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See detailSchool tracking in Luxembourg: the longitudinal impact of student characteristics and school composition
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Ottenbacher, Martha UL; Alieva, Aigul et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 05)

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association ... [more ▼]

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association between student characteristics and school composition in Grade 3 and school track in Grade 9. Data source: Data were collected as part of the Luxembourg school monitoring programme “Épreuves Standardisées” (ÉpStan; Fischbach et al., 2014). The study cohort include all students enrolled in the Luxembourg public education system in Grade 3 in November 2013 combined with data from the same students in Grade 9 in November 2017-2019 for students following advanced or regular educational pathways, completed with data from November 2020 and 2021 for students that repeated once or twice (N≈3600). Theoretical approach: The study draws upon theoretical frameworks and empirical findings (e.g., Boudon, 1974; Bourdieu, 1984), that have demonstrated students´ socio-demographic characteristics are associated with (dis)advantages for specific groups of students in education systems as well as more recent work focusing on school composition (e.g., Baumert et al., 2006), especially as tracked school systems are known to be prone to social segregation (e.g., Hadjar & Gross, 2016). To date, most research on school segregation in tracked education systems such as Luxembourg has focused on individual student´s characteristics. However, with increasing heterogeneity of student cohorts and known differences in educational opportunities related to the social and ethnic composition of the school’s student body (e.g., Thrupp et al., 2002), the current research extents the existing literature by considering both individual (including prior academic achievement and socio-demographic characteristics) and school level factors (mean academic level and percentage of students from lower socio-economic and migration background) in predicting school track placement. Main findings: Results of a multilevel random effect logistic regression analysis in which we estimated marginal effects on the probability to be placed in the highest, middle or lowest track in Luxembourg show that even after controlling for student´s academic achievement, track placement is affected by the gender and socio-economic background of the student, whereby boys and students from low SES families have less chance to be placed in the highest track. The association with socio-economic background is not only visible on the student level but also on school level, whereby students attending primary schools with a higher percentage of low SES families have less chance to be orientated to the higher track compared to the middle track, regardless of the student´ individual academic performance. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool Segregation in Primary and Secondary Education in Luxembourg: Track Placement and Academic Achievement
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Alieva, Aigul et al

Scientific Conference (2022, November 09)

Known as a highly stratified education system with early tracking (similar to Dutch, German, Austrian, and German-speaking Swiss systems), Luxembourg features additional properties that add to its ... [more ▼]

Known as a highly stratified education system with early tracking (similar to Dutch, German, Austrian, and German-speaking Swiss systems), Luxembourg features additional properties that add to its complexity in the educational realm (Backes & Hadjar, 2017). It is a simultaneously multilingual system that also has the largest share of students born outside of Luxembourg or parents born abroad. While most migrants come from within Europe, they frequently come from either a particularly high or low socio-economic background. It has been scientifically established that the educational inequalities in Luxembourg are driven mostly by social origin and immigration/language background. Gender is another critical dimension of disadvantage; for example, boys are less motivated to obtain higher education than girls (Hadjar, Scharf, & Hascher, 2021). In addition, gender often intersects with other factors such as immigrant background in shaping disadvantages. However, evidence shows that – beyond individual background characteristics – schools’ social composition also perpetuates inequalities in student achievement (Martins & Veiga, 2010). Therefore, we focus on the role of school-level segregation on student’s academic outcomes over time using data of a longitudinal cohort from the School Monitoring Programme (Éprueve Standardisée (ÉpStan)) with 5097 students in Grade 3 observed in 2013 and later in Grade 9 observed in 2019 (regular pathways) and 2020 and 2021 (irregular pathways, i.e., class repetitions). School segregation is an aggregate measure of the proportion of students who belong to low socio-economic background and the proportion of students born abroad and/or do not speak instruction language at home. Our contribution aims to provide insights into the following questions: 1. Does school-level segregation in primary education (G3) predict student’s track placement in secondary education? 2. Does school-level segregation in primary education (G3) predict student’s math and German achievement in secondary education (G9)? 3. How strongly are achievement outcomes in G9 correlated with within- and between-track segregation in G9? The findings will serve as a complementary base for tailored policy making with respect to the long-term impact of school composition for teaching and learning, especially within a tracked school system. References Becker, S., & Hadjar, A. (2017). Educational trajectories through secondary education in Luxembourg: How does permeability affect educational inequalities? Schweizerische Zeitschrift Für Bildungswissenschaften, 39(3), 437–460. https://doi.org/10.25656/01:16659 Hadjar, A., Scharf, J., & Hascher, T. (2021). Who aspires to higher education? Axes of inequality, values of education and higher education aspirations in secondary schools in Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern. European Journal of Education, 56(1), 9–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12435 Martins, L., & Veiga, P. (2010). Do inequalities in parents’ education play an important role in PISA students’ mathematics achievement test score disparities? Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 1016–1033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.05.001 [less ▲]

