References of "Heintz-Buschart, Anna 50001136"
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See detailThe nasal and gut microbiome in Parkinson's disease and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.
Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Pandey, Urvashi; Wicke, Tamara et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2017)

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiota and the onset and/or phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD). Differences in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa have been reported in PD ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiota and the onset and/or phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD). Differences in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa have been reported in PD patients. It is, however, unknown whether these differences can be observed in individuals at high risk, for example, with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a prodromal condition of alpha-synuclein aggregation disorders including PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare microbiota in carefully preserved nasal wash and stool samples of subjects with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, manifest PD, and healthy individuals. METHODS: Microbiota of flash-frozen stool and nasal wash samples from 76 PD patients, 21 idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 78 healthy controls were assessed by 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. Seventy variables, related to demographics, clinical parameters including nonmotor symptoms, and sample processing, were analyzed in relation to microbiome variability and controlled differential analyses were performed. RESULTS: Differentially abundant gut microbes, such as Akkermansia, were observed in PD, but no strong differences in nasal microbiota. Eighty percent of the differential gut microbes in PD versus healthy controls showed similar trends in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, for example, Anaerotruncus and several Bacteroides spp., and correlated with nonmotor symptoms. Metagenomic sequencing of select samples enabled the reconstruction of genomes of so far uncharacterized differentially abundant organisms. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals differential abundances of gut microbial taxa in PD and its prodrome idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in comparison to the healthy controls, and highlights the potential of metagenomics to identify and characterize microbial taxa, which are enriched or depleted in PD and/or idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. (c) 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated meta-omic analyses of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Kaysen, Anne UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Muller, Emilie UL et al

in Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine (2017)

In patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), treatment-induced changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome have been linked to adverse outcomes, most ... [more ▼]

In patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), treatment-induced changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome have been linked to adverse outcomes, most notably graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). However, it is presently unknown whether this relationship is causal or consequential. Here, we performed an integrated meta-omic analysis to probe deeper into the GIT microbiome changes during allo-HSCT and its accompanying treatments. We used 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to resolve archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes within the GIT microbiomes of 16 patients undergoing allo-HSCT for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. These results revealed a major shift in the GIT microbiome after allo-HSCT including a marked reduction in bacterial diversity, accompanied by only limited changes in eukaryotes and archaea. An integrated analysis of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data was performed on samples collected from a patient before and after allo-HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia. This patient developed severe GvHD, leading to death 9 months after allo-HSCT. In addition to drastically decreased bacterial diversity, the post-treatment microbiome showed a higher overall number and higher expression levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). One specific Escherichia coli strain causing a paravertebral abscess was linked to GIT dysbiosis, suggesting loss of intestinal barrier integrity. The apparent selection for bacteria expressing ARGs suggests that prophylactic antibiotic administration may adversely affect the overall treatment outcome. We therefore assert that such analyses including information about the selection of pathogenic bacteria expressing ARGs may assist clinicians in "personalizing" regimens for individual patients to improve overall outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated multi-omics of the human gut microbiome in a case study of familial type 1 diabetes.
Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; May, Patrick UL; Laczny, Cedric C. et al

in Nature microbiology (2016), 2

The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem with functions that shape human health. Studying the relationship between taxonomic alterations and functional repercussions linked to disease ... [more ▼]

The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem with functions that shape human health. Studying the relationship between taxonomic alterations and functional repercussions linked to disease remains challenging. Here, we present an integrative approach to resolve the taxonomic and functional attributes of gastrointestinal microbiota at the metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic levels. We apply our methods to samples from four families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Analysis of intra- and inter-individual variation demonstrates that family membership has a pronounced effect on the structural and functional composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome. In the context of T1DM, consistent taxonomic differences were absent across families, but certain human exocrine pancreatic proteins were found at lower levels. The associated microbial functional signatures were linked to metabolic traits in distinct taxa. The methodologies and results provide a foundation for future large-scale integrated multi-omic analyses of the gastrointestinal microbiome in the context of host-microbe interactions in human health and disease. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum: Integrated multi-omics of the human gut microbiome in a case study of familial type 1 diabetes.
Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; May, Patrick UL; Laczny, Cedric C. et al

in Nature microbiology (2016), 2

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See detailSources and Functions of Extracellular Small RNAs in Human Circulation.
Fritz, Joëlle UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Ghosal, Anubrata et al

in Annual review of nutrition (2016)

Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are ... [more ▼]

Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood. Essential issues that remain to be conclusively addressed concern the (a) presence and sources of exogenous ex-sRNAs in human bodily fluids, (b) detection and measurement of ex-sRNAs in human circulation, (c) selectivity of ex-sRNA export and import, (d) sensitivity and specificity of ex-sRNA delivery to cellular targets, and (e) cell-, tissue-, organ-, and organism-wide impacts of ex-sRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication. We survey the present state of knowledge of most of these issues in this review. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 36 is July 17, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification, recovery, and refinement of hitherto undescribed population-level genomes from the human gastrointestinal tract
Laczny, Cedric Christian UL; Muller, Emilie UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2016), 7(884),

