References of "Gruss, P"
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See detailAnalysis of the Pax-3 gene in the mouse mutant splotch.
Goulding, M.; Sterrer, S.; Fleming, J. et al

in Genomics (1993), 17(2), 355-63

In a linkage analysis of Pax-3 and splotch no recombinations were found in 117 backcross mice. Molecular analysis of Pax-3 in three alleles of splotch shows a number of significant alterations to the Pax ... [more ▼]

In a linkage analysis of Pax-3 and splotch no recombinations were found in 117 backcross mice. Molecular analysis of Pax-3 in three alleles of splotch shows a number of significant alterations to the Pax-3 gene. In Sp/Sp embryos, cDNA PCR analysis reveals a shortened transcript in which exon 4 of Pax-3 is deleted due to mutation of the splice acceptor site of intron 3. In the Sp4H allele, the Pax-3 gene is deleted and in Spd embryos, Pax-3 expression is significantly lower than that in normal littermate embryos. The linkage analysis, shortened Pax-3 transcript in Sp, and deletion of Pax-3 in Sp4H described here, together with the previous report of an intragenic deletion in Pax-3 in Sp2H mice and the deletion of Pax-3 in Spr mice, provide strong evidence for the allelic identity of Pax-3 and Sp. [less ▲]

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See detailPax1, a member of the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes, is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ hybridization (ISH and FISH).
Schnittger, S.; Rao, V. V.; Deutsch, U. et al

in Genomics (1992), 14(3), 740-4

Pax-1, a member of a murine multigene family, belongs to the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes first identified in Drosophila. The Pax-1 gene encodes a sequence-specific DNA ... [more ▼]

Pax-1, a member of a murine multigene family, belongs to the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes first identified in Drosophila. The Pax-1 gene encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein with transcriptional activating properties and has been found to be mutated in the autosomal recessive mutation undulated (un) on mouse chromosome 2 with vertebral anomalies along the entire rostrocaudal axis. By radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) using a fragment from the murine Pax-1 paired box that is almost identical to the respective sequences from the cognate human gene HuP48 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a complete mouse Pax-1 cDNA, we have assigned the human homologue of murine Pax-1, the PAX1 locus, to chromosome 20p. The map position of PAX1 after FISH (FL-pter value of 0.34 +/- 0.04) corresponds to band p11.2. These results confirm the exceptional homology between human chromosome 20 and the distal segment of mouse chromosome 2, extending from bands F to G, and add PAX1 to the group of genes on 20p like PTPA, PRNP, SCG1, BMP2A, which are located in proximity on both chromosomes. [less ▲]

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See detailWaardenburg's syndrome patients have mutations in the human homologue of the Pax-3 paired box gene.
Tassabehji, M.; Read, A. P.; Newton, V. E. et al

in Nature (1992), 355(6361), 635-6

Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant combination of deafness and pigmentary disturbances, probably caused by defective function of the embryonic neural crest. We have mapped one gene for ... [more ▼]

Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant combination of deafness and pigmentary disturbances, probably caused by defective function of the embryonic neural crest. We have mapped one gene for WS to the distal part of chromosome 2. On the basis of their homologous chromosomal location, their close linkage to an alkaline phosphatase gene, and their related phenotype, we suggested that WS and the mouse mutant Splotch might be homologous. Splotch is caused by mutation in the mouse Pax-3 gene. This gene is one of a family of eight Pax genes known in mice which are involved in regulating embryonic development; each contains a highly conserved transcription control sequence, the paired box. Here we show that some families with WS have mutations in the human homologue of Pax-3. Mutations in a related gene, Pax-6, which, like Pax-3, has both a paired box and a paired-type homeobox sequence, cause the Small-eye mutation in mice and aniridia in man. Thus mutations in the Pax genes are important causes of human developmental defects. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the skeletal system.
Balling, Rudi UL; Lau, C. F.; Dietrich, S. et al

in Ciba Foundation Symposium (1992), 165

The analysis of the development of the skeletal system has been greatly facilitated by the availability of a large number of mouse mutants with skeletal defects. Whereas for many of these mutants a ... [more ▼]

