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See detailMotivational Effects of Enhanced Expectancies for Motor Learning in Individuals With High and Low Self-Efficacy
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Perceptual and Motor Skills (2019)

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and subsequent motor learning in individuals with varied motivational states (e.g., self-efficacy; SE) are not well understood. This study examined the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and motor learning in individuals with high and low SE by manipulating the type of knowledge of results (KR). We selected 60 participants from 251 male undergraduate students, based on their SE level, and assigned them to four groups: (a) Good Performance KR and High SE, (b) Poor Performance KR and High SE, (c) Good Performance KR and Low SE, and (d) Poor Performance KR and Low SE. We asked participants to throw beanbags at a target with their nondominant hand during an acquisition phase (10 blocks of six trials each) and during subsequent retention and transfer tests. During acquisition, the Good KR groups received KR from their three most accurate trials in each training block, whereas the Poor KR groups received KR from their three poorest attempts in each block. We measured accuracy scores and changes in SE as dependent variables. Results showed that KR from good trials, relative to KR from poor trials, led to better accuracy scores during acquisition and retention and transfer tests, independent of participants’ initial SE levels. Moreover, KR on good trials enhanced SE in the Good KR and Low SE group and kept SE at a high level in the Good KR and High SE group during acquisition and on the retention and transfer tests. These results provide support for the OPTIMAL (optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning) theory of motor learning, and we discuss results in terms of the potential effects of positive feedback on motor performance in professional athletes. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing Intra-Limb Coordination and Timing of Performing a Baseball-Pitch in Skilled and Unskilled Pitchers with Emphasis on Different Movement Phases
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Motor Behavior (2019), 10(34), 29-48

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare ... [more ▼]

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare the coordination between the shoulder-elbow joints and timing during execution of a Baseball-pitch by skilled and unskilled subjects emphasizing movement phases. The subjects consisted of a skilled male pitcher and eight beginner pitchers. Intra-limb coordination was obtained for the shoulder-elbow joints and was shown by angle-angle plots. Start and end points of all pitchers were normalized by linear interpolation method to 250 points. Timing, angles of the beginning and end of each phase, and the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in each phase were compared between skilled and unskilled pitchers. The results indicated that there is a relatively clear difference in the coordination patterns between the joints of the shoulder-elbow, especially in the first and second phases between skilled and unskilled pitchers. There were also many differences between unskilled pitchers with the skilled pitcher at the beginning and end as well as the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in different phases. Considering the timing variable, the time of performing the whole movement and the first, fourth, and fifth phases in unskilled pitchers was significantly shorter than that of the skilled pitcher. The results were discussed with regard to spatiotemporal characteristics of the performing Baseball-pitch in skilled and unskilled pitchers. Also, were discussed practical considerations for improving skills and preventing injury. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of observing different model demonstrations on the development of internal motor represenation
Ghorbani, Saeed; Schuster, Frerk; Hillebrecht, Martin et al

in Gymnasium: Scientific Journal of Education, Sports & Health (2017), 17(2), 55-64

This study was designed to investigate the relative effects of observing video, point­ light, and stick-figure model demonstrations on the development of internal motor representation of a highly complex ... [more ▼]

This study was designed to investigate the relative effects of observing video, point­ light, and stick-figure model demonstrations on the development of internal motor representation of a highly complex sport skill. Forty one novice female and male students were randomly assigned to video, point-light, stick-figure and no­ demonstration control groups. Internal motor representation was evaluated by a computer - based test using the error detection paradigm. Participants had to view ten digital photos representing different phases of a Baseball pitching and were instructed to identify by mouset.C:Heking various movement errors. The test was respectively performed after 5 familiarization trials (pre-test), 3 acquisition blocks of 10 trials (post­ test) and one week without practice (retention test). Participants observed related model demonstrations prior to each acquisition block. Results showed that demonstration groups improved their scores in either post-test or retention test; however these improvements were not statistically significant. Moreover, there was no significant difference between groups either in post-test or retention test. The findings are discussed in terms of difficulty of errors, insufficient amount of physical or observational practice, and small sample size. [less ▲]

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See detailThrowing skills: Analysis of movement phases in early motor learning
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Perceptual & Motor Skills (2017), 124(1), 1-12

Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprises various phases, and in the motor learning ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprises various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learner show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age ¼ 23.7 years, SD ¼ 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase. Finally, two retention tests of five trials were conducted by each participant 10 minutes and 7 days after the last acquisition block, respectively. Intraand interlimb coordination of upper and lower body segments were measured as dependent variables. We found significant differences between the stride phase and the other phases at pretest, during the acquisition phase, and on both retention tests across all kinematic variables. Participants experienced more trouble coordinating the stride phase than the other phases of pitching, perhaps because the stride phase is the only phase in which the participants had to move their upper and lower body parts simultaneously. We discuss implications for motor learning generally. [less ▲]

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See detailA three-dimensional movement analysis of the spike in fistball
Bund, Andreas UL; Ghorbani, Saeed; Rathjens, Franziska

in Sports (2016), 4(4), 1-12

Due to its relevancy to point scoring, the spike is considered as one of the most important skills in fistball. Biomechanical analyses of this sport are very rare. In the present study, we performed a ... [more ▼]