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See detailTrägt Unterrichtsqualität zur Prävention von Entfremdung vom Lernen bei? Empirische Befunde für die Sekundarstufe in der Schweiz und Luxemburg
Braas, Lena; Grecu, Alyssa; Morinaj, Julia et al

in Lauermann, Fani; Jöhren, Christiane; McElvany, Nele (Eds.) et al Jahrbuch der Schulentwicklung. Band 22: Multiperspektivität von Unterrichtsprozessen (2022)

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See detailRefining the Spady–Tinto approach: the roles of individual characteristics and institutional support in students’ higher education dropout intentions in Luxembourg
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Haas, Christina; Gewinner, Irina

in European Journal of Higher Education (2022), early online

Based on the classic models developed by Spady and Tinto on the link between social and academic integration and dropout, we propose a refined model to explain dropout intentions – relating to dropout ... [more ▼]

Based on the classic models developed by Spady and Tinto on the link between social and academic integration and dropout, we propose a refined model to explain dropout intentions – relating to dropout from higher education (HE) and dropout from a specific study programme – that more strongly emphasises individual background characteristics (e.g. gender, social origin, and immigration background). Additionally, we consider students’ satisfaction with the institutional support structures. Using Eurostudent survey data, this conceptual model was tested using structural equation modelling in the international and diverse HE context of Luxembourg. While the fitted model confirmed most of the expected associations of the conventional Spady–Tinto approach, initial study commitment was not linked to social integration (contacts with fellow students). We were able to identify satisfaction with institutional support as a key factor in explaining dropout intention, thus contributing to existing knowledge. In addition, we found that the link between socioeconomic factors and dropout intention from a study programme is not entirely mediated by the Spady–Tinto factors of commitment and integration. [less ▲]

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See detailObserving many researchers using the same data and hypothesis reveals a hidden universe of uncertainty
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022), 119(44), 2203150119

This study explores how researchers’ analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens ... [more ▼]

This study explores how researchers’ analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens to emphasize the idiosyncrasy of conscious and unconscious decisions that researchers make during data analysis. We coordinated 161 researchers in 73 research teams and observed their research decisions as they used the same data to independently test the same prominent social science hypothesis: that greater immigration reduces support for social policies among the public. In this typical case of social science research, research teams reported both widely diverging numerical findings and substantive conclusions despite identical start conditions. Researchers’ expertise, prior beliefs, and expectations barely predict the wide variation in research outcomes. More than 95 % of the total variance in numerical results remains unexplained even after qualitative coding of all identifiable decisions in each team’s workflow. This reveals a universe of uncertainty that remains hidden when considering a single study in isolation. The idiosyncratic nature of how researchers’ results and conclusions varied is a previously underappreciated explanation for why many scientific hypotheses remain contested. These results call for greater epistemic humility and clarity in reporting scientific findings. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional Characteristics of Education Systems and Inequalities: Introduction II
Gross, Christiane; Zapfe, Laura; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2022), early online

This is the second special issue of the International Journal of Comparative Sociology on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities. The first was ... [more ▼]