The analysis of the development of the skeletal system has been greatly facilitated by the availability of a large number of mouse mutants with skeletal defects. Whereas for many of these mutants a description of the main phenotypic abnormalities is known, molecular insight into the ontogeny of the skeletal system is limited. One of the few skeletal mutants for which the molecular basis is known is undulated. These mice have a defect in the differentiation of the sclerotome and Pax-1, a mouse paired-box containing gene, has been identified as a candidate gene for this mutation. A molecular analysis of three independent undulated alleles revealed that in each case the Pax-1 gene is affected. One of the alleles could be classified as a null allele, in which the Pax-1 gene is deleted. A phenotypic analysis shows that Pax-1 is required for proper differentiation of intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies. [less ▲]

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See detailPax: a murine multigene family of paired box-containing genes.
Walther, C.; Guenet, J. L.; Simon, D. et al

in Genomics (1991), 11(2), 424-34

A murine multigene family has been identified that shares a conserved sequence motif, the paired box, with developmental control and tissue-specific genes of Drosophila. To date five murine paired box ... [more ▼]

A murine multigene family has been identified that shares a conserved sequence motif, the paired box, with developmental control and tissue-specific genes of Drosophila. To date five murine paired box-containing genes (Pax genes) have been described and one, Pax-1, has been associated with the developmental mutant phenotype undulated. Here we describe the paired boxes of three novel Pax genes, Pax-4, Pax-5, and Pax-6. Comparison of the eight murine paired domains of the mouse, the five Drosophila paired domains, and the three human paired domains shows that they fall into six distinct classes: class I comprises Pox meso, Pax-1, and HuP48; class II paired, gooseberry-proximal, gooseberry-distal, Pax-3, Pax-7, HuP1, and HuP2; class III Pax-2, Pax-5, and Pax-8; class IV Pax-4; class V Pox neuro; and class VI Pax-6. Pax-1 and the human gene HuP48 have identical paired domains, as do Pax-3 and HuP2 as well as Pax-7 and HuP1, and are likely to represent homologous genes in mouse and man. Identical intron-exon structure and extensive sequence homology of their paired boxes suggest that several Pax genes represent paralogs. The chromosomal location of all novel Pax genes and of Pax-3 and Pax-7 has been determined and reveals that they are not clustered. [less ▲]

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See detailSeparate elements cause lineage restriction and specify boundaries of Hox-1.1 expression.
Puschel, A. W.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Development (1991), 112(1), 279-87

The Hox genes are a class of putative developmental control genes that are thought to be involved in the specification of positional identity along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate embryo. It is ... [more ▼]

The Hox genes are a class of putative developmental control genes that are thought to be involved in the specification of positional identity along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate embryo. It is apparent from their expression pattern that their regulation is dependent upon positional information. In a previous analysis of the Hox-1.1 promoter in transgenic mice, we identified sequences that were sufficient to establish transgene expression in a specific region of the embryo. The construct used, however, did not contain enough regulatory sequences to reproduce all aspects of Hox-1.1 expression. In particular, neither a posterior boundary nor a restriction of expression to prevertebrae was achieved. Here we show correct regulation by Hox-1.1 sequences in transgenic mice and identify the elements responsible for different levels of control. Concomitant with the subdivision of mesodermal cells into different lineages during gastrulation and organogenesis, Hox-1.1 expression is restricted to successively smaller sets of cells. Distinct elements are required at different stages of development to execute this developmental programme. One position-responsive element (130 bp nontranslated leader) was shown to be crucial for the restriction of expression not only along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo, setting the posterior border, but also along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube and to the lineage giving rise to the prevertebrae. Thus, Hox-1.1 expression is established in a specific region of the embryo and in a specific lineage of the mesoderm by restricting the activity of the promoter by the combined effect of several regulatory elements. [less ▲]

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See detailTumorigenesis and eye abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing MSV-SV40 large T-antigen.
Theuring, F.; Gotz, W.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Oncogene (1990), 5(2), 225-32

