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See detailThe quizzing effect depends on hope of success and can be optimized by cognitive load-based adaptation
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Instruction (in press)

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to ... [more ▼]

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Practice Quizzing in a University Lecture: A Pre-Registered Field Experiment
Heitmann, Svenja; Obergassel, Niklas; Fries, Stefan et al

in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (2021)

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To ... [more ▼]

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To address this question, university students (N = 188; n = 155 female) were randomly assigned to employ either adaptive practice quizzing, nonadaptive practice quizzing, or note-taking following three consecutive sessions of a standard psychology university lecture for undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the adaptive practice quizzing condition, quiz questions were adapted to learners’ expertise via cognitive demand ratings, whereas in the non-adaptive condition quiz questions followed a fixed sequence. Students in the adaptive practice quizzing condition outperformed those in the nonadaptive condition after a two-week delay, but not after a one-week delay. Exploratory mediation analyses show that performance on the quiz questions during the learning phase seems to be partly responsible for this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness and Academic Emotions: A Field Study During a Lecture
Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2021)

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two lecture sessions in which we measured momentary mindfulness and academic emotions of N = 105 university students repeatedly, resulting in N = 551 measurements. As expected, multilevel analyses indicated that students who were more mindful during the lecture felt more positive and less negative activating emotions, better valence, and were more optimistic about an upcoming exam. In contrast to our hypotheses, trait mindfulness was not found to be related to current academic emotions. Multilevel mediation analyses point towards an indirect effect of trait mindfulness via momentary mindfulness during the lecture sessions. These findings suggest that mindfulness is of high relevance to academic emotions which in turn are important for learning, achievement, and well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailMOTIVAID: Motivationally and digitally enhanced development by self-insight
Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailMotivationally and digitally enhanced development by self-insight
Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailMindfulness in everyday life: Between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

in Current Psychology (2020)

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing ... [more ▼]

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing with situations of motivational conflict. For this purpose, we conducted an experience sampling study with 56 university students who replied to a total of N = 1889 short questionnaires, which they received via their smartphones over a period of eight consecutive days. In addition to a state mindfulness questionnaire with the facets presence and non-judgment (focusing attention on the experience of the current action and a momentary non-judgmental stance towards these, respectively), the participants received questions about their current affective well-being and perceived intensity of want or should conflict experiences. Multi-level analyses revealed that want conflicts were predicted by both state mindfulness facets, even after momentary affect was controlled. In addition, to be non-judgmental (as a trait), and having momentary presence (as a state), related to lower intensity of should conflicts. The results suggest that being mindful might be a particularly beneficial way of dealing with daily motivational conflicts, which is an essential and frequent task of self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailApp-Based Habit Building Reduces Motivational Impairments During Studying - An Event Sampling Study
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY (2020), 11

In this app-based event sampling study, we observed the intentional formation of new study habits. A sample of 91 university students defined individual study habits and logged data over 6 weeks on ... [more ▼]

In this app-based event sampling study, we observed the intentional formation of new study habits. A sample of 91 university students defined individual study habits and logged data over 6 weeks on motivational conflict, motivational interference (MI) and automaticity of behavior after each habit repetition using an app on their phone. The app was specifically created for this study and gave feedback on habit automaticity. A total of N = 2,574 habit repetitions have been generated and were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The results suggest that (1) app-based intentional habit building works, as automaticity of behavior could be predicted by habit repetition, (2) motivational impairments during studying can be reduced by building habits, as want conflicts and MI decreased with automaticity, and (3) trait self-control supports studying indirectly by fostering habit building rather than directly by suppressing impulses during the activity, as self-control predicted automaticity, but not motivational impairments during the habit execution. The effect of self-control on automaticity of the new study habit was fully mediated by the general automaticity of the students' other study habits (general study habit strength). This study showcases an app-guided genesis of new study habits and its beneficial motivational effects for learning behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivation and self-regulation
Grund, Axel UL

Postdoctoral thesis (2019)

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See detailThe influence of achievement motives and adaptivity on practice quizzing
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Quizzing ist eine äußerst effektive Methode zur Nachbereitung von Lernepisoden. So führt das Beantworten von Quiz-Fragen aus dem Gedächtnis zu höherem Lernerfolg als unspezifisches Nachbereiten, wie ... [more ▼]

