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See detailOptimized and flexible scheduling of AGVs and process machines in Re- manufacturing 4 .0 Systems using multi-agent technology and simultaneous scheduling
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Ramírez Fernández, Francisco Javier; Honrubia Escribano, Andrés (Eds.) Abstracts III International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 2019 (2019, October 02)

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these ... [more ▼]

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these challenges is the stochastic routing of products based on the unknown product conditions. This problem in particular requires a flexible scheduling and control system for the remanufacturing system as well as the intralogistics. The aim of this research is to optimize the scheduling and control of remanufacturing systems considering the flexible material transport by AGVs. Therefore the networking of all resources is organized as an embedded system treating the remanufacturing system as a cyber-physical system in the context of industry 4.0. The scheduling and control of the remanufacturing system will be achieved by a combination of multi-agent technology to deal with unexpected events and the optimization of the schedule by simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. Machine scheduling and transport scheduling have been vastly studied by many researchers, but most of the works address both problems separately. However, these two problems are closely linked and influence each other. By looking at them together, it is possible to achieve an improvement in the overall schedule. In the first step of the research work, the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs has been compared with the currently used sequential scheduling within a simulation study. For this purpose, benchmark instances known in the literature were used. The simulation results show the superiority of the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation-based optimization using multi-agent technology for efficient and flexible production planning and control in remanufacturing
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in International Conference on Remanufacturing (ICoR) 2019 (2019, June 25)

Remanufacturing is a process for used products to make them “as good as new or better”. A remanufacturing system typically consists of the processes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, reconditioning ... [more ▼]

Remanufacturing is a process for used products to make them “as good as new or better”. A remanufacturing system typically consists of the processes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, reconditioning reassembly and testing. Due to unknown condition of the used products many challenges occur which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not know from manufacturing. The resulting stochastic routing of products and material in particular places special demands on the flexibility of the production planning and control (PPC) in remanufacturing systems. In order to enable stochastic routing, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are used, which also contributes to increasing the complexity of the PPC. Especially the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs has to be addressed in order to enable an optimal remanufacturing process. This paper provides an overview about current research activities in the field of PPC in remanufacturing and scheduling approaches for AGVs. Furthermore, a promising approach to enable the required flexibility of the remanufacturing system and to control the dynamics contained therein is the use of a multi-agent technology. The proposed approach consists of an optimization of the PPC using a multi-agent based simulation. The multi agent-based simulation consists of intelligent agents that negotiate with each other in order to find an optimal solution and achieve high flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey: Scheduling of Automated Guided Vehicles in Flexible (Re-)Manufacturing Systems
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Müller, Rainer; Brüls, Oliver; Abba, Gabriel (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2019 (2019, June)

This work gives a state-of-the-art overview regarding the scheduling of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) in Flexible (Re-)Manufacturing Systems (FMS/FRMS). Different, general approaches are available to ... [more ▼]

This work gives a state-of-the-art overview regarding the scheduling of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) in Flexible (Re-)Manufacturing Systems (FMS/FRMS). Different, general approaches are available to solve this task. In this regard an overview of currently available fleet management software and research in this field as well as the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs is given. Production scheduling and transport scheduling have been vastly studied by many researchers, but most of the works address these both problems separately. However, these two problems are closely linked and influence each other. By looking at them together, it is possible to achieve an improvement in the overall scheduling. The different works are examined regarding the consideration of one available machine for each tasks, or if alternative machines are available and if the approaches are static or dynamic. Especially the appropriability of the presented works regarding the use in remanufacturing systems is examined. Remanufacturing is a process for used products to make them “as good as new or better”. Due to unknown condition of the used products many challenges occur during the remanufacturing process which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not know from manufacturing. The resulting stochastic routing of products and material in particular places special demands on the flexibility and dynamic of the scheduling and control of the remanufacturing system. In order to meet the challenges of a real remanufacturing system, the scheduling algorithm should consider alternative machines as well as be dynamic. None of the approaches examined can meet these requirements, which is why new methods have to be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailRobotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018
Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter UL; Brüls, Olivier et al

Book published by Shaker Verlag - 1st ed (2018)

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See detailMensch-Roboter-Kollaboration für Demontageprozesse
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Smajic, Hasan (Ed.) AALE 2018 Das Forum für Fachleute der Automatisierungstechnik aus Hochschulen und Wirtscha 15. Fachkonferenz (2018, March 02)

Die Refabrikation gebrauchter Bauteile erlaubt eine erhebliche Einsparung von Rohstoffen, Energie und Kosten. Der hohe Anteil an manueller Arbeit im Refabrikationsschritt Demontage verringert allerdings ... [more ▼]