This is the second special issue of the International Journal of Comparative Sociology on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities. The first was published in January 2021 and included papers that explored the role of shadow education and country characteristics during early childhood on educational inequalities. This special issue includes three papers that focus on stratification of the education system as a key driver of educational inequalities, cumulative (dis)advantage in the access to higher education, and student experiences in national educational systems. While we already elaborated on the research program, conceptual framework, and methodological challenges in the first introduction, we will deal with the current state-of-research in this second introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailUngleichheiten in schulischen Gesundheitsproblemen und subjektivem Wohlbefinden bei luxemburgischen Grund- und Sekundarschüler/innen
Hadjar, Andreas UL; de Moll, Frederick UL

in Heinen, Andreas; Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) et al Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Jugendalter. Theoretische Perspektiven, empirische Befunde und Praxis (2022)

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See detailWhy are male students less likely to opt for social science courses? A theory-driven analysis
Haunberger, Sigrid; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Social Work (2022), 61(1), 17-34

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned ... [more ▼]

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned behaviour and theories centring on gender role orientations, the empirical base is a random cluster sample of high-school graduates in Switzerland. The results show different gender effects, as well as direct and indirect effects, for all the theory of planned behaviour factors. Gender role orientations and the question of how a social science profession fits one’s own gender identity appear to be of particular importance only among male students. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Teaching Styles in the Development of School Alienation and Behavioral Consequences: A Mixed Methods Study of Luxembourgish Primary Schools
Grecu, Alyssa; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Simoes Lourêiro, Kevin UL

in SAGE Open (2022), 12(2),

This mixed-method research study aims at an analysis of the role of teaching styles in the development of school alienation and behavioral consequences. Applying an in-depth design, this study combines a ... [more ▼]

This mixed-method research study aims at an analysis of the role of teaching styles in the development of school alienation and behavioral consequences. Applying an in-depth design, this study combines a quantitative panel study, a student survey (grades 5–6), and qualitative focus groups with Luxembourgish primary school students (grade 6). Methodologically, we aim to demonstrate potentials and limits of integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative results show that teaching styles affect students’ alienation from teachers and from learning, and eventually from classroom participation and social behavior. Qualitative content analysis reveals that students characterize a fair teaching style as the equal treatment of all students regarding classroom rules and teachers’ empathy for students’ intentions. [less ▲]

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See detailFactsheet No. 6. Studierende in Luxemburg
Gewinner, Irina UL; Haas, Christina UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailPIONEERED: Elaborating the link between social and educational policies for tackling educational inequalities in Europe
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Aigul, Alieva; Jobst, Solvejg et al

in socialpolicy.ch (2021), early online

Although a number of policies tackling educational inequalities have been introduced in recent decades in Europe, educational inequalities exist to a varying extent both in different sub- and ... [more ▼]

Although a number of policies tackling educational inequalities have been introduced in recent decades in Europe, educational inequalities exist to a varying extent both in different sub- and supranational contexts. In this article, we address the link between social and educational policies with respect to educational inequalities. Educational policies aim to guarantee opportunities throughout educational trajectories and beyond. They pertain to all areas and the entire duration of the human life. Our contribution to socialpolicy.ch introduces the ongoing Horizon 2020 project PIONEERED on educational inequalities by elaborating on the social problems behind those dis-parities, and by outlining the project’s conceptual and methodological approaches that join together multilevel, intersectional and life-course perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthoritarianism Beyond Disposition: A Literature Review of Research on Contextual Antecedents
Schnelle, Caroline; Baier, Dirk; Hadjar, Andreas UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021), 12

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or ... [more ▼]

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or whether it is impacted by time-sensitive, exterior conditions. Whereas certain individual authoritarian tendencies emerge as a rather stable personality trait, there is also empirical evidence for a dynamic influence of external factors. This review article provides a conceptual multilevel framework for the study of authoritarianism and offers an insight into the state-of-research on socialization and situational influences, with a particular focus on threat. Findings are discussed with regard to key theories of authoritarianism. [less ▲]

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See detailWho aspires to higher education? Axes of inequality, values of education and higher education aspirations in secondary schools in Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan; Hascher, Tina

in European Journal of Education (2021), 56(1), 9-26

This article reports a study that investigated secondary school students’ higher education aspirations (towards university studies, ISCED 6 and above) and how these differ between student groups as well ... [more ▼]

