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See detailThe Origins and Contemporary Development of Work-based Higher Education in Germany: Lessons for Anglophone Countries?
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Wheelehan, Leesa; Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Orr, Kevin (Eds.) et al Higher-level Vocational Education: The Route to High Skills and Productivity as well as Greater Equity? An International Comparative Analysis (in press)

Today, higher education is typically seen as offering the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups, not least higher education graduates and their ... [more ▼]

Today, higher education is typically seen as offering the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups, not least higher education graduates and their families paying ever-higher tuition fees, question the taken-for-granted contributions higher education makes to individuals and society as a whole. Despite decades of mass higher education expansion, even societies with strong systems continue to struggle to achieve their goal of universalizing participation and equalizing access. While in part this is due to limited public or corporate funding for (affordable) study opportunities, differentiated systems, such as in the US, also lack policy coordination and effective governance, providing a surfeit of options. While participation rates have climbed worldwide, higher education systems continue to produce winners (“insiders”) and losers (“outsiders”), even as the “schooled society” shifts the occupational structure upward. Market-oriented higher education systems face increasing privatization, which also involves financializing university governance. Many states have retrenched investments that had once underwritten universities’ flourishing and their moves toward massification. Tensions have deepened over who should pay for rising costs, exacerbated in an era of increasing status competition via higher education. In the face of such challenges globally, which alternatives exist? A prominent possibility, pioneered in Germany in the 1970s, are “dual study” programs offered by several organizational forms, from vocational academies to universities of applied sciences. Such hybrid programs fully integrate phases of higher education study and paid work in firms. Another potential advantage of apprenticeship training being offered in conjunction with higher education is that this would boost the reputation of apprenticeships overall. The German experience indicates that the attractiveness of the apprenticeship training system as a whole can be bolstered when it offers a viable pathway also for those individuals with a traditional university entrance certificate. If these students seriously consider and choose advanced work-based higher education, this may well increase the standing of apprenticeship training among students, their families, and employers. Thus, dual study programs provide an innovative model for policymaking and implementation. Especially when considering strategies to improve skill formation overall, to reduce the costs individuals must bear in attaining higher education, and to improve the fit between the expectations of employers and potential employees regarding skill formation, dual study programs excel. The origins and contemporary developments in work-based higher education in Germany offer lessons and inspiration for Anglophone countries, with their strong and differentiated higher education systems, to further bolster study programs coordinated with firms. [less ▲]

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See detailConferences and international collaboration revisited in times of the coronavirus: Experiences from a digital transition and lessons for the future
Epping, Elisabeth UL; Lohse, Anna Prisca; Graf, Lukas et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

"Everything was booked and ready to go for a two-day scientific workshop on education policies in Europe, scheduled for April 23-24, 2020 at the Hertie School in Berlin. The workshop intended to take ... [more ▼]

"Everything was booked and ready to go for a two-day scientific workshop on education policies in Europe, scheduled for April 23-24, 2020 at the Hertie School in Berlin. The workshop intended to take stock of developments at the European, national and sub-national levels given the European Union’s wrap up of its decade-long Education & Training 2020 strategy (ET 2020), a framework for cooperation in education and training. However, on March 12, we had to cancel the physical meeting on short notice due to the coronavirus crisis. In the following, we share our experiences with the subsequent transition to an alternative online workshop format that took place on April 23, involving 25 participants from 10 countries, and 16 paper presentations. After sketching the workshop’s virtual setup, we discuss strengths, weaknesses, and challenges related to this digital transition. Furthermore, we explore the prospects of such online formats for future academic conferences and networking." [less ▲]

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See detailHigher level vocational education: The route to high skills and productivity as well as greater equity? An international comparative analysis
Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Graf, Lukas; Orr, Kevin et al

in Nägele, Christof; Stalder, Barbara E. (Eds.) Trends in Vocational Education and Training Research. Proceedings of the European Conference on Educational Re- search (ECER), Vocational Education and Training Network (VETNET) (2018)

This international comparative analysis of higher level vocational education examines developments across five countries: England, Germany, Australia, Canada, and the USA. The authors consider how current ... [more ▼]

