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See detailContext Stability in Habit Building Increases Automaticity and Goal Attainment
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022)

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses on two datasets. In Study 1, N = 95 university students (N = 2,482 habit repetitions) built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks with manipulated context stability. One group was instructed to constantly vary the context of their habit repetitions by changing rooms and times and the other group was instructed to keep the context of habit performance stable. In Study 2, N = 308 habits (N = 2,368 habit repetitions) from N = 218 users of a published habit building app were analyzed without manipulating but measuring context stability. We found the same pattern in both datasets: Context stability predicted more automaticity and higher habit repetition goal attainment. We also found that the effect of context stability on habit repetition goal attainment was partially mediated by automaticity in both datasets. These results show that context does not only act as a trigger for habit instigation but also has an ongoing effect on habit execution. [less ▲]

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See detailAchievement motivation in students' everyday lives: Its relationship to momentary positive and negative activation and the moderating role of mindfulness
Grund, Axel UL; Galla, Brian; Fries, Stefan

in Learning and Individual Differences (2022), 97

In achievement motive theory, need for achievement is conceptualized as an explanatory variable that triggers certain experiences and behaviors spontaneously. Experience sampling should therefore be an ... [more ▼]

In achievement motive theory, need for achievement is conceptualized as an explanatory variable that triggers certain experiences and behaviors spontaneously. Experience sampling should therefore be an ideal approach for capturing such motive-specific affective contingencies. However, given that not all students seem to be aware of their underlying motives, the link between self-reported need for achievement and daily experiences may depend on their mindfulness level. In a sample of university students (N = 107), self-reported fear of failure predicted momentary negative activation across activity contexts in everyday life. In addition, hope of success predicted positive activation in more mindful students and in nonroutine situations (e.g., studying, working, or leisure time). Together, these findings are a first step toward illuminating the phenomenological and excitatory nature of need for achievement in students' everyday lives and illustrate the necessity of noticing motive-specific cues in order to integrate them into the explicit motivational self-concept. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom self-concept to -knowledge to -regulation: A proposal based on students’ domain-specific academic self-concepts and achievements
Grund, Axel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ... [more ▼]

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ipsative profile correlations between 9th grade students’ academic self-concepts (i.e., how well students think they do) in the domains Math, German, and French and their respective achievement test scores in these domains (i.e., how well students actually do). We then related students’ self-knowledge to their general performance across these tests, their school satisfaction, and their perceived quality of the teacher-student relationship, assuming that accurate self-concepts lay the foundation for adaptive self-regulation processes (e.g., building on strengths and remedying or accepting weaknesses). In a first sample (N = 6279), we found that self-knowledge explained an incremental amount of variance in school adaptation above and beyond students’ general and domain-specific self-concepts in multiple regression analyses. The better aligned students’ self-concept profile was with their actual achievement profile, the better their performance across these domains, the more satisfied students were with schooling, and the better their relationship with their teachers. Except for school satisfaction, these findings were replicated in another cohort of 9th grade students (N = 6493), and they remained robust when we used rang-correlation instead of Pearson-correlation to derive our self-knowledge index. Notably, both indices seemed largely independent from students’ self-concepts and, on average, students seem to better “know” about their academic abilities compared to other aspects of their personality. We discuss necessary improvements to further substantiate the adaptive role of self-knowledge in self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivationale Konflikte und Achtsamkeit als Bedingungen von Stress: Eine Experience-Sampling Studie im Alltag Studierender
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Studierende haben viele Freiheiten in der Gestaltung ihres Alltags, fühlen sich aber oft auch gestresst und hin- und hergerissen zwischen Handlungsmöglichkeiten (Grund et al ... [more ▼]

