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See detailModular Support Toolkit for Teachers
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a support framework and a modular support toolkit on the basis of the concept of basic motor competences and the results of the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a support framework and a modular support toolkit on the basis of the concept of basic motor competences and the results of the data collection in phase 1 of the project was developed as part of intellectual output 3. The aim of this toolkit is to be implemented mainly at the level of regular physical education lessons to initiate adaptations regarding the content and methods in physical education instruction. In a first step, the support framework was developed for getting from the diagnosis of the students’ basic motor competencies and the strengths and weaknesses identified in the assessment to concrete interventions. Based on this framework, supportive handouts in form of a modular support toolkit were developed, ready to be implemented in concrete educational situations to support students with additional needs in basic motor competencies. The modular support toolkit includes guidelines for the interpretation of MOBAK (Motorische Basiskompetenzen; German for basic motor competencies) test results, the MOBAK support framework, a glossary, as well as the modular support toolkit with materials for physical education teachers in the form of MOBAK task description cards and MOBAK activity cards based on principles of variation and on a competence-oriented approach. [less ▲]

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See detailSporthistorische Netzwerke: Anfänge – Entwicklungen – Perspektiven
Heck, Sandra UL

in Krüger, Michael; Neuber, Nils (Eds.) Sportgeschichte in Deutschland – Herausforderungen und internationale Perspektiven, Bildung und Sport (2020)

Netzwerke sind bekanntermaßen wichtige Instrumente des Informations- und Meinungsaustausches. Das gemeinsame Interesse an der Sportgeschichte führt auch in diesem thematischen Bereich regelmäßig Menschen ... [more ▼]

Netzwerke sind bekanntermaßen wichtige Instrumente des Informations- und Meinungsaustausches. Das gemeinsame Interesse an der Sportgeschichte führt auch in diesem thematischen Bereich regelmäßig Menschen zusammen. Ziel dieser Analyse ist es, den Status Quo der institutionalisierten Sportgeschichte weltweit aufzuzeigen. Ausgehend von dieser Situation werden die Anfänge und die Entwicklung der organisierten Sportgeschichte am Beispiel der International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sport (ISHPES) und ihres Vorgängers, der International Association for the History of Physical Education and Sport (HISPA), untersucht. Der Fokus richtet sich hier auf unterschiedliche Kriterien, darunter die jeweiligen Zielsetzungen der Organisationen, die Entwicklung der Mitgliederzahlen und -strukturen sowie die geographische Verteilung der Tagungsorte. Aus den Erkenntnissen der vergangenen und aktuellen Situation werden Rückschlüsse auf die Rolle der Netzwerkbildung für die Entwicklung der akademischen Fachdisziplin Sportgeschichte gezogen und abschließend eine Empfehlung ausgesprochen, wie sporthistorische Netzwerke möglicherweise dem Verlust der akademischen Bedeutung der Geschichte als Teildisziplin der Sportwissenschaft entgegenwirken können. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic Competence of Physical Education Teachers
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2019)

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et ... [more ▼]

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et al. 2018; Schrader 2013). Facing the heterogeneity of learning groups, teachers’ diagnostic competences in assessing students’ characteristics and potential are becoming increasingly relevant. The ability to judge students’ prerequisites adequately is generally seen as a vital basis for an instruction adapted to students’ abilities. Up to now, diagnostic competences are considered as a core aspect of teachers’ expertise. While diagnostic competence includes measures of diagnostic accuracy, related to level, rank, and differentiation, it is not determined by a single ability. It, for instance, also embraces the judgment of requirements of learning materials as an essential element for initiating successful learning processes. The better the diagnostic competence is, the better the difficulty of tasks and materials are estimated. This is not only relevant for lesson preparation but also during a lesson while judging scenarios adequately and consequently adapting teaching and learning processes (Ohle and McElvany 2015; Schrader 2013). [less ▲]

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See detailInclusive Physical Education around the World - Origins, Cultures, Practices
Heck, Sandra UL; Block, Martin

Book published by Routledge (2019)

Inclusive Physical Education Around the World is the first book to survey inclusive physical education worldwide, to examine the history of inclusive physical education across different regions, and to ... [more ▼]