Due to its relevancy to point scoring, the spike is considered as one of the most important skills in fistball. Biomechanical analyses of this sport are very rare. In the present study, we performed a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the fistball spike, which helps to specify performance parameters on a descriptive level. Recorded by four synchronized cameras (120 Hz) and linked to the motion capture software Simi Motion® 5.0, three female fistball players of the second German league (24–26 years, 1.63–1.69 m) performed several spikes under standardized conditions. Results show that the segment velocities of the arm reached their maximum successively from proximal to distal, following the principle of temporal coordination of single impulses. The wrist shows maximum speed when the fist hits the ball. The elbow joint angle performs a rapid transition from a strong flexion to a (almost) full extension; however, the extension is completed after the moment of ball impact. In contrast, the shoulder joint angle increases almost linearly until the fistball contact and decreases afterward. The findings can be used to optimize the training of the spike. [less ▲]

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See detailObservational learning of a new motor skill: The effect of observing different model demonstrations
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching (2016), 11(4), 514-522

A central question in observational learning is which information is picked-up by the observers from a demonstration. Visual perception perspective suggested that relative motion information, such as ... [more ▼]

A central question in observational learning is which information is picked-up by the observers from a demonstration. Visual perception perspective suggested that relative motion information, such as those are highlighted in point-light or stick-figure demonstrations, is extracted and used for reproducing the modeled action. This study was designed to examine this assumption by using a Baseball-pitch as to-be-learnt motor task. Forty one novice female and male adults were randomly assigned to three demonstration groups (video, stick-figure, and point-light) and a control group. Participants performed 5 trials in pretest, three blocks of 10 trial in acquisition phase, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 min and 7 days after last acquisition block. Intra- and inter-limb coordination patterns and movement time were measured at level of overall movement and individual movement phases as dependent variables. Results show that participants improved their coordination performance from pretest to acquisition blocks and retention tests, however, regardless of model observation. No significant difference was observed between groups in two retention tests. Analysis of movement phases showed a significant improvement in stride phase from pretest to acquisition blocks. Results are interpreted in terms of theoretical and methodological backgrounds. Further perspectives in research on observational learning are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning movement phases during early stages of learning
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

Poster (2015, June)

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See detailAcquisition of a baseball-pitch through observation: What information is extracted?
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in American Journal of Sport Science and Medicine (2014), 2(6A), 18-21

The purpose of the present study was to compare the relative effects of observing video, stick figure and point-light model demonstrations on acquisition a Baseball pitch. Participants (ns = 41) in ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to compare the relative effects of observing video, stick figure and point-light model demonstrations on acquisition a Baseball pitch. Participants (ns = 41) in demonstration and control groups performed 5 trials in pretest, three blocks of 10 trials in acquisition phase, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 minutes and one week later. Participants´ performances were assessed by two raters at the level of overall movement and individual movement phases. Results showed similarities between demonstration groups in acquisition phase and early retention test. Participants showed a significant improvement in stride and follow-through phases from pretest to acquisition blocks. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and methodological backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailObservational learning of a Baseball-pitch: Which kind of information is extracted?
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in De Haan, A.; De Ruiter, C.J.; Tsolakidis, E. (Eds.) European College of Sport Science. Book of abstracts. (2014, July)

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See detailThe role of relative motion information during observational learning in sports
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Milanovic, Dragan; Sporis, Goran (Eds.) Fundamental and applied kinesiology - steps forward. Proceedings of the 7th international scientific conference on kinesiology (2014, June)

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See detailThe role of relative motion information during observational learning in sports
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

Poster (2014, May)

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See detailInfluencia de diferentes formas de representación de un videomodelo en el aprendizaje de una técnica de lanzamiento compleja
Bund, Andreas UL; Ghorbani, Saeed

in Arias, Elkin; Aguilar, Rafael Darío (Eds.) Avances en entrenamiento deportivo (2014, February)

Based on the principle of demonstration and imitation of motor skills, observational learning is a classical method of teaching and learning in the field of sports. A pivotal question regarding to ... [more ▼]

Based on the principle of demonstration and imitation of motor skills, observational learning is a classical method of teaching and learning in the field of sports. A pivotal question regarding to observational learning is which type of information is transmited by the model and his behaviour or, in other words, which information is extracted by the observer. In the "visual percpetion theory", Scully and Newell (1985) assume that mainly relative movement-information is transmitted. As "relative movement" they de-fine spatio-temporal changes in a joint or limb relative to another. According to this theory, demonstration which point out information about the relativ structure of a motor skill, e.g., point-light- and stick-figure videos, should be particularly effective. This hypothesis was examined in a study, in which 41 participants practiced the baseball pitch supported by a classic video, point-light vodeo, stick-figure video, or without video. Participants completed a pretest, three blocks of practice, and an early and delayed retention test. Learning was assessed using kinematic analyses of intra- and interlimb coordination. Overall, the hypothesis was not confirmed. The analyses revealed no significant benefit for participants who had practiced with the point-light- or stick-figure video. The results are discussed with regard to the visual perception theory and the method of our investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailEntrenamiento de la técnica con video: Como representar el video-modelo?
Bund, Andreas UL; Ghorbani, Saeed

Scientific Conference (2013, November)

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