References of "Fridgen, Gilbert 50038516"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (32 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNot yet another digital identity
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

Article for general public (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, April)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (15 UL)
Full Text
See detailToken Economy
Sunyaev, Ali; Kannengießer, Niclas; Beck, Roman et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSmarter charging: Power allocation accounting for travel time of electric vehicle drivers
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Thimmel, Markus; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (2021), 97

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However ... [more ▼]

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However, predominantly residential power transmission is not designed for such high loads, yielding charging bottlenecks and restricting future charging at home. Addressing such bottleneck situations and including the EV driver perspective, we introduce a power allocation mechanism that considers the total travel time of the upcoming trip, consisting of actual driving time and time required for charging externally (including the detour to public charging facilities). Assuming that travel time generally negatively correlates with EV driver utility, our optimization model maximizes the resulting utility of EV drivers. Avoiding unnecessary external charging stops due to an insufficient state of charge at the time of departure, our approach generates travel time savings that increase overall EV driver utility. We illustrate our approach using exemplary cases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailO'Dair, Marcus: Distributed Creativity
Smethurst, Reilly UL; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in Zeitschrift für Urheber- und Medienrecht (2021), (11),

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe DLPS: A New Framework for Benchmarking Blockchains
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ross, Philipp; Luckow, André et al

in Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2021)

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT ... [more ▼]

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT is scalability and performance. Hence, quantifying key metrics such as throughput and latency is crucial for designing DLT-based infrastructures, applications, and ecosystems. However, current benchmarking frameworks for blockchains do not cover the whole benchmarking process; impeding transparent comparisons of different DLT networks. In this paper, we present the Distributed Ledger Performance Scan (DLPS), an open-source framework for end-to-end performance characterizations of blockchains, addressing the need to transparently and automatically evaluate the performance of highly customizable configurations. We describe our new framework and argue that it significantly improves existing DLT benchmarking solutions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the DLPS, we also summarize the main results obtained from a series of experiments that we have conducted with it, giving a first comprehensive comparison of essential scalability properties of several commonly used enterprise blockchains. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTarzan and chain: exploring the ICO jungle and evaluating design archetypes
Bachmann, Nina M.; Drasch, Benedict; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Electronic Markets (2021)

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow for truly peer-to-peer investments. Although more than \$7bn has been raised globally via ICOs as at 2018, the concept and its implications are not yet entirely understood. The research lags behind in providing in-depth analyses of ICO designs and their long-term success. We address this research gap by developing an ICO taxonomy, applying a cluster analysis to identify prevailing ICO archetypes, and providing an outlook on the token value market performance for individual archetypes. We identify five ICO design archetypes and display their secondary market development from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. We contribute to an in-depth understanding of ICOs and their implications. Further, we offer practitioners tangible design and success indications for future ICOs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (4 UL)
Full Text
See detailHow Different Electricity Pricing Systems Affect the Energy Trilemma : Assessing Indonesia?s Electricity Market Transition
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Sumarno, Theresia et al

Report (2021)

Many countries have a clear policy objective of increasing their share of renewable energy sources (RESs). However, a major impediment to higher RES penetration often lies in the historically grown ... [more ▼]

Many countries have a clear policy objective of increasing their share of renewable energy sources (RESs). However, a major impediment to higher RES penetration often lies in the historically grown structures of a country’s electricity sector. In Indonesia, policymakers have relied on cheap fossil fuels and state control to provide the population with access to both reliable and affordable electricity. However, this focus on only two of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely energy security and energy equity (and not sustainability), may put Indonesia at risk of missing its ambitious RES targets. In this context, a number of small- scale reform attempts to promote RES integration in recent years have proved to be relatively unsuccessful. Like many other countries, Indonesia needs clear policy directions to avoid an unsustainable lock-in into a fossil fuel future. In the last decades, several other countries have successfully restructured their electricity sectors, for example by introducing a wholesale market for electricity under different electricity pricing systems, including nodal, zonal, or uniform pricing. These countries may hold valuable experiences of overcoming the historically grown barriers to successful RES integration through a greater role for market mechanisms. This paper develops three generic models that allow policymakers to analyze the impact of introducing either a nodal, a zonal, or a uniform pricing system on the three horns of the energy trilemma in their country. We evaluate our model using a simplified network representation of the Indonesian electricity sector. Our results indicate that each of the pricing systems is able to foster specific horns of the energy trilemma. Considering that any major reform intended to improve energy sustainability in Indonesia will only be a success if it also addresses energy security and energy equity, we also discuss our results from the perspective of energy justice and the need to balance the country’s energy trilemma. Ultimately, we illustrate a transformation pathway for a more sustainable and just transition to a low-carbon economy in Indonesia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNot All Doom and Gloom: How Energy-Intensive and Temporally Flexible Data Center Applications May Actually Promote Renewable Energy Sources
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Walters, Steffen et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

