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See detailFunctional nano fillers in epoxy-dicyandiamide adhesives for prolonged shelf life and efficient cure
Gaukler, J. Ch; Müller, Ulrich UL; Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL et al

in e-Polymers (2011), (10), 1-15

Shelf life at room temperature and curing behaviour at elevated temperature are studied for hot-curing accelerated epoxies (EP, diglycidylether of bisphenol A plus dicyandiamide (Dicy)) by FTIR ... [more ▼]

Shelf life at room temperature and curing behaviour at elevated temperature are studied for hot-curing accelerated epoxies (EP, diglycidylether of bisphenol A plus dicyandiamide (Dicy)) by FTIR-spectroscopy and modulated DSC. The accelerator is added either directly or with nano-zeolite filler to the EP. Due to the immobilization of the accelerator in the pores of the nano-zeolite, the shelf life of this EP is 5 times longer than for the EP containing free accelerator. While the free accelerator acts during the whole heating step to curing temperature, the nano-zeolite does not release the accelerator before ca. 100 °C. As monitored by light microscopy, the released accelerator not only supports the curing but also stimulates the dissolution of the solid Dicy. As the result, network formation at 170 °C finishes within less than 25 minutes for the nano-filled EP. [less ▲]

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See detailShelf Life and Controlled Cure of Epoxies by Loaded Zeolite
Gaukler, J. Ch; Müller, Ulrich UL; Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL et al

in Composite Interfaces (2010)

Epoxy formulations based on the multi-functional amine hardener, dicyandiamide (Dicy), regularly contain a free accelerator for reducing the curing temperature and the time needed to complete the network ... [more ▼]

Epoxy formulations based on the multi-functional amine hardener, dicyandiamide (Dicy), regularly contain a free accelerator for reducing the curing temperature and the time needed to complete the network formation. Unfortunately, all accelerators reduce the shelf life of these adhesives at 25◦C. In order to solve this problem, accelerator-loaded zeolites fillers were developed, optimised with respect to host–guest interactions and characterised by Fraunhofer IFAM (Bremen, Germany) with regard to the release and curing behaviour in epoxy adhesive formulations. They are added to an epoxy adhesive (diglycidylether of bisphenol A (EP) and dicyandiamide (Dicy), mass ratio 100:6.7), stored at 25◦C in regular air or cured (heated with β = 10 K/min to 170◦C subsequent isothermal curing for 45 min). That shelf life and curing behaviour are investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and modulated DSC. Compared to the EP containing free accelerator, the zeolite-filled EP possesses a threefold increase in shelf life at 25◦C due to the immobilization of the accelerator in the pores of the zeolites. While the free accelerator acts steadily during heating, it is shown that the loaded zeolite releases the accelerator at about 76◦C. Surprisingly, the released accelerator is not only involved in the chemical formation of the epoxy network but it accelerates the dissolution of Dicy considerably. As the result, network formation at 170◦C finishes after not more than 19 min and the starting temperature for curing could be reduced to 140◦C. [less ▲]

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