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Studierende haben viele Freiheiten in der Gestaltung ihres Alltags, fühlen sich aber oft auch gestresst und hin- und hergerissen zwischen Handlungsmöglichkeiten (Grund et al., 2014). Solche intrapsychischen Konflikte werden häufig als ursächlich für psychisches Wohlbefinden betrachtet (Gorges & Grund, 2017). Achtsamkeit beinhaltet die Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit auf das unmittelbare Erleben und eine offene und nicht wertende Haltung gegenüber diesen mentalen Erfahrungen. Sie steht in einem positiven Zusammenhang mit Wohlbefinden und intrapsychischen Kongruenz und könnte daher hilfreich für eine gelungene Selbstregulation sein (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Carlson, 2013). Fragestellung: Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, die Beziehung zwischen Achtsamkeit, motivationalen Konflikten und wahrgenommenem Stress im Alltag von Universitätsstudenten zu untersuchen und dabei auch Hinweise für mögliche Wirkmechanismen zu sammeln. Methode: Im Rahmen einer einwöchigen smartphone-gestützten Experience-Sampling-Studie wurden 107 Universitätsstudenten fünfmal täglich zu ihrer momentanen Achtsamkeit (in den Facetten Mit Aufmerksamkeit handeln und Akzeptieren ohne Bewertung) und ihrem motivationalen Konflikterleben (in den Facetten Wollen-Konflikte und Sollen-Konflikte) befragt. Zusätzlich wurde jeden Abend ihr Stresserleben erhoben. Die Beziehung zwischen täglicher Achtsamkeit, motivationalen Konflikten und wahrgenommenem Stress wurde auf Tagesebene mit Mehrebenenanalysen analysiert. Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Sowohl alltägliche Wollen-Konflikte als auch Sollen-Konflikte waren ein Prädiktor für abendliches Stresserleben. Je intensiver der Eindruck über den Tag, etwas anderes tun zu wollen und zu sollen, umso mehr abendlichen Stress berichteten die Studierenden. Diese Effekte blieben auch bestehen, wenn das Stresslevel vom Vortag kontrolliert wurde. Dieser Befund stärkt die Interpretation, dass intrapsychische motivationale Konflikte tatsächlich abträglich für das Wohlbefinden sind und nicht nur ein Begleitumstand. Wurden beide Achtsamkeitsfacetten zusätzlich in das Regressionsmodell aufgenommen, verloren beide Konfliktvariablen ihre Vorhersagekraft; stattdessen zeigte sich ein direkter Effekt für Achtsamkeit in der Ausprägung Akzeptieren ohne Bewertung. Die Ergebnisse unterstreichen die Relevanz motivationaler Konflikte und Achtsamkeit für das Stressempfinden in akademischen Kontexten. Da Achtsamkeit trainierbar ist, zeigen sie auch einen potentiellen Ansatz auf, um das Wohlbefinden von Studierenden in Zukunft positiv zu beeinflussen. Literatur: Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822 Carlson, E. N. (2013). Overcoming the barriers to self-knowledge: Mindfulness as a path to seeing yourself as you really are. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691612462584 Gorges, J., & Grund, A. (2017). Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2011. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02011 Grund, A., Brassler, N. K., & Fries, S. (2014). Torn between study and leisure: How motivational conflicts relate to students’ academic and social adaptation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 242–257. doi:10.1037/a0034400 [less ▲]

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See detailThe quizzing effect depends on hope of success and can be optimized by cognitive load-based adaptation
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Instruction (2022), 77(online first), 101526

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to ... [more ▼]

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect. [less ▲]

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See detailZielkonflikte zwischen Lernen und Freizeit
Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

in Reinders, Heinz; Bergs-Winkels, Dagmar; Prochnow, Annette (Eds.) et al Empirische Bildungsforschung: Eine elementare Einführung (2022)

Häufig wollen junge Menschen lernen und gleichzeitig etwas anderes tun, das für sie wichtig ist. Sie müssen sich dann für eine der beiden Handlungen entscheiden. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob Anreize der ... [more ▼]