Inclusive Physical Education Around the World is the first book to survey inclusive physical education worldwide, to examine the history of inclusive physical education across different regions, and to compare their policy, practice and educational cultures. Featuring the work of leading researchers from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, North America and South America, the book provides a unique interdisciplinary contribution to the fields of physical education, history and pedagogy. It provides readers with information on the origins and historical development of inclusion in schools and teaches them about different ways that inclusive physical education has grown and is implemented in different countries. This is essential reading for anybody with an interest in physical education, disability sport, adapted physical activity, special educational needs (SEN) teaching or social justice in education. It is a vital resource for postgraduates, researchers and academics who are interested in studies on inclusion and heterogeneity, as well as sport and cultural historians, physical education teachers and students. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural Factors Currently Affecting Inclusive Practice – Europe
Heck, Sandra UL; Fitzgerald, Hayley; Solenes, Oskar et al

in Heck, Sandra; Block, Martin (Eds.) Inclusive Physical Education around the World: Origins, Cultures, Practices (2019)

This chapter presents a brief comparison of inclusive practice in physical activity and education from four European national/regional perspectives – the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Norway ... [more ▼]

This chapter presents a brief comparison of inclusive practice in physical activity and education from four European national/regional perspectives – the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Norway/Scandinavia. The contributions are unified in as much as they suggest a common sense of purpose and philosophy; that difference should be recognized and welcomed and accommodation through changes in policy and practice put in place to ensure a broad and balanced physical education and sport experience for all young people. The UK section wrestles with the issue that terminology around inclusion has inhibited a clear direction but also emphasizes the significant role played by education in driving change. The section on Germany further reinforces the crucial importance of embedding inclusive practice in the education context but also highlights the variations in policy that can be endemic in a federal system. The Italy and Norway/Scandinavia contributions show how declarations agreed at international level can influence policy and affect practice on the ground in markedly different ways; in both, a focus on the needs of the individual is key. Whatever the approach, in all cases inclusion is primarily viewed as a fundamental human right. [less ▲]

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See detailHistory of Inclusive Physical Education in Western and Northern Europe
Heck, Sandra UL; Solenes, Oskar; Magnanini, Angela et al

in Heck, Sandra; Block, Martin (Eds.) Inclusive Physical Education around the World: Origins, Cultures, Practices (2019)

Throwing a glance on the status quo in schools of different countries in Western and Northern Europe shows that the requirement of inclusive physical education (PE) is implemented different¬ly: Italy, for ... [more ▼]

Throwing a glance on the status quo in schools of different countries in Western and Northern Europe shows that the requirement of inclusive physical education (PE) is implemented different¬ly: Italy, for instance, leads the way with an almost complete inclusion of children into mainstream education including physical education (Magnanini & Espinosa, 2015), in Norway children have the right to follow mainstream education and one talks about “adjusted” education for pupils with special needs (Dalen 2006; Hyde, Ohna & Hjulstad, 2006), Germany is only slowly breaking up with its traditional system of segregating pupils with special needs (Hausotter & Pluhar, 2004). But what are those differences based on? How did inclusive physi¬¬cal education (PE) historically grow in England, Germany, Italy and Norway, and can trans¬national developments be identified? In all three chosen countries different school systems which are representative for other Northern and Western European countries exist. Aim of this study is to compare them, analyze their historical development and find out whether and in how far those differences in the school system and curricula development prejudged chances for inclusive PE and thereby led to diverse nowadays’ situations. As a result, it is confirmed that the educational policy towards inclusion in schools which was internationally determined to apply in different United Nation member states, finally met on the national level in Northern and Western Europe different conditions and social attitudes. This again led to the implementation of specific national inclusive and/or exclusive structures of PE in schools, which finally, despite the geographical proximity, deviate quite strongly, from each other, not only in terms of current content and policy but also in terms of historical development. [less ▲]

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See detailSportunterricht mit heterogenen Lerngruppen planen – kompetenzorientiert und inklusiv!
Gissel, Norbert; Döhring, Volker; Heck, Sandra UL

in Gissel, Norbert (Ed.) Kritisch-konstruktive Sportpädagogik (2018)