Transgenic mice which expressed SV40 large T-antigen under the control of the MSV enhancer and the SV40 promoter were generated. In animals containing an intact MSV enhancer, total lens cataracts and ... [more ▼]

Transgenic mice which expressed SV40 large T-antigen under the control of the MSV enhancer and the SV40 promoter were generated. In animals containing an intact MSV enhancer, total lens cataracts and neuroectodermal brain tumors, originating in the pineal organ were observed. In contrast, 5' deletion of the MSV enhancer to a residual 53 bp resulted in a different spectrum of pathologies. Whilst lens cataracts still occurred, no brain tumors could be detected. Instead, fibrosarcomas and adenocarcinomas of the kidneys were induced. In addition, tumors of the endocrine pancreas were observed with both transgene constructs. We conclude that the MSV enhancer element is sufficient to direct the expression of the viral reporter gene to the lens and the pineal organ in transgenic mice. Deletion of the MSV enhancer correlates with the loss of DNA elements responsible for the pineal cell specific expression of SV40 large T-antigen. [less ▲]

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See detailPosition-specific activity of the Hox1.1 promoter in transgenic mice.
Puschel, A. W.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Development (1990), 108(3), 435-42

During development, positional values have to be assigned to groups of cells. The murine Hox genes are a class of genes that are predicted to be involved at some stage in this process. During ... [more ▼]

During development, positional values have to be assigned to groups of cells. The murine Hox genes are a class of genes that are predicted to be involved at some stage in this process. During embryogenesis they are expressed in distinct overlapping region- and stage-specific patterns and therefore must be regulated in response to positional information. In this study, we have analysed the activity of Hox1.1 promoter sequences in transgenic mice. The use of lacZ as a marker allows a detailed analysis of expression at the single cell level during early embryonic development. We show that 3.6 kbp of promoter and 1.7 kbp of 3' sequences provide sufficient regulatory information to express a transgene in a spatial and temporal manner indistinguishable from the endogenous Hox1.1 gene during the period of development when Hox1.1 expression is established. The activation occurs in a strict order in specific ectodermal and mesodermal domains. Within each of these domains the transgene is activated over a period of four hours apparently randomly in single cells. In a following second period, Hox1.1 and transgene expression patterns diverge. In this period, transgene expression persists in many mesodermally derived cells that do not express Hox1.1 indicating the absence of a negative regulatory element in the transgene. The anterior boundary of transgene expression is identical to that of Hox1.1. However, no posterior boundary of transgene expression is set, suggesting that a separate element absent from the transgene specifies this boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of homeobox genes in mammalian development
Kessel, M; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P

in Developmental Endocrinology (1990)

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See detailAnalysis of the spatial and temporal control of Hox 1.1 in transgenic mice
Püschel, A; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P

in Development (1990), (108), 435-442

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See detailOct-4: a germline-specific transcription factor mapping to the mouse t-complex
Schöler, H. R.; Dressler, G. R.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in EMBO journal (1990), (9), 2185-2195

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See detailVariations of cervical vertebrae after expression of a Hox-1.1 transgene in mice.
Kessel, M.; Balling, Rudi UL; Gruss, P.

in Cell (1990), 61(2), 301-8

To understand the function of murine homeobox genes, a genetic analysis is mandatory. We generated gain-of-function mutants by introducing genomic sequences of the Hox-1.1 gene under the control of a ... [more ▼]

To understand the function of murine homeobox genes, a genetic analysis is mandatory. We generated gain-of-function mutants by introducing genomic sequences of the Hox-1.1 gene under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter into mice. Our previous data had shown that these transgenic mice are nonviable after birth and are born with craniofacial abnormalities. In a subsequent detailed analysis of severely affected animals, malformations of the basioccipital bone, the atlas, and the axis were observed. Manifestation of an additional vertebra, a proatlas, occurred at the craniocervical transition. The dominant interference of the Hox-1.1 transgene with developmental programs seems to occur around day 9 of gestation, the time of neural crest migration and somite differentiation. We discuss the resulting phenotype with respect to a developmental control function of Hox-1.1. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional activity of the octamer motif in embryonic stem cells and preimplantation embryos
Schöler, H. R.; Balling, Rudi UL; Hatzopoulos, A. K. et al

in Hormones and Cell Regulation (1989), 198(14), 91-95

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See detailStructure, expression and chromosomal localization of Zfp-1, a murine zinc finger protein gene.
Chowdhury, K.; Dietrich, S.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (1989), 17(24), 10427-38