Quizzing ist eine äußerst effektive Methode zur Nachbereitung von Lernepisoden. So führt das Beantworten von Quiz-Fragen aus dem Gedächtnis zu höherem Lernerfolg als unspezifisches Nachbereiten, wie beispielsweise das erneute Durcharbeiten des Lernmaterials oder Note-Taking (sog. Testing Effect). Jedoch liegt die Vermutung nahe, dass der oftmals wahrgenommene Prüfungscharakter von Quizzing für Lernende mit einer stark ausgeprägten Furcht vor Misserfolg abträgliche Effekte haben könnte. Umgekehrt könnten Lernende mit einer stark ausgeprägten Hoffnung auf Erfolg umso stärker von Quizzing profitieren. Des Weiteren legt Forschung aus dem Bereich der Cognitive Load Theory nahe, dass sich eine Anpassung von Quizfragen an die subjektive kognitive Belastung der Lernenden förderlich auf den Lernerfolg auswirken könnte. Solchermaßen adaptives Quizzing könnte demnach effektiver sein als nicht-adaptives Quizzing. In dem vorliegenden Experiment mit N = 160 Studierenden wurde untersucht, (a) ob der förderliche Effekt von Quizzing gegenüber Note-Taking vom Leistungsmotiv (Furcht vor Misserfolg und Hoffnung auf Erfolg) der Lernenden moderiert wird und (b) ob das Verwenden von Quiz-Fragen, deren Schwierigkeit an die kognitive Belastung der Lernenden angepasst ist (adaptives Quizzing), die positiven Auswirkungen des Quizzing weiter steigert. Die Probanden wurden randomisiert einer von drei Bedingungen (adaptives Quizzing vs. non-adaptives Quizzing vs. Note-Taking) zugeteilt. Alle Probanden beantworteten zunächst Fragen zu ihrem Leistungsmotiv und arbeiteten anschließend an PCs in einer digitalen Lernumgebung, in der sie sich zunächst eine E-Lecture ansahen. Die Probanden der Quizzing Bedingungen beantworteten in der folgenden Nachbereitungsphase offene Quiz-Fragen. In der adaptiven Bedingung hing die Schwierigkeit der Fragen von der subjektiven kognitiven Belastung ab; in der nicht-adaptiven Bedingung nahm die Schwierigkeit der Fragen kontinuierlich zu. In der Kontrollbedingung Note-Taking machten sich die Probanden Notizen zur E-Lecture um die Lerninhalte nachzubereiten. Eine Woche später wurde ein Lernerfolgstest durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass der Testing Effect vom Leistungsmotiv der Lernenden abhing: je höher die Hoffnung auf Erfolg, desto höher der Testing Effect. Außerdem fanden wir, dass adaptives Quizzing zu höherem Lernerfolg als nicht-adaptives Quizzing führte. Somit scheint eine an die kognitive Belastung der Lernenden angepasste Gabe von Quiz-Fragen die Effektivität von Quizzing weiter steigen zu können, insbesondere dann, wenn Lernende daran interessiert sind, ihr Wissen zu testen. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween „want“ and „should“. The relationship between motivational conflicts, mindfulness, and stress in everyday life at the university
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es ... [more ▼]