Das hier vorgelegte Konzept einer kritisch-konstruktiven Sportpädagogik bricht mit den bisherigen sportdidaktischen Ansätzen, die versuchten, eine Fachdidaktik aus der Eigenstruktur des Sportes zu ... [more ▼]

Das hier vorgelegte Konzept einer kritisch-konstruktiven Sportpädagogik bricht mit den bisherigen sportdidaktischen Ansätzen, die versuchten, eine Fachdidaktik aus der Eigenstruktur des Sportes zu entwickeln und denen es nicht hinreichend gelang, Sport als Unterrichtsfach bildungstheoretisch nachvollziehbar zu legitimieren. Die hier entwickelte Position folgt der Theorie einer allgemeinen Pädagogik (Benner, 2012). Diese umfasst in einer grundlegenden praxeologischen Idee alle Ebenen von der Wissenschaftsphilosophie über empirische und geisteswissenschaftliche Forschung bis hin zur Konzeptentwicklung und praktischen Didaktik und sieht pädagogische Praxis als ein gemeinsames, nicht auflösbares Feld an. Zentraler Bezugspunkt dieser allgemeinen Pädagogik ist der Bildungsbegriff, der sich nach Klafkis (2007) Argumentation in seinen Zieldimensionen geisteswissenschaftlich schlüssig bestimmen lässt. Alle fachdidaktischen Konzepte und methodischen Einzelmaßnahmen müssen sich daran messen lassen, was sie zu den übergeordneten Bildungszielen Selbstbestimmungs-, Mitbestimmungs- und Solidaritätsfähigkeit betragen können. In dem Buch wird ein Bogen gespannt, der von wissenschaftstheoretischen und anthropologischen Betrachtungen über die Bestimmung kritischer Aufgabenbereiche der Sportpädagogik bis hin zu Planungsproblemen und konstruktiven Beispielen gelingender Unterrichtsvorhaben reicht. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparing for Inclusive Physical Education in Secondary Schools – Development and ‘Status Quo’ of Teacher Training in Germany
Heck, Sandra UL

in Popovic; Antala; Bjelica (Eds.) et al Physical Education in Secondary School: Researches – Best Practices – Situation (2018)

The training of future physical education (PE) teachers has changed over the years. Different demands adapted to new social realities in schools and new curricula require the addition and/or cancellation ... [more ▼]

The training of future physical education (PE) teachers has changed over the years. Different demands adapted to new social realities in schools and new curricula require the addition and/or cancellation of contents at the universities and training colleges. While many school and university curricular programs worldwide already include the topic of inclusive PE, Germany has for a long time segregated pupils according to their intellectual capacities and not fully adapted the national curricula for PE at schools yet. This paper outlines the development and status quo of PE teacher training in Germany. Ministerial demands and orders as well as the curricula of schools, universities and teachers’ training colleges are analyzed to determine whether and/or how far inclusive PE is incorporated. The aim of this study is not to give a complete national overview of the implementation of inclusive PE in teacher training. However, through a regional focus, it shall rather be demonstrated how German ministries as well as other institutions related to education, and how university and teachers’ training colleges deal with the topic of inclusive PE. The present study thereby analyzes whether and if yes how far future PE teachers in secondary schools currently possess the option or the commitment to prepare themselves to teach inclusive classes. [less ▲]

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See detailSport and Urban Space in Europe: Facilities, Industries, Identities
Terret, Thierry; Heck, Sandra UL

Book published by Routledge (2016)

Filling a gap in the literature on the history of sport in Europe, the book brings together complementary studies on diverse aspects of the interrelation between sport and urban space. Going from ... [more ▼]

Filling a gap in the literature on the history of sport in Europe, the book brings together complementary studies on diverse aspects of the interrelation between sport and urban space. Going from geography to political science, from sports history to urban and transport history, it suggests a three-fold approach. A first thematic group of researches ranges around "Sport Development and Urban Spaces", exploring the impact of the city on the rise of sport. A second focal point is related to "Sport Policies and Local Identities" with a special attention given to the making of sport venues and competitions in the making of urban identity. A third thematic group includes studies on "Sport Facilities, Engineers and Workers". The articulation of the three parts builds a unique contribution to the process of identity making at a European level. [less ▲]