Häufig wollen junge Menschen lernen und gleichzeitig etwas anderes tun, das für sie wichtig ist. Sie müssen sich dann für eine der beiden Handlungen entscheiden. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob Anreize der nicht-gewählten Handlung die Ausübung der gewählten Lern- oder Freizeithandlung im Hinblick auf kognitive und motivationale Aspekte stören (motivationale Interferenz). Es wird auch nach Bedingungen und Folgen dieser Erscheinung gefragt und es werden Maßnahmen zur Minimierung von Zielkonflikten und zur Herstellung einer ausgewogenen Zeitverteilung auf Tätigkeiten in verschiedenen Lebensbereichen vorgeschlagen. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Practice Quizzing in a University Lecture: A Pre-Registered Field Experiment
Heitmann, Svenja; Obergassel, Niklas; Fries, Stefan et al

in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (2021)

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To ... [more ▼]

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To address this question, university students (N = 188; n = 155 female) were randomly assigned to employ either adaptive practice quizzing, nonadaptive practice quizzing, or note-taking following three consecutive sessions of a standard psychology university lecture for undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the adaptive practice quizzing condition, quiz questions were adapted to learners’ expertise via cognitive demand ratings, whereas in the non-adaptive condition quiz questions followed a fixed sequence. Students in the adaptive practice quizzing condition outperformed those in the nonadaptive condition after a two-week delay, but not after a one-week delay. Exploratory mediation analyses show that performance on the quiz questions during the learning phase seems to be partly responsible for this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and stress in university students: An experience-sampling study
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on ... [more ▼]

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on immediate experience and an open and non-judging attitude towards these mental experiences. It is positively related to well-being and to intrapsychic congruence. The aim of the present work is to examine the relationship of daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress in the everyday life of university students. During a week of smartphone-based experience-sampling, 108 university students were asked five times daily about their momentary mindfulness and whether they experience motivational conflicts. Additionally, we assessed perceived stress each evening. The relationship between daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress was analyzed on the daily level with multi-level analyses. Both aggregated daily conflict (i.e., feeling that one should be doing something else) and mindfulness (i.e., being non-judgmental) yielded an effect on perceived stress, even when controlling for between-person differences in study load, for example. Findings underline the relevance of mindfulness for perceived stress in academic contexts and thereby also show an approach to positively influence well-being in university students in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness and Academic Emotions: A Field Study During a Lecture
Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2021)

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two lecture sessions in which we measured momentary mindfulness and academic emotions of N = 105 university students repeatedly, resulting in N = 551 measurements. As expected, multilevel analyses indicated that students who were more mindful during the lecture felt more positive and less negative activating emotions, better valence, and were more optimistic about an upcoming exam. In contrast to our hypotheses, trait mindfulness was not found to be related to current academic emotions. Multilevel mediation analyses point towards an indirect effect of trait mindfulness via momentary mindfulness during the lecture sessions. These findings suggest that mindfulness is of high relevance to academic emotions which in turn are important for learning, achievement, and well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Comprehensive Mindfulness Experience: A Typological Approach to the Potential Benefits of Mindfulness for Dealing with Motivational Conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia et al

in Motivation Science (2021)

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a ... [more ▼]

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a typological approach, exploring natural combinations of two core qualities of (state) mindfulness: present moment awareness and a nonjudgmental stance. Using an experience-sampling (ES) design (N = 107 on the personal and 3862 at the observational level) with baseline and posttest measures of general affective wellbeing, we found that between-person differences in everyday conflict reactivity (i.e., perseverative and self-evaluative reactions toward conflict experiences) but not in conflict experiences per se (i.e., feeling that one wants to or should do something else) predicted impaired affective well-being after the ES period. Furthermore, multilevel latent profile analysis showed that momentary conflict reactivity was lowest when participants reported to be both momentarily aware and nonjudgmental, mirroring the comprehensive mindfulness experience. These effects existed while controlling for baseline and accompanying affect as well as for conflict intensity, strengthening the idea that motivational conflict itself is not a critical instance of self-regulation failure and that being mindful may contribute to remain functionally efficient and psychological well-adjusted. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfered by unaccomplished academic tasks: The role of success expectations
Brassler, Nina; Grund, Axel UL; Dedic, Maid et al

in Learning and Motivation (2021), 76

Characteristics of concurring action alternatives can influence the experience and behavior in a focal action. In two scenario studies we investigated the role of success expectancies of an unaccomplished ... [more ▼]