This international comparative analysis of higher level vocational education examines developments across five countries: England, Germany, Australia, Canada, and the USA. The authors consider how current developments address two key policy concerns: an emphasis on high skills as a means of achieving economic competitiveness and raising productivity; and the promise of increasing access for students hitherto excluded from higher education. We address these questions in relation to specific country contexts, in order to highlight similarities and differences in developments within the European arena and in a wider global context. We locate our analyses in an understanding of the different political and socio-economic conditions within different countries, which render particular reforms and innovations both possible and realizable in one context, but almost unthinkable in another. We argue for the need to recognize and embrace diversity in provision, while using comparison across countries as a means of challenging taken-for-granted assumptions of how things are and what is possible within individual country contexts. Such comparative analysis is a prerequisite for answering questions of policy transfer and learning from others. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Employer Interests and Investments Shape Advanced Skill Formation
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL

in PS: Political Science and Politics (2017), 50(2), 418-422

In many countries around the world, higher education today offers the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups—not least the college graduates and ... [more ▼]

In many countries around the world, higher education today offers the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups—not least the college graduates and their families who are paying ever-higher tuition fees—question the long taken-for-granted contributions that higher education makes to individuals and society as a whole. Despite mass expansion, societies struggle to achieve their goal of “college for all”—due in part to limited public or corporate funding for affordable study opportunities. Although participation rates have climbed worldwide, higher-education systems continue to produce winners (“insiders”) and losers (“outsiders”), even as the “schooled society” shifts the occupational structure upward. Furthermore, market-oriented higher-education systems, notably in the US and UK, face increasing privatization, which also involves financializing university governance. Many states have retrenched investments that had once underwritten the flourishing of universities and their moves toward massification. Tensions have deepened over who should pay for rising costs, exacerbated in an era of increasing status competition via higher education. In the face of such challenges globally, which alternatives exist? A prominent possibility, pioneered in Germany in the 1970s, is the “dual-study” program. These hybrid programs fully integrate phases of higher-education study and paid work in firms; students are simultaneously trainees. In the short term, firms receive inexpensive labor; in the medium term, they benefit from personnel trained in the relevant context. Yet, firms invest not only in recruiting and training motivated future full-fledged employees. They also collab- orate with higher-education institutions to develop specific curricula that promise to craft skilled workers needed in the future. In these programs, employers and educators cooperate to provide coursework in “dual”-learning settings: on campus and in the workplace. Together, they shape a labor force oriented toward current challenges and opportunities in specific sectors, such as engineering and economics or business. Dual-study programs manifest ways in which employer interests and investments are shaping advanced skill formation. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating International Student Mobility in Work-Based Higher Education: The Case of Germany
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

in Journal of Studies in International Education (2017), 21(2), 156169

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational ... [more ▼]

Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET). The continued expansion of these hybrid programs increasingly raises questions if, how, and why they may be internationalized. Although comparative research suggests that this could be challenging due to the uniqueness of the German education and training system, strong forces support internationalization. This study examines the current state and the future prospects of internationalization of such innovative dual study programs by focusing on student mobility, a key dimension of internationalization. We find growing interest in but still relatively little mobility related to dual study programs, whether among German (outgoing) or international (incoming) students. Based on expert interviews and document analysis, we extend existing typologies of student mobility regarding specific features of work-based HE programs. Furthermore, we discuss opportunities—at home and abroad—for increasing student mobility in this rapidly expanding sector. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Internationalisierung dualer Ausbildungsformen im Tertiärbereich
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

in Faßhauer, Uwe; Severing, Eckart (Eds.) Verzahnung beruflicher und akademischer Bildung: Duale Studiengänge in Theorie und Praxis (2016)

Die derzeitig rasante Expansion dualer Studiengänge wirft zunehmend die Frage nach deren systematischer Internationalisierung auf. Unsere explorative Studie beschäftigt sich deshalb mit Stand und ... [more ▼]

Die derzeitig rasante Expansion dualer Studiengänge wirft zunehmend die Frage nach deren systematischer Internationalisierung auf. Unsere explorative Studie beschäftigt sich deshalb mit Stand und Zukunftsperspektiven der Internationalisierung des dualen Studiums. Dabei erläutern wir Gründe für die noch relativ geringe Mobilität deutscher (Outgoing) und international Studierender (Incoming) sowie institutionellen Gelingensbedingungen zur Förderung derselben. Welche Modelle der Internationalisierung von dualen Studiengängen gibt es? Was sind die spezifischen Barrieren bezüglich der Internationalisierung dualer Studiengänge und wie können diese überwunden werden? Experteninterviews mit Akteuren aus dem Berufsbildungs- und Hochschulbereich sowie Firmenvertreter/ -innen stehen im Zentrum der vorliegenden institutionellen Analyse. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 189 (12 UL)