This article reports a study that investigated secondary school students’ higher education aspirations (towards university studies, ISCED 6 and above) and how these differ between student groups as well as how these are impacted by values of education. Panel data of more than 300 secondary school students in two countries, Luxembourg and Switzerland (the Swiss Canton of Bern) was analysed. Schools are structured differently in the education systems of Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern. The results of our analysis show that students in the Luxembourgish sample more often aspire to higher education than in the Swiss sample. Disparities in higher education aspirations were also more pronounced in the Luxembourgish sample, boys and students from families of low socio-economic status (SES) were less likely to aspire to higher education. While the effects of values of education are generally scarce, stimulation in terms of anticipated enjoyment and interest derived from participation in higher education seems to have a positive effect on higher education aspirations. [less ▲]

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See detailAgency and the school-to-work transition of care leavers: A retrospective study of Luxembourgish young people
Göbel, Sabrina; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Karl, Ute et al

in Children and Youth Services Review (2021), early online

This article presents empirical results from a study (2015–2018) on young people leaving care in Luxembourg. A special focus deals with the processes of transitioning from care to work. Education appears ... [more ▼]

This article presents empirical results from a study (2015–2018) on young people leaving care in Luxembourg. A special focus deals with the processes of transitioning from care to work. Education appears to be crucial for a successful transition, as it determines life chances, such as labour market chances, but so far inequality studies have neither researched transitions from care nor have the theoretical concepts developed in inequality research been used to understand the situation of care leavers. They might help to explain the different mechanisms behind the disadvantages of students in foster and residential care and their educational attainment. This paper thus attempts to theorise leaving care from an inequality perspective and the interdependencies with concepts of relational agency, taking into account the heterogeneity among care leavers, their trajectories and achievements (see also Göbel, Hadjar, Karl, Peters, & Jäger, 2020). The main objective of our analysis is to investigate how agency is achieved in the transition from school to work among care leavers, taking into consideration institutional pathways (continuities and discontinuities) in the care and the educational system. [less ▲]

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See detailA Typical Case Report: Internet Gaming Disorder Psychotherapy Treatment in Private Practice
Niedermoser, Daryl Wayne; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Ankli, Vivian et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2021), 18(4),

Background: Online or internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently not recognized as a mental disorder in the actual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), although it is an ... [more ▼]

Background: Online or internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently not recognized as a mental disorder in the actual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), although it is an emerging disease. Non-substance-related addictions often have similarities with substance addictions. It is therefore important to have a good understanding of the client but also to have a good endurance. Due to the rise of e-sports, there is an anticipated and therefore possible trend to have many more patients with a non-substance addiction. There are many parallels, for instance tolerance, withdrawal and social problems, resulting from an increasing investment of time spent on the internet. Case presentation: To reduce possible inhibition in treating a patient with IGD, we present a case of a 19-year-old adolescent man who exhibited IGD and showed social problems associated with his addiction. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance and the effects of treating a non-substance addiction with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). After having successfully coped with an addiction, several shifts in addiction were often reported. In this case, no shifts were reported. The absence of such shifts makes our case a distinct and unique case. This is not a multimorbidity case, and that is the reason why we think this is an excellent example to show what we achieved, how we achieved it, and what we could establish. Of course, additional research and manuals are urgently needed. [less ▲]

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See detailSchule und soziale Ungleichheit
Deppe, Ulrike; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Hascher, Tina; Idel, Till-Sebastian; Helsper, Werner (Eds.) Handbuch Schulforschung (2021)

Die Bedeutung der Schule als Bildungsinstitution nahm mit der Einführung der Schulpflicht im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert in vielen Regionen Europas zu. Aus der Industrialisierung in den europäischen Ländern ... [more ▼]