Characteristics of concurring action alternatives can influence the experience and behavior in a focal action. In two scenario studies we investigated the role of success expectancies of an unaccomplished academic task as a relevant motivational characteristic to explain the experience and behavior during a focal leisure activity. Students imagined themselves in scenarios which were experimentally manipulated by varying the presence of a motivational conflict and the description of the concurring action. They anticipated what they would experience in these situations. Results indicate that students experience more impairments in situations of motivational conflict than when there is no conflict. Even more important, when success expectancies for the unaccomplished academic task were described as low, the anticipated impairments were higher than when expectations were described as high. Influencing expectations is discussed as one starting point for handling negative consequences of motivational conflicts due to academic tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailMOTIVAID: Motivationally and digitally enhanced development by self-insight
Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailMotivationally and digitally enhanced development by self-insight
Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailMindfulness in everyday life: Between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

in Current Psychology (2020)

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing ... [more ▼]

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing with situations of motivational conflict. For this purpose, we conducted an experience sampling study with 56 university students who replied to a total of N = 1889 short questionnaires, which they received via their smartphones over a period of eight consecutive days. In addition to a state mindfulness questionnaire with the facets presence and non-judgment (focusing attention on the experience of the current action and a momentary non-judgmental stance towards these, respectively), the participants received questions about their current affective well-being and perceived intensity of want or should conflict experiences. Multi-level analyses revealed that want conflicts were predicted by both state mindfulness facets, even after momentary affect was controlled. In addition, to be non-judgmental (as a trait), and having momentary presence (as a state), related to lower intensity of should conflicts. The results suggest that being mindful might be a particularly beneficial way of dealing with daily motivational conflicts, which is an essential and frequent task of self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailApp-Based Habit Building Reduces Motivational Impairments During Studying - An Event Sampling Study
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY (2020), 11

In this app-based event sampling study, we observed the intentional formation of new study habits. A sample of 91 university students defined individual study habits and logged data over 6 weeks on ... [more ▼]

In this app-based event sampling study, we observed the intentional formation of new study habits. A sample of 91 university students defined individual study habits and logged data over 6 weeks on motivational conflict, motivational interference (MI) and automaticity of behavior after each habit repetition using an app on their phone. The app was specifically created for this study and gave feedback on habit automaticity. A total of N = 2,574 habit repetitions have been generated and were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The results suggest that (1) app-based intentional habit building works, as automaticity of behavior could be predicted by habit repetition, (2) motivational impairments during studying can be reduced by building habits, as want conflicts and MI decreased with automaticity, and (3) trait self-control supports studying indirectly by fostering habit building rather than directly by suppressing impulses during the activity, as self-control predicted automaticity, but not motivational impairments during the habit execution. The effect of self-control on automaticity of the new study habit was fully mediated by the general automaticity of the students' other study habits (general study habit strength). This study showcases an app-guided genesis of new study habits and its beneficial motivational effects for learning behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivation and self-regulation
Grund, Axel UL

Postdoctoral thesis (2019)

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See detailErfolgserlebnisse für alle in Mathematik: Selbstwirksamkeitssteigerung in inklusiven Settings
Nahrgang, Ruth; Hettmann, Max; Fries, Stefan et al

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Vielleicht gibt es in keiner Lebensphase mehr Möglichkeiten, sein Leben selbstbestimmt zu gestalten, als während des Studiums. Die selbstregulatorischen Herausforderungen, die mit einer vergleichsweise ... [more ▼]