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See detailNature Conservation versus Event Organisation: ‘Madmen’s Diagonals’ on Reunion Island (1989-2014)
Heck, Sandra UL; Terret, Thierry

in Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events (2015), 8(1), 1832

Organising an outdoor event in a venue which has been assigned as a National Park is subject to a far greater number of constraints than in a non-protected area. By using the example of the ultramarathon ... [more ▼]

Organising an outdoor event in a venue which has been assigned as a National Park is subject to a far greater number of constraints than in a non-protected area. By using the example of the ultramarathon races across Reunion Island since 1989, this study aims at analysing the history of the event’s ecological policies with regard to the special vulnerability of the region, and the changes in status of the concerned landscapes and tourism strategies. The method embraces a study of the existing litera¬ture on the history of both the event’s organisation and the island’s environmental policies over the past 24 years, combined with a press content analysis. The results demonstrate that the creation of a National Park in 2007 and the nomi¬na¬tion of large parts of Reunion Island as UNESCO World Natural Heritage sites in 2010 indeed led to further nature conservation policies which were, from then on, followed empathically in order to harmonise ideas of nature conservation and event organisation. [less ▲]

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See detailWilliam Penny Brookes – the Founding Father of the Modern Pentathlon?
Heck, Sandra UL

in Sport in History (2014), 34(1), 7589

For a long time William Penny Brookes’ influence on the re-establishment of the Olympic Games has been neglected thanks to a focus on Pierre de Coubertin’s creative force. Meanwhile Brookes’ general work ... [more ▼]

For a long time William Penny Brookes’ influence on the re-establishment of the Olympic Games has been neglected thanks to a focus on Pierre de Coubertin’s creative force. Meanwhile Brookes’ general work for the Olympic movement has been officially acknowledged by the IOC. However, the British origins have not been proved yet for the modern pentathlon, which is – just like the Olympics – widely presented to be Coubertin’s child. The two sport officials had been in touch since the 1890s and while the Olympic Games did not include the modern pentathlon before 1912, a pentathlon was organised as early as 1868 on the occasion of the Wenlock Games. This combined event did not have the same shape as the later modern pentathlon, but the ideological similarities are as obvious as Brookes’ general impact on Coubertin. By analysing historical documents located in the IOC Archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the Archives of the Wenlock Olympian Society in Much Wenlock, UK, and the National Archives of Sweden in Stockholm, this study aims to trace to what extent Brookes and the Much Wenlock Games impacted upon the birth of the modern pentathlon. Thus, the study reinterprets the genesis of a 100-year-old Olympic sport that has, until today, been exclusively dedicated to Coubertin. [less ▲]

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See detailA Sport for Everyone? Inclusion and Exclusion in the Organisation of the First Olympic Modern Pentathlon
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2014), 31(5), 526541

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See detailLa France et les premières heures du pentathlon moderne olympique
Heck, Sandra UL

in STAPS: Revue Internationale des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique (2014), (4), 73-88

Several factors contributed to the integration of the modern pentathlon in the Olympic program in 1912 with Swedish and French voices playing a significant role. This paper focuses specifically on the ... [more ▼]

Several factors contributed to the integration of the modern pentathlon in the Olympic program in 1912 with Swedish and French voices playing a significant role. This paper focuses specifically on the French impact on the modern pentathlon with a twofold approach, which explores both the preparation and the staging of the first modern Olympic pentathlon in Stockholm between 1909 and 1912. It is primarily based on French and international sources from the Comité nation-al olympique et sportif français (CNOSF), including documents of the Fédération française de pentathlon moderne (FFPM), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), the IOC Olympic studies centres (OSC) in Lausanne and the Riksarkivet (national archives) of Sweden in Stockholm. France appears to have played a dominant role in the early hours of the modern pentathlon. This role was, however, undermined by Swedish sports and organizational successes. [less ▲]

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See detailVon spielenden Soldaten und kämpfenden Athleten: Die Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfs
Heck, Sandra UL

Book published by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (2013)