Zinc finger proteins (Zfp) are encoded by a large family of genes present in many organisms including yeast and human. Some of them are transcriptional activators and bind specifically to DNA by zinc ... [more ▼]

Zinc finger proteins (Zfp) are encoded by a large family of genes present in many organisms including yeast and human. Some of them are transcriptional activators and bind specifically to DNA by zinc mediated folded structures commonly known as zinc fingers. The Drosophila Kruppel (Kr) is a segmentation gene and encodes a zinc finger protein. Using a probe from the finger domain of Kr, we have isolated a structurally related gene Zfp-1 from the mouse. In this paper, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of two cDNA clones and the amino acid sequence deduced from them. The putative Zfp-1 protein contains in addition to 7 zinc fingers, two helix-turn-helix motifs. During murine embryogenesis, the Zfp-1 was found to express at a peak level in day 12 embryos. The ubiquitously expressed Zfp-1 gene is located in the 16q region on mouse chromosome 8, between the uvomorulin and the tyrosine amino transferase genes. [less ▲]

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See detailOctamer binding proteins confer transcriptional activity in early mouse embryogenesis.
Scholer, H. R.; Balling, Rudi UL; Hatzopoulos, A. K. et al

in EMBO Journal (1989), 8(9), 2551-7

Oct4 and Oct5 are two mouse maternally expressed proteins binding to the octamer motif. Both are found in unfertilized oocytes and embryonic stem cells, whereas Oct4 is also found in primordial germ cells ... [more ▼]

Oct4 and Oct5 are two mouse maternally expressed proteins binding to the octamer motif. Both are found in unfertilized oocytes and embryonic stem cells, whereas Oct4 is also found in primordial germ cells. In this study, the activity of the octamer motif was analysed in two embryonic stem cell lines containing Oct4 and Oct5, the teratocarcinoma-derived cell line F9 and the blastocyst-derived cell line D3. It is known that oligomerization of the octamer motif creates a powerful B-cell specific enhancer. As shown here, this oligomerized transcriptional element is also a very strong enhancer in F9 and D3 embryonic stem cells. After differentiation of the stem cells, both enhancer activity and the amount of the octamer binding proteins decrease. An intact octamer stimulates heterologous promoters in embryonic stem cells, whereas mutations in the octamer motif abolish transcriptional stimulation and binding of the octamer factors. The use of transgenic embryos demonstrates transcriptional activation in the inner cell mass but not in the trophoblast of blastocysts. The results indicate that Oct4 and Oct5 are active early in mouse development. [less ▲]

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See detailA family of octamer-specific proteins present during mouse embryogenesis: evidence for germline-specific expression of an Oct factor.
Scholer, H. R.; Hatzopoulos, A. K.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in EMBO Journal (1989), 8(9), 2543-50

We have analysed various adult organs and different developmental stages of mouse embryos for the presence of octamer-binding proteins. A variety of new octamer-binding proteins were identified in ... [more ▼]

We have analysed various adult organs and different developmental stages of mouse embryos for the presence of octamer-binding proteins. A variety of new octamer-binding proteins were identified in addition to the previously described Oct1 and Oct2. Oct1 is ubiquitously present in murine tissues, in agreement with cell culture data. Although Oct2 has been described as a B-cell-specific protein, similar complexes were also found with extracts from brain, kidney, embryo and sperm. In embryo and brain at least two other proteins, Oct3 and Oct7, are present. A new microextraction procedure allowed the detection of two maternally expressed octamer-binding proteins, Oct4 and Oct5. Both proteins are present in unfertilized oocytes and embryonic stem cells, the latter containing an additional protein, Oct6. Whereas Oct4 was not found in sperm or testis, it is expressed in male and female primordial germ cells. Therefore Oct4 expression is specific for the female germline at later stages of germ cell development. Our results indicate that a family of octamer-binding proteins is present during mouse development and is differentially expressed during early embryogenesis. Protease clipping experiments of Oct4 and Oct1 suggest that both proteins contain similar DNA-binding domains. [less ▲]