To achieve a sustainable energy system, a further increase in electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) is imperative. However, the development and implementation of RES entail various ... [more ▼]

To achieve a sustainable energy system, a further increase in electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) is imperative. However, the development and implementation of RES entail various challenges, e.g., dealing with grid stability issues due to RES’ intermittency. Correspondingly, increasingly volatile and even negative electricity prices question the economic viability of RES-plants. To address these challenges, this paper analyzes how the integration of an RES-plant and a computationally intensive, energy-consuming data center (DC) can promote investments in RES-plants. An optimization model is developed that calculates the net present value (NPV) of an integrated energy system (IES) comprising an RES-plant and a DC, where the DC may directly consume electricity from the RES-plant. To gain applicable knowledge, this paper evaluates the developed model by means of two use-cases with real-world data, namely AWS computing instances for training Machine Learning algorithms and Bitcoin mining as relevant DC applications. The results illustrate that for both cases the NPV of the IES compared to a stand-alone RES-plant increases, which may lead to a promotion of RES-plants. The evaluation also finds that the IES may be able to provide significant energy flexibility that can be used to stabilize the electricity grid. Finally, the IES may also help to reduce the carbon-footprint of new energy-intensive DC applications by directly consuming electricity from RES-plants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow did the German and other European electricity systems react to the COVID-19 pandemic?
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Schott, Paul; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Applied Energy (2021), 285

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity ... [more ▼]

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity generation via Renewable Energy Sources rose above 55% in the first half of 2020, as compared to 47% for the same period in 2019. Given these altered circumstances, in this paper we analyze how the German and other European electricity systems behaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use data visualization and descriptive statistics to evaluate common figures for electricity systems and markets, comparing developments during the COVID-19 pandemic with those of previous years. Our evaluation reveals noticeable changes in electricity consumption, generation, prices, and imports/exports. However, concerning grid stability and ancillary services, we do not observe any irregularities. Discussing the role of various flexibility options during the COVID-19 pandemic, a relatively higher grid capacity resulting from a decreased electricity consumption, in particular, may have contributed to grid stability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUsing Blockchain to Coordinate Federal Processes: The Case of Germany's Federal Office for Migration and Refugees
Amend, Julia; van Dun, Christopher; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Urbach, Nils; Röglinger, Maximilian; Kautz, Karlheinz (Eds.) et al Digitalization Cases Vol. 2: Mastering Digital Transformation for Global Business (2021)

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of ... [more ▼]

