boden als diskursives Phänomen
Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2022)

Die kritische Entwicklung des Immobilienmarktes schlägt direkt auf den Wohnungsmarkt durch. Dies hat das Thema zum „Thema“ gemacht, das heißt, es wird problematisiert. Das ist einerseits neu, andererseits ... [more ▼]

Die kritische Entwicklung des Immobilienmarktes schlägt direkt auf den Wohnungsmarkt durch. Dies hat das Thema zum „Thema“ gemacht, das heißt, es wird problematisiert. Das ist einerseits neu, andererseits offenbaren sich große Lücken im Diskurs. Das Sagbare und das Nicht-Sagbare trennen Welten. [less ▲]

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See detailFINCITY -- Excerpt from project description
Hesse, Markus UL; Dörry, Sabine; Sigler, Thomas

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailDer Staat als Träger der Stadtentwicklung. Urbanisierung des Plateau Kirchberg, Luxemburg
Hesse, Markus UL

in RaumPlanung (2022), 216(2-2022), 40-45

Der Beitrag untersucht die Governance-Strukturen des Europa- und Bankenviertels Kirchberg in Luxemburg-Stadt, Musterfall einer Bürostadt der Nachkriegszeit. Dieses Gebiet wird primär durch den Staat als ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag untersucht die Governance-Strukturen des Europa- und Bankenviertels Kirchberg in Luxemburg-Stadt, Musterfall einer Bürostadt der Nachkriegszeit. Dieses Gebiet wird primär durch den Staat als Träger verantwortet. Es ist indes mit ähnlichen Problemen konfrontiert wie private Großprojekte der Stadtplanung, vor allem mit Blick auf institutionelle Strukturen und Pfadabhängigkeit der Entwicklung. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Myth of Beirut’s Resilience: Introduction to the Thematic Issue
Buccianti-Barakat, Liliane; Hesse, Markus UL

in Urban Planning (2022), 7(1), 82-86

This editorial introduces a thematic issue of Urban Planning on recent developments in Beirut, Lebanon. It emphasises the multiple crises the city has been undergoing for some time, which include an ... [more ▼]

This editorial introduces a thematic issue of Urban Planning on recent developments in Beirut, Lebanon. It emphasises the multiple crises the city has been undergoing for some time, which include an enduring political and economic crisis, the impact of the Covid‐19 pandemic, and most recently the devastating impact of the blast that happened in the port of Beirut on 4th August 2020. The editorial outlines the specific challenges resulting from these crises and addresses the concept of resilience, which is taken up by the articles included in this issue. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnocratic urban development: Large digital corporations as power brokers of the digital age
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Planning Theory and Practice (2022)

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this ... [more ▼]

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this paper, we reflect on how the behaviours of these current-day ‘tech giants’ are similar to those of the mid-20th century, a time period also known for dramatic infrastructural change in North American and Europe. Specifically, we are reminded of Robert Moses and how he pushed for infrastructural change in New York City and State, which were also supposedly the height of state-of-the-art urban planning at the time. He pushed his agenda, however, by brokering power and strong-arming the urban and regional development field. We reflect on Alphabet Inc.’s project in Toronto and Amazon’s search for a second headquarters in New York City and how these LDCs were similarly armed with executive and financial power and an ability to bully the field of urban development in their own interest. Behaving as digital-age power brokers, they engaged managerial-technocratic modes of urban governance to instigate projects that ultimately failed. We argue that Alphabet’s and Amazon’s strategies not only resemble those of Moses, but that all three deploy tactics that debase planning practice itself. [less ▲]

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See detailVerantwortung in der Geographie
Hesse, Markus UL

in Standort (2021), 45

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See detailDisruption der internationalen Stadt. Alternative Geographien für Luxemburg
Hesse, Markus UL; Rafferty, Michael UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis. Perspectives from the Humanities & Social Sciences (2021)

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See detailEuropean port cities in transition
Hesse, Markus UL

in Journal of Transport Geography (2021), 96

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See detailLand and the housing affordability crisis: landowner and developer strategies in Luxembourg’s facilitative planning context
Paccoud, Antoine UL; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL et al

in Housing Studies (2021)