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es unterschiedliche Ausgangssituationen von SchülerInnen zu berücksichtigen. Im Sinne eines weiten Verständnisses von Inklusion, als „Education for all, and especially for some“, liegt unser Fokus auf der vulnerablen Gruppe der leistungsschwachen SchülerInnen, welche sich dadurch auszeichnen, dass sie dem Fachunterricht nicht (mehr) folgen können und langfristig Minderleistungen erbringen. Diese SchülerInnen haben oft gemeinsam, dass ihre gering ausgeprägten fachlichen Kompetenzen mit kontinuierlichen Misserfolgen und dem seltenen Erleben der eigenen Fähigkeiten einhergehen. Dies mündet häufig in einer niedrigen Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugung und einem dysfunktionalen Selbstkonzept. Ein vielversprechender Ansatzpunkt, um diesen Mechanismen entgegenzuwirken, ist ein Fachunterricht, der neben individuellem fachlichem Lernen auch eine Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit integriert. Vor diesem Hintergrund haben wir an der Universität Bielefeld im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Projekts Biprofessional eine Veranstaltung konzipiert und evaluiert, in der Mathematiklehramtsstudierende in ihren professionellen Kompetenzen der individuellen mathematischen Diagnose und Förderung sowie in ihren Kompetenzen der Selbstwirksamkeitssteigerung geschult werden. Diese Fähigkeiten wenden Sie im Rahmen eines Förderpraktikums an. Inhaltlich setzt die Veranstaltung auf die erwiesenermaßen selbstwirksamkeitsförderliche Wirkung regelmäßiger Erfolge beim Lernen. Dazu werden Methoden aus der Psychologie und Mathematikdidaktik, wie beispielsweise Diagnostik, Zielsetzung und Feedback zu einem Modell selbstwirksamkeits- und kompetenzförderlicher individueller mathematischer Förderung integriert. Im Vortrag werden die Befunde aus den im Kontext der Veranstaltungsevaluation erhobenen Schülerdaten referiert. Diese unterstützen unter anderem bisherige Befunde, dass SchülerInnen mit mathematischem Förderbedarf im Vergleich zu SchülerInnen im Klassenunterricht ungünstigere Ausprägungen in den relevanten Konstrukten (mathematikbezogene Selbstwirksamkeit, mathematisches Selbstkonzept und Anstrengungs- Erfolgsüberzeugungen) haben. Darüber hinaus berichten SchülerInnen, die an einer Förderung durch geschulte Studierende teilgenommen haben, häufiger von erlebten Erfolgen. [less ▲]

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See detailErfolgserlebnisse für alle in Mathematik: Selbstwirksamkeitssteigerung in inklusiven Settings
Nahrgang, Ruth; Hettmann, Max; Fries, Stefan et al

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Vielleicht gibt es in keiner Lebensphase mehr Möglichkeiten, sein Leben selbstbestimmt zu gestalten, als während des Studiums. Die selbstregulatorischen Herausforderungen, die mit einer vergleichsweise ... [more ▼]

Vielleicht gibt es in keiner Lebensphase mehr Möglichkeiten, sein Leben selbstbestimmt zu gestalten, als während des Studiums. Die selbstregulatorischen Herausforderungen, die mit einer vergleichsweise freien Zeiteinteilung einhergehen, werden jedoch nicht immer gemeistert und besonders im Alltag junger Erwachsener scheinen Wollen- und Sollen-Konflikte das Wohlbefinden zu beeinträchtigen. Motivationale Konflikte sind dabei vermutlich mehr als reine „Begleitumstände“ eines (gleichzeitig) reduzierten Wohlbefindens, sondern sollten als Überforderungserleben auch zeitverzögert Einfluss z.B. auf das subjektive Stresserleben am Abend haben. Um die Konsequenzen von motivationalen Konflikten auf das Wohlbefinden möglichst alltagsnah zu untersuchen, haben wir mithilfe von Experience Sampling über acht Tage u.a. das Konflikterleben am Tag (N = 3866), sowie den wahrgenommenen Stress (N = 808) am Abend, von 108 Lehramtstudierenden erhoben. Zudem erfassten wir Achtsamkeit als personalen Prädiktor des Wohlbefindens. Multi-Level-Analysen, bei denen die Messungen der einzelnen Tage in den Personen „genestet“ waren, zeigten, dass über den Tag aggregierte Wollen- und Sollen-Konflikte (Level 1) den wahrgenommen Stress am Abend (Level 1) vorhersagten. Auch unter Berücksichtigung der Zeit, die Studierende mit Studiums- und Freizeitaktivitäten verbrachten, sowie unter Kontrolle des Stresserlebens am Vortag, zeigten beide Konfliktarten erwartungsgemäß einen positiven (ungünstigen) und das Ausmaß von Freizeit einen negativen (günstigen) Zusammenhang mit dem Stresserleben. Darüber hinaus scheint Achtsamkeit das Ausmaß des Stresserlebens indirekt über eine Verringerung des Konflikterlebens zu reduzieren. Die Befunde belegen erneutstärken die Bedeutung von motivationalen Konflikten für das Wohlbefinden, geben Hinweise auf Wirkrichtungen, und bieten mit Achtsamkeit einen Ansatzpunkt um z.B. mithilfe von Interventionen Einfluss auf das Erleben von Konflikterleben Konflikten und damit das Wohlbefinden Studierender zu nehmen. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness and situational interest
Grund, Axel UL; Schaefer, Nina; Sohlau, Sylvia et al

in Educational Psychology (2019), 39(3), 353-369

In an attempt to exploit the concept of mindfulness for educational contexts, we investigated the role of dispositional mindfulness as an internal resource for the development of situational interest ... [more ▼]