Linking taxonomic identity and functional potential at the population-level is important for the study of mixed microbial communities and is greatly facilitated by the availability of microbial reference ... [more ▼]

Linking taxonomic identity and functional potential at the population-level is important for the study of mixed microbial communities and is greatly facilitated by the availability of microbial reference genomes. While the culture-independent recovery of population-level genomes from environmental samples using the binning of metagenomic data has expanded available reference genome catalogs, several microbial lineages remain underrepresented. Here, we present two reference-independent approaches for the identification, recovery, and refinement of hitherto undescribed population-level genomes. The first approach is aimed at genome recovery of varied taxa and involves multi-sample automated binning using CANOPY CLUSTERING complemented by visualization and human-augmented binning using VIZBINpost hoc. The second approach is particularly well-suited for the study of specific taxa and employs VIZBINde novo. Using these approaches, we reconstructed a total of six population-level genomes of distinct and divergent representatives of the Alphaproteobacteria class, the Mollicutes class, the Clostridiales order, and the Melainabacteria class from human gastrointestinal tract-derived metagenomic data. Our results demonstrate that, while automated binning approaches provide great potential for large-scale studies of mixed microbial communities, these approaches should be complemented with informative visualizations because expert-driven inspection and refinements are critical for the recovery of high-quality population-level genomes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli
Ghosal, Anubrata UL; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2015)

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but ... [more ▼]

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacte- ria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA comple- ment. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA com- plement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV- free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA- fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed char- acterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacte- rium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. [less ▲]

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See detailA decade of metaproteomics: where we stand and what the future holds
Wilmes, Paul UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Bond, Philip

in Proteomics (2015)

We are living through exciting times during which we are able to unravel the “microbial dark matter” in and around us through the application of high-resolution “meta-omics”. Metaproteomics offers the ... [more ▼]

We are living through exciting times during which we are able to unravel the “microbial dark matter” in and around us through the application of high-resolution “meta-omics”. Metaproteomics offers the ability to resolve the major catalytic units of microbial populations and thereby allows the establishment of genotype-phenotype linkages from in situ samples. A decade has passed since the term “metaproteomics” was first coined and corresponding analyses were carried out on mixed microbial communities. Metaproteomics has yielded many important insights into microbial ecosystem function in the various environmental settings where it has been applied. Although initial progress in analytical capacities and resulting numbers of proteins identified was extremely fast, this trend slowed rapidly. Here we highlight several representative metaproteomic investigations of activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms, freshwater and seawater microbial communities, soil, and human gut microbiota. By using these case studies, we highlight current challenges and possible solutions for metaproteomics to realize its full potential, i.e. to enable conclusive links between microbial community composition, physiology, function, interactions, ecology, and evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic change of host gastrointestinal microbiome and immune status in relation to mucosal barrier effects during chemotherapy and immune ablative intervention in humans
Kaysen, Anne UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna UL; Lebrun, Laura UL et al

Poster (2014, April)

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by communities of endogenous microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. Here, the microbiota are in close contact with the host intestinal mucosa and ... [more ▼]

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by communities of endogenous microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. Here, the microbiota are in close contact with the host intestinal mucosa and its innate and adaptive immune systems. The fact that certain stimuli induce an inflammatory response whereas others induce tolerance suggests, that the host immune system interacts with the microbiota and vice versa in different ways. However, the exact details of theses interactions remain largely unknown. It is known that cancer treatment can result in severe adverse effects like mucositis and in combination with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Tx), in graft-versus host disease (GvHD). However, there is at present only sparse information available on the effects of chemotherapy on the intestinal microbiota and resulting changes in microbiome-immune system interactions. Almost no data exists on the effect of allogeneic stem cell Tx on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota. In this project, we are studying the complex interactions between the host and the intestinal microbiota after chemotherapy with or without allogeneic Tx and the occurrence of severe adverse side effects such as mucositis and GvHD. Using a systems biology approach including metagenomics and RNAseq, fecal samples and blood plasma samples from patients undergoing these treatments for malignancies will be analysed to identify the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome and bacterial small RNAs. The main research hypothesis is that there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome following chemotherapy and allogeneic Tx which are linked to the immune status of the patients and possible treatment side-effects, in particular mucositis and GvHD. We aim to provide knowledge on how the host's intestinal mucosa and immune system influence the gastrointestinal microbiome and on the role and involvement of the gastrointestinal microbiota in development in mucositis and GvHD. Importantly, this could help in the formulation of measures to prevent mucositis and GvHD development. [less ▲]

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