The issue of land and its ownership remains under-explored in relation to the housing affordability crisis. We argue that the concentrated ownership of residential land affects housing production in ... [more ▼]

The issue of land and its ownership remains under-explored in relation to the housing affordability crisis. We argue that the concentrated ownership of residential land affects housing production in Luxembourg through the interplay of landowner and developer wealth accumulation strategies. Drawing on expert interviews, we first show that the country’s growth-centred ecology has produced a negotiated planning regime that does little to manage the pace of residential development. Through an investigation of the development of 71 large-scale residential projects since 2007, we then identify the private land-based wealth accumulation strategies this facilitative planning regime enables. This analysis of land registry data identifies land hoarding, land banking and the strategic use of the planning system. The Luxembourg case – with its extremes of land concentration, low taxes and public disengagement from land – provides a glimpse at the influence of landowner and property developer strategies on housing affordability free of the usual mediating impact of the planning system. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Ökonomisierung des Raums
Hesse, Markus UL

in disP : The Planning Review (2021), 57(1), 88-89

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See detailGlobale Warenketten und ungleiche Entwicklung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2021)

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See detail„Place de l’Etoile“/Stäreplaz. Goldgrube mit grünen Dächern
Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2021)

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von ... [more ▼]

Stadt ist Markt. Der Warentausch war, neben Militär und Kirche, immer ein wichtiges Movens von Stadtgründung und -entwicklung. Will man die heutigen Konsumlandschaften reflektieren, muss man am Konsum von Grund und Boden ansetzen. Solch ein Blick erklärt, in welche Richtung sich viele Städte gegenwärtig und zukünftig entwickeln werden. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban expansion re-visited
Hesse, Markus UL

in pnd - rethinking planning (2021), 2021(1), 42-54

This paper deals with urban expansion, that is, the growth of cities and inner-urban areas, both inside and outside of the dedicated planning perimeters. My aim is to give a brief overview of how this ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with urban expansion, that is, the growth of cities and inner-urban areas, both inside and outside of the dedicated planning perimeters. My aim is to give a brief overview of how this subject matter can be discussed from a contemporary perspective, with a certain focus on big projects that have evolved in recent decades and are on the rise again. Towards that end, I will situate the subject matter in historical contexts, provide some explanation as to the 1970s and more recent dynamics, and discuss how large-scale urban projects are being implemented. While big projects pursue different ambitions—such as economic, socio-demographic or ecological goals—they are set in place by a kind of managerial urbanism, often prioritise economic gains and thus challenge urban policy and planning. The paper concludes with a call to contextualise the variegated outcomes of new urban projects and to develop appropriate methods for monitoring and assessing urban life in these quarters. [less ▲]

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See detailA Temporary Space Where Development and Planning Emergencies Meet? Notes on an International Building Exhibition (IBA) in the Cross- Border Territories of France and Luxembourg
Becker, Tom UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Planning Theory and Practice (2021), 22(1), 148-154

An International Building Exhibition (IBA) is currently being planned for the cross-border area of southern Luxembourg and north-eastern France (Alzette-Belval). This planning approach, mainly known in ... [more ▼]

An International Building Exhibition (IBA) is currently being planned for the cross-border area of southern Luxembourg and north-eastern France (Alzette-Belval). This planning approach, mainly known in the German building and planning context, was developed as a temporary activity to foster planning innovation and experimentation, in order to bring both formal and informal processes and regulations forward. Some have also argued that an IBA can be considered a temporary case of planning emergency, a means for trying the unusual in settings where business as usual has failed to address important problems properly. Organising an IBA has recently become increasingly popular in other European countries, such as Austria, the Netherlands or Switzerland. The aim of this note is to address some general questions as to the particular role that this instrument can play, and what it may promise (and not) to spatial planning. We also discuss the specific framework conditions and problems the French-Luxembourgian border region is confronted with. Our comment should contribute to clarifying what the underlying problems are actually about and, more specifically, in what ways an IBA could help dealing with them. Particularly, we suggest decision-makers and practitioners to follow a practice of ‘reflection before selection’: to address the very specificities of both the region and of an IBA before turning to ‘project’-based routines. This would avoid rendering the IBA as an empty signifier or a mere branding tool, while practice remains challenged by vested interests, complex policy terrains and powerful political economies. [less ▲]

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