In an attempt to exploit the concept of mindfulness for educational contexts, we investigated the role of dispositional mindfulness as an internal resource for the development of situational interest. Using an online questionnaire, we assessed participants' (N = 161, mean age = 30.4 years, 74% female, 66% university students) mindfulness, presented them with a text on bionics, and asked them to indicate their situational interest regarding the material (t1). One week later, they indicated their maintained situational interest (t2). Findings reveal a positive relationship between mindfulness and situational interest at t1, especially with regard to participants' ability to be momentarily 'present' and affective aspects of situational interest. Furthermore, we found an indirect effect of mindfulness on maintained situational interest at t2 via participants' interest at t1. These findings were independent from participants' initial interest and knowledge. Contrary to our expectation, we did not find a moderation effect for mindfulness on the relation between situational interest at t1 and t2. We discuss these findings in terms of implications for formal learning contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailValence and Motivation as Predictors of Student Time Use in Everyday Life: An Experience Sampling Study
Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Grund, Axel UL; Santangelo, Philip et al

in FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY (2019), 10

Popular descriptions of studying frequency show remarkable discrepancies: students complain about their workload, and alumni describe freedom and pleasure. Unfortunately, empirical evidence on student ... [more ▼]

Popular descriptions of studying frequency show remarkable discrepancies: students complain about their workload, and alumni describe freedom and pleasure. Unfortunately, empirical evidence on student time use is sparse. To investigate time use and reveal contributing psychological factors, we conducted an e-diary study. One hundred fifty-four students reported their time use and valence hourly over 7 days, both at the start of the semester and during their examination period. Motivational problems, social support and self-control were assessed once via questionnaires. Whereas the mean academic time use was in the expected range, the between-subject differences were substantial. We used multilevel modeling to separately analyze the within- and between-subject associations of valence as within factor and time use and social support, self-control, and motivation as between factors and time use. The analyses revealed the importance of affective factors on a within-subject level. Before studying, valence was already low, and it deteriorated further during studying. As expected at the between-subject level, motivational problems were related to less time studying, whereas surprisingly, self-control had no effect. The findings at the start of the semester were replicated in the examination period. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-control motivationally reconsidered: "Acting" self-controlled is different to "being good" at self-control
Grund, Axel UL; Carstens, Christoph-Alexander

in MOTIVATION AND EMOTION (2019), 43(1), 63-81

Self-control is typically conceptualized as an inherent human skill, focusing on the imperative control of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. In the present research, we scrutinize this understanding by ... [more ▼]

Self-control is typically conceptualized as an inherent human skill, focusing on the imperative control of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. In the present research, we scrutinize this understanding by differentiating between an ability self-concept of self-control strength and experiential acts of self-control. Moreover, by taking a motivational perspective, we analyze how much of a role intrapsychic conflict plays in both conceptions of self-control, and with regard to psychological well-being. In cross-sectional Study 1 (N = 228), we compared a typicality measure of experiential acts of imperative self-control with the widely used Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al. in J Pers 72:271-322, 2004). Findings confirm that "being good" at self-control does not correspond to "acting" self-controlled, and that both measures show opposing relationships to intrapsychic conflict, as well as to well-being. In Study 2 (N = 114), we corroborated these findings by using an experience-sampling approach. Multilevel analyses showed that between-person differences (Level 2) in self-control strength were generally unrelated to experiential acts of self-control in everyday life. By contrast, we found a positive Level 2 effect for acting self-controlled. With regard to momentary affect, both between- and within differences (Level 1) in acting self-controlled served as substantial predictors, in addition to momentary self-determination. Other context-dependent effects (i.e., studying vs. leisure time) further emphasize the need to consider motivational interpretations of self-control (strength). [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding procrastination: A motivational approach
Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 121

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the ... [more ▼]