Vielleicht gibt es in keiner Lebensphase mehr Möglichkeiten, sein Leben selbstbestimmt zu gestalten, als während des Studiums. Die selbstregulatorischen Herausforderungen, die mit einer vergleichsweise freien Zeiteinteilung einhergehen, werden jedoch nicht immer gemeistert und besonders im Alltag junger Erwachsener scheinen Wollen- und Sollen-Konflikte das Wohlbefinden zu beeinträchtigen. Motivationale Konflikte sind dabei vermutlich mehr als reine „Begleitumstände“ eines (gleichzeitig) reduzierten Wohlbefindens, sondern sollten als Überforderungserleben auch zeitverzögert Einfluss z.B. auf das subjektive Stresserleben am Abend haben. Um die Konsequenzen von motivationalen Konflikten auf das Wohlbefinden möglichst alltagsnah zu untersuchen, haben wir mithilfe von Experience Sampling über acht Tage u.a. das Konflikterleben am Tag (N = 3866), sowie den wahrgenommenen Stress (N = 808) am Abend, von 108 Lehramtstudierenden erhoben. Zudem erfassten wir Achtsamkeit als personalen Prädiktor des Wohlbefindens. Multi-Level-Analysen, bei denen die Messungen der einzelnen Tage in den Personen „genestet“ waren, zeigten, dass über den Tag aggregierte Wollen- und Sollen-Konflikte (Level 1) den wahrgenommen Stress am Abend (Level 1) vorhersagten. Auch unter Berücksichtigung der Zeit, die Studierende mit Studiums- und Freizeitaktivitäten verbrachten, sowie unter Kontrolle des Stresserlebens am Vortag, zeigten beide Konfliktarten erwartungsgemäß einen positiven (ungünstigen) und das Ausmaß von Freizeit einen negativen (günstigen) Zusammenhang mit dem Stresserleben. Darüber hinaus scheint Achtsamkeit das Ausmaß des Stresserlebens indirekt über eine Verringerung des Konflikterlebens zu reduzieren. Die Befunde belegen erneutstärken die Bedeutung von motivationalen Konflikten für das Wohlbefinden, geben Hinweise auf Wirkrichtungen, und bieten mit Achtsamkeit einen Ansatzpunkt um z.B. mithilfe von Interventionen Einfluss auf das Erleben von Konflikterleben Konflikten und damit das Wohlbefinden Studierender zu nehmen. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween „want“ and „should“. The relationship between motivational conflicts, mindfulness, and stress in everyday life at the university
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es ... [more ▼]

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es unterschiedliche Ausgangssituationen von SchülerInnen zu berücksichtigen. Im Sinne eines weiten Verständnisses von Inklusion, als „Education for all, and especially for some“, liegt unser Fokus auf der vulnerablen Gruppe der leistungsschwachen SchülerInnen, welche sich dadurch auszeichnen, dass sie dem Fachunterricht nicht (mehr) folgen können und langfristig Minderleistungen erbringen. Diese SchülerInnen haben oft gemeinsam, dass ihre gering ausgeprägten fachlichen Kompetenzen mit kontinuierlichen Misserfolgen und dem seltenen Erleben der eigenen Fähigkeiten einhergehen. Dies mündet häufig in einer niedrigen Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugung und einem dysfunktionalen Selbstkonzept. Ein vielversprechender Ansatzpunkt, um diesen Mechanismen entgegenzuwirken, ist ein Fachunterricht, der neben individuellem fachlichem Lernen auch eine Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit integriert. Vor diesem Hintergrund haben wir an der Universität Bielefeld im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Projekts Biprofessional eine Veranstaltung konzipiert und evaluiert, in der Mathematiklehramtsstudierende in ihren professionellen Kompetenzen der individuellen mathematischen Diagnose und Förderung sowie in ihren Kompetenzen der Selbstwirksamkeitssteigerung geschult werden. Diese Fähigkeiten wenden Sie im Rahmen eines Förderpraktikums an. Inhaltlich setzt die Veranstaltung auf die erwiesenermaßen selbstwirksamkeitsförderliche Wirkung regelmäßiger Erfolge beim Lernen. Dazu werden Methoden aus der Psychologie und Mathematikdidaktik, wie beispielsweise Diagnostik, Zielsetzung und Feedback zu einem Modell selbstwirksamkeits- und kompetenzförderlicher individueller mathematischer Förderung integriert. Im Vortrag werden die Befunde aus den im Kontext der Veranstaltungsevaluation erhobenen Schülerdaten referiert. Diese unterstützen unter anderem bisherige Befunde, dass SchülerInnen mit mathematischem Förderbedarf im Vergleich zu SchülerInnen im Klassenunterricht ungünstigere Ausprägungen in den relevanten Konstrukten (mathematikbezogene Selbstwirksamkeit, mathematisches Selbstkonzept und Anstrengungs- Erfolgsüberzeugungen) haben. Darüber hinaus berichten SchülerInnen, die an einer Förderung durch geschulte Studierende teilgenommen haben, häufiger von erlebten Erfolgen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of achievement motives and adaptivity on practice quizzing
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Quizzing ist eine äußerst effektive Methode zur Nachbereitung von Lernepisoden. So führt das Beantworten von Quiz-Fragen aus dem Gedächtnis zu höherem Lernerfolg als unspezifisches Nachbereiten, wie ... [more ▼]

