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See detailRegulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) links stress with IL-1β-mediated familial Mediterranean fever attack through autophagy-driven neutrophil extracellular traps
Skendros, P.; Chrysanthopoulou, A.; Rousset, F. et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2017)

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an IL-1β-dependent autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) encoding pyrin and characterized by inflammatory attacks ... [more ▼]

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an IL-1β-dependent autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) encoding pyrin and characterized by inflammatory attacks induced by physical or psychological stress. Objective: We investigated the underlying mechanism that links stress-induced inflammatory attacks with neutrophil activation and release of IL-1β-bearing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in patients with FMF. Methods: RNA sequencing was performed in peripheral neutrophils from 3 patients with FMF isolated both during attacks and remission, 8 patients in remission, and 8 healthy subjects. NET formation and proteins were analyzed by using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, myeloperoxidase-DNA complex ELISA, and flow cytometry. Samples from patients with Still's disease and bacterial infections were used also. Results: The stress-related protein regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) is significantly overexpressed during FMF attacks. Neutrophils from patients with FMF during remission are resistant to autophagy-mediated NET release, which can be overcome through REDD1 induction. Stress-related mediators (eg, epinephrine) decrease this threshold, leading to autophagy-driven NET release, whereas the synchronous inflammatory environment of FMF attack leads to intracellular production of IL-1β and its release through NETs. REDD1 in autolysosomes colocalizes with pyrin and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat/pyrin domain-containing 3. Mutated pyrin prohibits this colocalization, leading to higher IL-1β levels on NETs. Conclusions: This study provides a link between stress and initiation of inflammatory attacks in patients with FMF. REDD1 emerges as a regulator of neutrophil function upstream to pyrin, is involved in NET release and regulation of IL-1β, and might constitute an important piece in the IL-1β-mediated inflammation puzzle. © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. [less ▲]

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See detailUnravelling a p73-regulated network: The role of a novel p73-dependent target, MIR3158, in cancer cell migration and invasiveness
Galtsidis, Sotirios UL; Logotheti, S.; Pavlopoulou, A. et al

in Cancer Letters (2017), 388

The transcription factor p73 is homologous to the well-known tumor-suppressor p53. The p73-regulated networks are of significant clinical interest, because they may substitute for impaired p53-regulated ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor p73 is homologous to the well-known tumor-suppressor p53. The p73-regulated networks are of significant clinical interest, because they may substitute for impaired p53-regulated networks which are commonly perturbed in cancer. Herein, we aimed to characterize a p73-regulated network that mediates cell migration and restores anti-oncogenic responses in p53-mutant cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that p73 regulates a network underlying cell migration, which consists of MIR34A/MIR3158/vimentin/β-catenin/lef1. The p73 isoforms transactivate the miRNA components (MIR34A/MIR3158) of this network, which in turn, downregulate their EMT-related mRNA co-targets (vimentin/β-catenin/lef1) to decrease cell-migration. Modulation of this network, by increasing the level of the novel p73-dependent target MIR3158, was found to induce anti-oncogenic/anti-invasive responses in p53-mutant cancer cells. Taken together, a p73-regulated, MIR3158-containing, network restores anti-invasive phenotypes in p53-mutant cancer cells; this property could be exploited towards the development of anticancer therapeutics. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation of a magnetic cisplatin delivery nanosystem based on PMAA-graft-PEG copolymers
Voulgari, E.; Bakandritsos, A.; Galtsidis, Sotirios UL et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016), 243

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We ... [more ▼]

The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We investigated different poly(methacrylic acid)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol methacrylate) polymers as in situ coating agents for magnetite nanocrystallites. The obtained magnetic nano-assemblies were in turn thoroughly characterized for their structural, colloidal and physicochemical properties (drug loading capacity/release, magnetic field triggered drug release, cell uptake and localization) in order to select the best performing system. With the focus on in vivo validation of such magnetic drug delivery systems for first time, we selected cisplatin as the drug, since it is a potent anticancer agent which exhibits serious side effects due to lack of selectivity. In addition, cisplatin would offer facile determination of the metal content in the animal tissues for biodistribution studies. Alongside post-mortem Pt determination in the tissues, the biodistribution of the drug nanocarriers was also monitored in real time with PET-CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients; using a novel chelator-free method, the nanoparticles were radiolabeled with 68Ga without having to alter their structure with chemical modifications for conjugation of radiochelators. The ability to be radiolabeled in such a straightforward but very robust way, along with their measured high MRI response, renders them attractive for dual imaging, which is an important functionality for translational investigations. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, in a cisplatin resistant HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma model, with and without the presence of magnetic field gradients. Enhanced anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity was recorded for the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers in comparison to the free cisplatin, particularly when a magnetic field gradient was applied at the tumor site. Post mortem and real-time tissue distribution studies did not reveal increased cisplatin concentration in the tumor site, suggesting that the enhanced anticancer efficacy of the cisplatin-loaded nanocarriers is driven by mechanisms other than increased cisplatin accumulation in the tumors. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailΔNp63α expression induces loss of cell adhesion in triple-negative breast cancer cells
Nekulova, M.; Holcakova, J.; Gu, X. et al

in BMC Cancer (2016), 16(1),

Background: p63, a member of the p53 protein family, plays key roles in epithelial development and carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, p63 expression has been found predominantly in basal-A (epithelial-type ... [more ▼]

Background: p63, a member of the p53 protein family, plays key roles in epithelial development and carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, p63 expression has been found predominantly in basal-A (epithelial-type) triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). To investigate the functional role of p63 in basal-A TNBC, we created MDA-MB-468 cell lines with inducible expression of the two major N-terminal p63 isoforms, TAp63α and ΔNp63α. Results: TAp63α did not have significant effect on gene expression profile and cell phenotype, whilst the main effect of ΔNp63α was reduction of cell adhesion. Gene expression profiling revealed genes involved in cell adhesion and migration whose expression relies on overexpression of ΔNp63α. Reduced cell adhesion also led to decreased cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Similar data were obtained in another basal-A cell line, BT-20, but not in BT-549 basal-B (mesenchymal-like) TNBC cells. Conclusions: In basal-A TNBC cells, ΔNp63α has much stronger effects on gene expression than TAp63α. Although p63 is mentioned mostly in connection with breast cell differentiation and stem cell regulation, we showed that a major effect of p63 is regulation of cell adhesion, a process important in metastasis and invasion of tumour cells. That this effect is not seen in mesenchymal-type TNBC cells suggests lineage-dependent functions, mirroring the expression of ΔNp63α in primary human breast cancers. © 2016 The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailFunctions, divergence and clinical value of TAp73 isoforms in cancer.
Logotheti, Stella; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Galtsidis, Sotirios UL et al

in Cancer and Metastasis Reviews (2013), 32(3-4), 511534

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