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See detailEnhanced Lightning Network (off-chain)-based micropayment in IoT ecosystems
Robert, Jérémy UL; Kubler, Sylvain; Ghatpande, Sankalp UL

in Future Generation Computer Systems (2020)

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet ... [more ▼]

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet of Things (IoT) era. There is a global trend to move towards open innovation ecosystems that allow data owners to have better control over their data and privacy, choosing if/what and with whom to share/trade specific data streams. Nonetheless, this requires the design of IoT ecosystems that integrate automatic enforcing mechanisms to guarantee the delivery of the negotiated data, or still the capability of making near-instantaneous payments for the data (in the form of micro-units). This paper discusses the requirements that need to be fulfilled to properly support (micro)-payment in IoT, and further the extent to which different blockchain technologies can fulfill those requirements. Based on this analysis, our paper progresses the current state-of-the-art in three-respect: (i) by carrying out a benchmark performance analysis between LN and other-like solutions; (ii) by integrating the Lightning Network (LN) off-chain technology within an existing IoT ecosystem, developed as part of the bIoTope H2020 project, and (iii) by designing a novel algorithm for payment channel fee reduction. Experiments carried out in this paper show that LN outperforms traditional blockchain solutions under IoT-specific constraints and objectives, and that an optimal parameter setting of the proposed algorithm can be identified. [less ▲]

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See detailA Family of Lightweight Twisted Edwards Curves for the Internet of Things
Ghatpande, Sankalp UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL; Liu, Zhe UL

in Blazy, Olivier; Yeun, Chan Y. (Eds.) Information Security Theory and Practice, 12th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2018, Brussels, Belgium, December 10-11, 2018, Proceedings (2018, December)

We introduce a set of four twisted Edwards curves that satisfy common security requirements and allow for fast implementations of scalar multiplication on 8, 16, and 32-bit processors. Our curves are ... [more ▼]

We introduce a set of four twisted Edwards curves that satisfy common security requirements and allow for fast implementations of scalar multiplication on 8, 16, and 32-bit processors. Our curves are defined by an equation of the form -x^2 + y^2 = 1 + dx^2y^2 over a prime field Fp, where d is a small non-square modulo p. The underlying prime fields are based on "pseudo-Mersenne" primes given by p = 2^k - c and have in common that p is congruent to 5 modulo 8, k is a multiple of 32 minus 1, and c is at most eight bits long. Due to these common features, our primes facilitate a parameterized implementation of the low-level arithmetic so that one and the same arithmetic function is able to process operands of different length. Each of the twisted Edwards curves we introduce in this paper is birationally equivalent to a Montgomery curve of the form -(A+2)y^2 = x^3 + Ax^2 + x where 4/(A+2) is small. Even though this contrasts with the usual practice of choosing A such that (A+2)/4 is small, we show that the Montgomery form of our curves allows for an equally efficient implementation of point doubling as Curve25519. The four curves we put forward roughly match the common security levels of 80, 96, 112 and 128 bits. In addition, their Weierstraß representations are isomorphic to curves of the form y^2 = x^3 - 3x + b so as to facilitate inter-operability with TinyECC and other legacy software. [less ▲]

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