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of competencies inhibits the delegation of process governance to a central authority such as the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). This separation also leads to regional differences as federal laws govern the procedure's general steps, whereas state laws govern implementation. Moreover, existing solutions for cross-organizational collaboration are limited in terms of flexibility, security, and data quality. As a result, the exchange of certain data on asylum procedures still occurs using Excel spreadsheets and e-mails.(b)Action taken: Against this backdrop, the BAMF explored technological options that would support the decentralized governance of the asylum procedure. After a preliminary evaluation, the BAMF decided to explore a solution based on blockchain technology. Building upon a successful proof of concept, the BAMF initiated a pilot project with Saxony's central immigration authority. This project aims to develop a blockchain solution that supports the coordination of asylum procedures and can be easily adapted to local differences and functional requirements.(c)Results achieved: The use of the blockchain solution allows for efficient, secure, and timely distribution of status information. It supports communication and improves coordination between authorities. Despite an apparent conflict between blockchain principles and data privacy requirements, the BAMF's design complies with relevant regulation (notably the GDPR). As a first-of-its-kind project, it outlines best practices and provides valuable insights into opportunities and challenges arising from the use of blockchain in the public sector.(d)Lessons learned: The BAMF's case demonstrates that blockchain solutions can be promising alternatives when the delegation of process governance to a central party is not desirable and when federal principles of organization are to be reflected technologically. However, blockchain projects require special attention to managing know-how and capabilities, software development activities, stakeholders, the regulatory context, and cross-organizational governance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailReconciling Blockchain with the GDPR: Insights from the German Asylum Procedure
Rieger, Alexander UL; Stohr, Alexander; Wenninger, Annette et al

in Blockchain and the Public Sector: Theories, Reforms, and Case Studies (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEin Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Blockchains und deren Auswirkungen auf den Energieverbrauch
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ulrich Buhl, Hans; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Informatik-Spektrum (2020)

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However ... [more ▼]

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous—not only with regard to its applications, which now go far beyond cryptocurrencies and have reached businesses and the public sector, but also with regard to its technical characteristics and, in particular, its power consumption. This paper summarizes the status quo of the power consumption of various implementations of blockchain technology, with special emphasis on the recent ‘‘Bitcoin Halving’’ and so-called ‘‘zk-rollups’’. We argue that although Bitcoin and other proof-of-work blockchains do indeed consume a lot of power, alternative blockchain solutions with significantly lower power consumption are already available today, and new promising concepts are being tested that could further reduce in particulary the power consumption of large blockchain networks in the near future. From this we conclude that although the criticism of Bitcoin’s power consumption is legitimate, it should not be used to derive an energy problem of blockchain technology in general. In many cases in which processes can be digitized or improved with the help of more energy-efficient blockchain variants, one can even expect net energy savings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe search for the perfect match: Aligning power-trading products to the energy transition
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Michaelis, Anne; Rinck, Maximilian et al

in Energy Policy (2020), 144

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the ... [more ▼]

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the highly assetspecific flexibility potential is typically only known to plant operators themselves and not, e.g., to transmission system operators. Therefore, liberalized electricity markets use prices that set explicit monetary incentives to disclose the relevant private information about the market participants’ assets. In this way, information asymmetries may be reduced. Given the different challenges of an integration of renewables, we argue that the associated new forms of volatile power profiles require new forms of power-trading products. In particular, based on recent advances in technical power measurement and billing, individual and market participant-specific power profiles may be superior to the current trading of average volumes. Against this background, we first outline various evolutionary adjustments of existing power-trading products and their underlying product parameters including (1) strengthening local pricing, (2) finer temporal granularity, (3) smaller minimum volume, and (4) shorter gate-closure time. Second, we open up a new perspective in form of a more disruptive shift towards power-profile trade, where market participants define their trading product using the actual power profile as a new product parameter. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (13 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIndustrial demand-side flexibility: A key element of a just energy transition and industrial development
Heffron, Raphael; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Wagner, Jonathan et al

in Applied Energy (2020)

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further ... [more ▼]

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further industrial development and associated economic growth. As countries worldwide transition to a low-carbon economy (in particular, by the development of renewable energy sources), the increasing fluctuation in renewable energy production requires new flexibility options within the electricity system in order to guarantee security of supply. It is advanced in this paper that such a flexibility transition with an active participation of industry in general has unique potential: It will not only promote green industrial development, but also become an engine for inclusive industrial development and growth as well as delivering a just transition to a low-carbon economy. Given the high potential of industrial demand-side flexibility, a first monitoring approach for such a flexibility transition is illustrated, which bases on a flexibility index. Our flexibility index allows for an indication of mis-developments and supports an appropriate implementation of countermeasures together with relevant stakeholders. Hence, it holds various insights for both policy-makers and practice with respect to how industrial demand-side flexibility can ensure advances towards an inclusive, just, and sustainable industrial development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (7 UL)