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the phenomenon, we combine two studies exploring the motivational foundations of procrastination with a study aiming to uncover its implicit normative connotations. Study 1 investigated the link between value orientations and procrastination at a general level, showing that people high in procrastination entertain low achievement and high well-being value orientations. Study 2 investigated the link between self-determination and procrastination within and across daily activities. Low self-determination related to low levels of activity completion and to procrastination in general. Finally, Study 3 investigated the link between value as well as political orientations and perceptions of procrastination. Individuals who favored modern, conservative values were more likely to attribute academic procrastination as personal failure, whereas individuals who endorsed post-modern, liberal values were more likely to consider situational causes of academic procrastination. Against this background, we argue for a less normative view on procrastination and recommend motivational (e.g., goal selection) rather than volitional (e.g., goal implementation) interventions to prevent procrastination. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivational foundations of self-control and mindfulness and their role in study-leisure conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin

in LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 68

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and leisure time, by either promoting a selective, normatively oriented versus open-minded, non-judgmental stance toward conflicting motivations. We also investigated the role of value orientations and need satisfaction is this regard. Study 1 (N = 196) initially showed that trait self-control, but not trait mindfulness, goes along with a preference for achievement-oriented over well-being-oriented values, which might explain the academic benefits associated with self-control. Study 2 (N = 306) replicated the link between value orientations and trait self-control. In line with this motivational pattern, we found context-specific effects for self-control in study leisure conflict scenarios, consolidating academic engagement, but not leisure engagement. Consolidating effects for trait mindfulness were context-transcending and independent from value orientations. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 160), we found evidence that the total effects of trait self-control and mindfulness are differentially mediated via either activity preferences (self-control) or need satisfaction (mindfulness). We discuss motivational interpretations for self-control and mindfulness with respect to the daily juggle between students' academic and leisure-related strivings. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting Is More Desirable When It Is Adaptive and Still Desirable When Compared to Note-Taking
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Berthold, Kirsten et al

in FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY (2018), 9

Testing is a well-established desirable difficulty. Yet there are still some open issues regarding the benefits of testing that need to be addressed. First, the possibility to increase its benefits by ... [more ▼]

Testing is a well-established desirable difficulty. Yet there are still some open issues regarding the benefits of testing that need to be addressed. First, the possibility to increase its benefits by adapting the sequence of test questions to the learners' level of knowledge has scarcely been explored. In view of theories that emphasize the benefits of adapting learning tasks to learner knowledge, it is reasonable to assume that the common practice of providing all learners with the same test questions is not optimal. Second, it is an open question as to whether the testing effect prevails if stronger control conditions than the typical restudy condition are used. We addressed these issues in an experiment with N = 200 university students who were randomly assigned to (a) adaptive testing, (b) non-adaptive testing, or note-taking (c) without or (d) with focus guidance. In an initial study phase, all participants watched an e-lecture. Afterward, they processed its content according to their assigned conditions. One week later, all learners took a posttest. As main results, we found that adaptive testing yielded higher learning outcomes than non-adaptive testing. These benefits were mediated by the adaptive learners' higher testing performance and lower perceived cognitive demand during testing. Furthermore, we found that both testing groups outperformed the note-taking groups. Jointly, our results show that the benefits of testing can be enhanced by adapting the sequence of test questions to learners' knowledge and that testing can be more effective than note-taking. [less ▲]

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See detailKnow Your Preferences: Self-Regulation as Need-Congruent Goal Selection
Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan; Rheinberg, Falko

in REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY (2018), 22(4), 437-451

Theory and research on self-regulation is dominated by a social-cognitive perspective that places an emphasis on postdecisional (i.e., volitional) control processes of goal-maintenance in response to dual ... [more ▼]

Theory and research on self-regulation is dominated by a social-cognitive perspective that places an emphasis on postdecisional (i.e., volitional) control processes of goal-maintenance in response to dual-motive conflict. In the current contribution, we focus on research on self-regulation that acknowledges the affective fundamentals of motivated action, and we highlight processes of goal selection as vital parts of self-regulation. From our perspective of motivational competence, affective and cognitive processes work together rather than oppose each other in self-regulation, rendering effortless rather than effortful goal pursuit as the hallmark of efficient human action. A precondition for such motive- and self-congruent goal pursuits is that individuals have insight into their basic preferences and (can) act accordingly. Therefore, we address capacities, such as mindfulness, which may take effect in predecisional (i.e., motivational) action phases, thereby determining all subsequent action processes. [less ▲]

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