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See detailCraniofacial abnormalities induced by ectopic expression of the homeobox gene Hox-1.1 in transgenic mice.
Balling, Rudi UL; Mutter, G.; Gruss, P. et al

in Cell (1989), 58(2), 337-47

Hox-1.1 is a murine homeobox-containing gene expressed in a time- and cell-specific manner during embryogenesis. We have generated transgenic mice that ectopically express Hox-1.1 from the chicken beta ... [more ▼]

Hox-1.1 is a murine homeobox-containing gene expressed in a time- and cell-specific manner during embryogenesis. We have generated transgenic mice that ectopically express Hox-1.1 from the chicken beta-actin promoter. In these mice Hox-1.1 expression was changed to an almost ubiquitous pattern. Ectopic expression of Hox-1.1 leads to death of the transgenic animals shortly after birth and is associated with multiple craniofacial anomalies, such as cleft palate, open eyes at birth, and nonfused pinnae. This phenotype is similar to the effects seen after systemic administration of retinoic acid during gestation. This suggests that retinoic acid embryopathy and the specific developmental defects caused by ectopic expression of a potential developmental control gene share a common pathogenic mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailMurine Genes with homology to Drosophila segmentation genes.
Dressler, G. R.; Deutsch, U; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Development (1988), 0(104), 181-186

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See detailundulated, a mutation affecting the development of the mouse skeleton, has a point mutation in the paired box of Pax 1.
Balling, Rudi UL; Deutsch, U.; Gruss, P.

in Cell (1988), 55(3), 531-5

undulated (un) homozygous mice exhibit vertebral malformations along the entire rostro-caudal axis. Pax 1, a murine paired box-containing gene, is expressed in ventral sclerotome cells and later in ... [more ▼]

undulated (un) homozygous mice exhibit vertebral malformations along the entire rostro-caudal axis. Pax 1, a murine paired box-containing gene, is expressed in ventral sclerotome cells and later in intervertebral disks along the entire vertebral column. We localized the Pax 1 gene on chromosome 2 between beta 2-microglobulin and the agouti locus to an area where un maps. DNA analysis of the un mutant revealed a point mutation in a highly conserved part of the paired box of Pax 1, leading to a Gly-Ser replacement. The chromosomal location and the mutation in the paired box of un mice in conjunction with Pax 1 gene expression in wild-type mice implicate a causative role of Pax 1 in generation of the vertebral column. [less ▲]

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See detailA mouse gene homologous to the Drosophila gene caudal is expressed in epithelial cells from the embryonic intestine.
Duprey, P.; Chowdhury, K.; Dressler, G. R. et al

in Genes & Development (1988), 2(12A), 1647-54

A mouse gene, Cdx-1, was isolated from an embryonic cDNA library using a Drosophila caudal gene probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cdx-1 contains conserved sequence domains along the entire gene ... [more ▼]

A mouse gene, Cdx-1, was isolated from an embryonic cDNA library using a Drosophila caudal gene probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cdx-1 contains conserved sequence domains along the entire gene, as well as a highly conserved caudal-type homeo box. A structural comparison suggests a common ancestral origin of mouse Cdx-1 and Drosophila caudal. The expression of Cdx-1 during embryogenesis was analyzed by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. Cdx-1-specific transcripts are localized in the epithelial lining of the intestines beginning at 14 days' gestation. The expression of Cdx-1 in the intestine continues into adulthood, but cannot be detected in any other tissues. The Cdx-1 gene is the first homeo-box-containing gene expressed in cells derived from the embryonic endoderm. [less ▲]

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