References of "Gmel, Gerhard"
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See detailTechnology-mediated addictive behaviors constitute a spectrum of related yet distinct conditions: A network perspective
Baggio, Stéphanie; Starcevic, Vladan; Studer, Joseph et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2018), 32(5), 564-572

An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technologymediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology ... [more ▼]

An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technologymediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology-mediated behaviors could be conceptualized as a spectrum of related, yet distinct disorders (spectrum hypothesis), using the network approach that considers disorders as networks of symptoms. We used data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use and Risk Factors (C-SURF), with a representative sample of young Swiss men (subsample of participants engaged in technology-mediated behaviors, n=3,404). Four technology-mediated addictive behaviors were investigated using symptoms derived from the DSM-5 and the component model of addiction: Internet, smartphone, gaming, and cybersex. Network analyses included network estimation and visualization, community detection tests, and centrality indices. The network analysis identified four distinct clusters corresponding to each condition, but only Internet addiction had numerous relationships with the other behaviors. This finding, along with the finding that there were few relationships between the other behaviors, suggests that smartphone addiction, gaming addiction, and cybersex addiction are relatively independent constructs. Internet addiction was often connected with other conditions through the same symptoms, suggesting that it could be conceptualized as an “umbrella construct,” i.e., a common vector that mediates specific online behaviors. The network analysis thus provides a preliminary support to the spectrum hypothesis and the focus on the specific activities performed online, while showing that the construct of “Internet addiction” is inadequate. [less ▲]

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See detailGame Addiction Scale Assessment Through a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Men: Item Response Theory Graded–Response Modeling
Khazaal, Yasser; Breivik, Kyrre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2018), 20(8), 10058

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary ... [more ▼]

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary conditions for consideration by item response theory (IRT) modeling remains unknown. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recently proposed criteria, in its section 3, to define internet gaming disorder (IGD) to promote research on this possible condition. Objective: The objective of our study was to (1) analyze GAS in the context of IRT (graded-response) modeling; (2) investigate differential item functioning (DIF), a feature of IRT modeling, in 2 subsamples; and (3) contribute to the ongoing (IGD) debate related to the validity of the DSM-5 criteria using GAS items as a proxy. Methods: We assessed 2 large representative samples of Swiss men (3320 French-speaking and 2670 German-speaking) with GAS. Results: All items comprised high discrimination parameters. GAS items such as relapse, conflict, withdrawal, and problems (loss of interests) were endorsed more frequently in more severe IGD stages, whereas items related to tolerance, salience (preoccupation), and mood modification (escape) were endorsed more widely among participants (including in less severe IGD stages). Several DIF effects were found but were classified as negligible. Conclusions: The results of the analyses partly support the relevance of using IRT to further establish the psychometric properties of the GAS items. This study contributes to testing the validity of the IGD criteria, although cautious generalization of our findings is required with GAS being only a proxy of the IGD criteria. [less ▲]

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