Die Bedeutung der Schule als Bildungsinstitution nahm mit der Einführung der Schulpflicht im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert in vielen Regionen Europas zu. Aus der Industrialisierung in den europäischen Ländern ergab sich einerseits die Notwendigkeit der Alphabetisierung der breiten Bevölkerung und andererseits – im Zuge der zunehmenden Arbeitsteilung sowie Trennung von Erwerbs- und Reproduktionssphäre – die Kinder während der Arbeitszeit der Eltern zu betreuen. Infolgedessen entwickelte sich seit dem ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert mit etlichen Vorläufern ein differenziertes staatlich geregeltes Bildungs- und Betreuungssystem. Bildung begann somit als Alphabetisierungs- und Betreuungsnotwendigkeit und höhere Bildung blieb bis in die Weimarer Republik (und teilweise bis in die Anfänge der Bundesrepublik im westlichen Teil Deutschlands) meist nur Jungen und Männern aus bürgerlichen und wohlhabenden Familien vorbehalten. Erst im Zuge der Modernisierungsprozesse des 20. Jahrhunderts wandelte sich Schulbildung zu einem Allgemeingut. Im Zuge der „Bildungsexpansion“, dem Ausbau von Bildungseinrichtungen und einer zunehmenden Bildungsnachfrage, die auch mit einer differenzierten Ausbildung und Qualifikation von Personal einherging, ist Schulbildung notwendige Voraussetzung für alle folgenden Qualifikationen in der Berufs- ebenso wie der Hochschulbildung geworden. Seitdem hat sich die Schule als wichtiges gesellschaftliches Subsystem etabliert und neben den eingangs erwähnten anfänglichen Aufgaben übernimmt Schule bedeutsame Funktionen für den Fortbestand der Gesellschaft. Schule hat sich nicht nur zu einer Bildungsanstalt, sondern auch zu einem Berechtigungswesen entwickelt, das Bildungschancen zuweist, die zentrale Voraussetzungen für den späteren Berufserwerb, Status, Einkommen sind. Letztere Aspekte sind wiederum mit weiteren Lebenschancen eng verknüpft, zum Beispiel politischer Partizipation, Gesundheit und Lebenserwartung. Im Folgenden wird der Beitrag nach begrifflich-theoretischen Bestimmungen von sozialer Ungleichheit und Bildungsungleichheit auf historische Meilensteine der Schulforschung eingehen. Anschließend werden zentrale Themen und Befunde der aktuellen Schulforschung zur sozialen Ungleichheit – von Merkmalen von Schüler*innen auf der individuellen Ebene über Lehrpersonen und Elternhaus hin zu Schulkulturen, Schüler*innenkomposition und Bildungssystem auf höheren Analyseebenen – in sechs Abschnitten näher ausgeführt. Zum Schluss geben wir einen Ausblick auf Trends und Desiderate. [less ▲]

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See detailEntfremdung von der Schule - Theoretische Grundlagen und Forschungsstand
Hascher, Tina; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Rubach, Charlott; Lazarides, Rebecca (Eds.) Emotionen in Schule und Unterricht – Bedingungen und Auswirkungen von Emotionen bei Lehrkräften und Lernenden (2021)

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See detailHow Many Replicators Does It Take to Achieve Reliability? Investigating Researcher Variability in a Crowdsourced Replication
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The ... [more ▼]

The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same underlying study but with only a methods section and description of the regression coefficients without size or significance, and no code. The transparent group mostly verified the original study (95.5%), while the opaque group had less success (89.4%). Qualitative investigation of the replicators’ workflows reveals many causes of non-verification. Two categories of these causes are hypothesized, routine and non-routine. After correcting non-routine errors in the research process to ensure that the results reflect a level of quality that should be present in ‘real-world’ research, the rate of verification was 96.1 in the transparent group and 92.4 in the opaque group. Two conclusions follow: (1) Although high, the verification rate suggests that it would take a minimum of three replicators per study to achieve replication reliability of at least 95 confidence assuming ecological validity in this controlled setting, and (2) like any type of scientific research, replication is prone to errors that derive from routine and undeliberate actions in the research process. The latter suggests that idiosyncratic researcher variability might provide a key to understanding part of the “reliability crisis” in social and behavioral science and is a reminder of the importance of transparent and well documented workflows. [less ▲]

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See detailBildungsungleichheiten am Übergang in die Sekundarschule in Luxemburg
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Backes, Susanne UL

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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