Die nationalistische Stimmung, die in Europa Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts vorherrschte, gab Raum für die Geburt eines Wettkampfs, der sowohl sportlichen als auch militärischen Nutzen versprach: 1912 feierte ... [more ▼]

Die nationalistische Stimmung, die in Europa Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts vorherrschte, gab Raum für die Geburt eines Wettkampfs, der sowohl sportlichen als auch militärischen Nutzen versprach: 1912 feierte der Moderne Fünfkampf in Stockholm sein olympisches Debüt und blieb mehr als 100 Jahre olympisch. Die Ursprünge der Sportart, die bis in die zweite Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts zurückreichen, sind aber bislang ununtersucht geblieben. Diese Lücke schließt der Band, der sowohl der militärischen als auch der olympischen Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfs gewidmet ist. Die Basis bilden Archivunterlagen, vor allem jene des Internationalen Olympischen Komitees, der Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne, des Schwedischen Organisationskomitees der Olympischen Spiele von 1912 und des Schwedischen Militärsportverbands, die die Autorin umfassend auswertet. Auch analysiert sie diverses Pressematerial aus mehreren Ländern, darunter Schweden, Frankreich, England, Deutschland, Österreich und die USA. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon at the London 2012 Olympics: Between Traditional Heritage and Modern Changes for Survival
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2013), 30(7),

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place ... [more ▼]

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place. Directly after its Olympic debut in Stockholm in 1912, the International Olympic Committee headed by Pierre de Coubertin evaluated the event and criticised the shortcomings between the supposed idea behind the sport and its implementation. After Coubertin's death, the sport continued to develop; recently running and shooting have been joined in a so called combined event. In all cases, the presidents of the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM) argued the associated rule changes by referring to the original idea of the modern pentathlon. The sport's insecure future after the Games in Rio in 2016 provides sufficient reason to investigate the discrepancy between the marketing strategy of the UIPM and the ideological origins of the modern pentathlon. It finally allows an analysis of select historical rule changes that fitted the original idea behind the events and those that served purely modern strategies of survival. Thus, the topic also stands as an example of the policies of a contemporary international sports federation that uses (select parts of its) history and (invented) traditions as strong and successful marketing tools. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon and World War I – When Athletes and Soldiers Meet to Practise Martial Manliness
Heck, Sandra UL

in The International Journal of the History of Sport (2011), 28(3/4), 410428

In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early 20th Century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi ... [more ▼]

In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early 20th Century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: Modern Pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took thirty years, until Paris 1924 to establish Modern Pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It shall be investigated whether the active military preparations around World War I and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of Modern Pentathlon. By including historical documents of the IOC archives in Lausanne/Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam/Germany and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles/USA as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport which was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of Modern Pentathlon thereby provides a particular appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three cavalry disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse-riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness for an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin’s almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus, the lobby for an Olympic recognition of Modern Pentathlon was found. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Workmen Shoot, Fence, and Ride – Modern Pentathlon and the Promise of Social Integration at the Beginning of the 20th Century
Heck, Sandra UL

in Stadion (2010), 36

Besides the commitment of workers unions, it was Pierre de Coubertin who – as a defender of “sport for all” – obviously tried to achieve an easier access for workmen to sport in the early 20th Century ... [more ▼]

Besides the commitment of workers unions, it was Pierre de Coubertin who – as a defender of “sport for all” – obviously tried to achieve an easier access for workmen to sport in the early 20th Century. One of his steps to reach this goal was intrinsically tied to the idea of creating a new sport which combined disciplines that were mainly practised by people of lower social levels with those of the upper classes. Thus, with the combination of shooting, fencing, horse-riding, swimming and running, a new Olympic sport called Modern Pentathlon was born. By analyzing sources concerning Coubertin’s educational ideas as well as documents of the early history of Modern Pentathlon, this study is aiming to confront the ideological assurance to invent a sport of social integration with its realistic development. Due to the composition of participants it must be stated that the promise of a social mixture through Modern Pentathlon was not kept. The search for reasons of this failure gives an insight into the problems of realization and offers entirely new ways of interpretation of the true causes for the integration of a new combined sport into the Olympic program. [less ▲]

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