Die Refabrikation gebrauchter Bauteile erlaubt eine erhebliche Einsparung von Rohstoffen, Energie und Kosten. Der hohe Anteil an manueller Arbeit im Refabrikationsschritt Demontage verringert allerdings die Wirtschaftlichkeit. Dadurch wird die Implementierung der Refabrikati-on im industriellen Umfeld oftmals verhindert. Die Vollautomatisierung des Demontagepro-zesses ist aufgrund der Komplexität und der damit verbundenen Kosten, in vielen Fällen nicht umsetzbar. Hier bietet die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Mensch und Roboter einen vielverspre-chenden Ansatz zur Erhöhung der Prozesseffizienz. Bei einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen Mensch und Roboter spielt deren Interaktion und Kommunikation eine zentrale Rolle. In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb vorgestellt, welche Interaktionsrollen der Mensch in einem Demon-tageprozess einnehmen kann, welche Kommunikationskanäle sich zur Informationsübertra-gung eignen und wie diese in einer Demontageapplikation umgesetzt werden können. Bei dieser Applikation wird die Demontage einer Zusatzkühlmittelpumpe aus dem Automobilbe-reich, mit Hilfe einer agentenbasierten Steuerung vorgestellt. Dazu wurden einige neue Interaktionsformen Mensch-Roboter entwickelt, die den geplanten kollaborativen Einsatz erleichtern sollen. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Progress Toward Intelligent Robot Assistants for Non-Destructive Disassembly
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter; Brüls, Olivier (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018)

One key to successful and fluent human-robot collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot systems with greater autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present our progress in ... [more ▼]

One key to successful and fluent human-robot collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot systems with greater autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present our progress in developing such an intelligent robot assistant system. We present the multi-agent control architecture we developed and describe its technical implementation. Our control approach relies on two types of knowledge models: product and process models. The product model describes the structure of the product to be dismantled through a description of the parts involved and the connections between them. A connection type-related process model describes which agents and objects participate in the disassembly process and which methods of human-robot cooperation or collaboration are most useful. When supplied with a product model and a goal definition, our robotic assistant can automatically generate a partially ordered disassembly task sequence. For each disassembly task, the user can choose one of the divisions of labor defined in the process model. Using the process model, through perception and deliberation, the control system can both execute actions and coordinate and synchronize the actions of human and machine. This approach allows the system to be more autonomous when providing assistance to human coworkers in complex and one-piece disassembly processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Virtual and Robot Assistants - A Case Study about Integrating Amazon's Alexa as a Voice Interface in Robotics
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Krieger, Rolf; Gerke, Wolfgang et al

in Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter; Brüls, Oliver (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2018 (2018)

Virtual assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Cortana and Google Assistant increasingly find ways to enter our homes and everyday lives, where they serve as powerful human-machine interfaces to control devices ... [more ▼]

Virtual assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Cortana and Google Assistant increasingly find ways to enter our homes and everyday lives, where they serve as powerful human-machine interfaces to control devices through natural language. In this work, we explore the use of virtual assistants to control single components within an intelligent industrial robot assistant system for disassembly applications. Following a short introduction and an overview of commercially available virtual assistants, we present our system architecture, which integrates Amazon's Alexa through an Echo Dot device. Utilizing the Alexa Skill Kit, we build a voice user interface that contains dialogs to control various device functions and assistive system behaviors. By connecting Alexa Voice Service with Amazon’s Lambda and IoT web services, we can parametrize machine commands depending on the user's voice input and, through a Raspberry Pi, which routes messages between the internet and decoupled machine network, send them to the devices within the intelligent robot assistance system. With the reversed communication flow, we can update and store the current state of the devices in the Amazon Web Services IoT Shadow. Utilizing the IoT Shadow, we are able to inform the user upon request about the current state of the devices by synthesize speech with the Alexa Voice Services and vocalize it through the Echo Dot. One implemented assistive system behavior and the related dialog to activate the behavior is further explained in this work. In the conclusion, we address our gathered positive and negative experience to date. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman-Robot-Collaboration for dismantling processes
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter; Brüls, Olivier (Eds.) et al Robotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2017 (2017, October)

Remanufacturing of used technical products allows saving of raw material and energy. The complex and mostly manual disassembly of the products prevents the application of remanufacturing in industry. The ... [more ▼]

Remanufacturing of used technical products allows saving of raw material and energy. The complex and mostly manual disassembly of the products prevents the application of remanufacturing in industry. The fully automated dismantling can not be achieved and the manual work causes high labour costs. Companies can profit by remanufacturing. Using human-robot collaboration for disassembly allows a certain degree of automation and provides the flexibility and knowledge of the human. This is a promising approach to economically realise a disassembly and remanufacturing of products which are difficult to disassemble or have a high variance. [less ▲]

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See detailRobotix-Academy Conference for Industrial Robotics (RACIR) 2017
Müller, Rainer; Plapper, Peter UL; Brüls, Olivier et al