Quizzing ist eine äußerst effektive Methode zur Nachbereitung von Lernepisoden. So führt das Beantworten von Quiz-Fragen aus dem Gedächtnis zu höherem Lernerfolg als unspezifisches Nachbereiten, wie beispielsweise das erneute Durcharbeiten des Lernmaterials oder Note-Taking (sog. Testing Effect). Jedoch liegt die Vermutung nahe, dass der oftmals wahrgenommene Prüfungscharakter von Quizzing für Lernende mit einer stark ausgeprägten Furcht vor Misserfolg abträgliche Effekte haben könnte. Umgekehrt könnten Lernende mit einer stark ausgeprägten Hoffnung auf Erfolg umso stärker von Quizzing profitieren. Des Weiteren legt Forschung aus dem Bereich der Cognitive Load Theory nahe, dass sich eine Anpassung von Quizfragen an die subjektive kognitive Belastung der Lernenden förderlich auf den Lernerfolg auswirken könnte. Solchermaßen adaptives Quizzing könnte demnach effektiver sein als nicht-adaptives Quizzing. In dem vorliegenden Experiment mit N = 160 Studierenden wurde untersucht, (a) ob der förderliche Effekt von Quizzing gegenüber Note-Taking vom Leistungsmotiv (Furcht vor Misserfolg und Hoffnung auf Erfolg) der Lernenden moderiert wird und (b) ob das Verwenden von Quiz-Fragen, deren Schwierigkeit an die kognitive Belastung der Lernenden angepasst ist (adaptives Quizzing), die positiven Auswirkungen des Quizzing weiter steigert. Die Probanden wurden randomisiert einer von drei Bedingungen (adaptives Quizzing vs. non-adaptives Quizzing vs. Note-Taking) zugeteilt. Alle Probanden beantworteten zunächst Fragen zu ihrem Leistungsmotiv und arbeiteten anschließend an PCs in einer digitalen Lernumgebung, in der sie sich zunächst eine E-Lecture ansahen. Die Probanden der Quizzing Bedingungen beantworteten in der folgenden Nachbereitungsphase offene Quiz-Fragen. In der adaptiven Bedingung hing die Schwierigkeit der Fragen von der subjektiven kognitiven Belastung ab; in der nicht-adaptiven Bedingung nahm die Schwierigkeit der Fragen kontinuierlich zu. In der Kontrollbedingung Note-Taking machten sich die Probanden Notizen zur E-Lecture um die Lerninhalte nachzubereiten. Eine Woche später wurde ein Lernerfolgstest durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass der Testing Effect vom Leistungsmotiv der Lernenden abhing: je höher die Hoffnung auf Erfolg, desto höher der Testing Effect. Außerdem fanden wir, dass adaptives Quizzing zu höherem Lernerfolg als nicht-adaptives Quizzing führte. Somit scheint eine an die kognitive Belastung der Lernenden angepasste Gabe von Quiz-Fragen die Effektivität von Quizzing weiter steigen zu können, insbesondere dann, wenn Lernende daran interessiert sind, ihr Wissen zu testen. [less ▲]

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