Book published by Shaker Verlag - 1st ed (2017)

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See detailTowards Intelligent Robot Assistants for the non-destructive Disassembly of End of Life Products
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Gerke, Wolfgang

in Plapper, Peter; Hichri, Bassem (Eds.) Robotix-Academy Conference (2017, May 06)

The effective collaboration between humans and robots in complex and task rich environments like End of Life product disassembly depends on the ability of the robot to anticipate the workflow as well as ... [more ▼]

The effective collaboration between humans and robots in complex and task rich environments like End of Life product disassembly depends on the ability of the robot to anticipate the workflow as well as the assistance the human co-worker wants. Our approach towards such an intelligent system is the development of an informed software agent that controls the robot assistance behavior. We inform the agent with procedural and declarative knowledge about the disassembly domain through models of the product structure and actor/object models. The product structure is then transformed to a directed graph and used to build, share and define a goal-orientated coarse workflow. Depending on the tasks and wanted assistance, the system can generate adaptable and detailed workflows through searching in the situation space on the basis of predefined and task dependent actions. The created detailed workflow consists of a sequence of actions that are used to call, parameterize and execute robot programs for the fulfillment of the assistance. The aim of this research is to equip robot systems with higher cognitive skills to allow them to be autonomous in the performance of their assistance to improve the ergonomics of disassembly workstations. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intelligent agent-controlled and robot-based disassembly assistant
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Conference Proceedings on the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics ( ICAIR 2017) (2017)

One key for successful and fluent human-robot-collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot system with higher autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present an informed software ... [more ▼]

One key for successful and fluent human-robot-collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot system with higher autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present an informed software agent that controls the robot behavior to form an intelligent robot assistant for disassembly purposes. While the disassembly process first depends on the product structure, we inform the agent using a generic approach through product models. The product model is then transformed to a directed graph and used to build, share and define a coarse disassembly plan. To refine the workflow, we formulate “the problem of loosening a connection and the distribution of the work” as a search problem. The created detailed plan consists of a sequence of actions that are used to call, parametrize and execute robot programs for the fulfillment of the assistance. The aim of this research is to equip robot systems with knowledge and skills to allow them to be autonomous in the performance of their assistance to finally improve the ergonomics of disassembly workstations. [less ▲]

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See detailDemontage von Elektroantrieben mit Assistenzrobotern zum wirtschaftlichen Recycling
Jungbluth, Jan UL; Plapper, Peter UL; Gerke, Wolfgang

in Tagungsband AALE 2016 (2016)

Die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zum Zweck der Refrabrikation oder des höherwertigem Produktrecyclings findet nur selten im industriellen Umfeld Anwendung. Allerdings ist mit einem Anstieg dieses trennenden ... [more ▼]

Die zerstörungsfreie Demontage zum Zweck der Refrabrikation oder des höherwertigem Produktrecyclings findet nur selten im industriellen Umfeld Anwendung. Allerdings ist mit einem Anstieg dieses trennenden Fertigungsverfahrens in naher Zukunft zu rechnen da die immer stärker begrenzten und zugänglichen Ressourcen durch strengere Gesetze im Rahmen der Abfallwirtschaft gesichert werden müssen. Zum Beispiel wurden durch das Kreislaufwirt-schaftsgesetz der europäischen Union [1] die Hersteller dazu verpflichtet Rücknahmesysteme für elektrische und elektronische Geräte zu schaffen um sie einer weiteren wirtschaftlichen Nutzung oder umweltgerechten Entsorgung zugänglich zu machen. Für die umweltgerechte Entsorgung ist eine wertstoffgerechte Trennung der Produktkomponenten vorgesehen. Aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen erfolgt diese Materialtrennung meist verfahrenstechnisch durch Zerkleinern und Sortieren der Wertstoffe. Die weitere wirtschaftliche Nutzung ganzer Kompo-nenten wird, trotz hoher Einsparpotenziale [2], durch den Aufwand der Refabrikation kaum in Betracht gezogen. Denn die zerstörungsfreie Trennung kann bisher meist nur manuell und damit kostenintensiv erfolgen. In der Folge werden gerade im Bereich der Elektroschrottver-wertung häufig illegale Entsorgungswege über das außereuropäische Ausland gewählt [3]. Zur Verbesserung der Wirtschaftlichkeit der Demontage bietet oft die Automatisierung Lösun-gen. Um diesen Sektor der Automatisierung zugänglich zu machen, erfolgten bereits For-schungsaktivitäten zur Automatisierung der Demontage von Fernsehgeräten [4] und PCs [5]. Das Ergebnis dieser Studien zeigt, dass durch die hohe Variation der Produktgestalt oder aufgrund von Beschädigungen der Produkte, der [less ▲]

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