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See detailBlockchain as a driving force for federalism: A theory of cross-organizational task-technology fit
Roth, Tamara UL; Stohr, Alexander; Amend, Julia et al

in International Journal of Information Management (2022)

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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Germany achieved a record share of renewables during the COVID-19 pandemic while relying on the European interconnected power network
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy (2022)

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international ... [more ▼]

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international transmission flexibility, i.e., electricity imports and exports. In fact, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Germany changed from a former electricity net exporter to a net importer. This paper, therefore, analyzes what we can learn from the resulting development of German electricity imports as a flexibility measure from a market, environmental, and network perspective. We analyze data on electricity imports/exports, generation, prices, and interconnection capacities of 38 bidding zones, respectively 11 countries within the ENTSO-E. In particular, we formulate three hypotheses to partition our overarching research question. Our results reveal that from a market perspective, Germany's increased need for transmission flexibility did not generally result in increased prices for German electricity imports. Also, from an environmental perspective, Germany increasingly relied on electricity imports from countries that exhibited a lower share of renewables. Finally, during the COVID-19 pandemic some of Germany's interconnection capacities to its neighboring countries exhibited a higher utilization. In view of our results, German policymakers may reflect on decarbonization policies considering a holistic European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 8: Tokenization and Regulatory Compliance for Art and Collectible Markets: From Regulators' Demands for Transparency to Investors' Demands for Privacy
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes et al

in Lacity, Mary; Treiblmaier, Horst (Eds.) Blockchains and the Token Economy: Studies in Theory and Practice (2022)

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these ... [more ▼]

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these assets can be exchanged digitally without intermediaries. Tokenization offers investors access to a global market plus a digitized paper trail, as well as new options for the fractional ownership of artworks, art-collateralized loans, and yield-bearing art assets. The main challenge for tokenization researchers and platform developers is to simultaneously satisfy regulators’ demands for transparency and auditability as well as art investors’ demands for privacy. New technological solutions are required that enable market participants to disclose the absolute minimum amount of information that is required by regulators. We explore new concepts from distributed ledger technology, cryptography, and digital identity management that can help address this challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an evaluation of incentives and nudges for smart charging
Marxen, Hanna UL; Chemudupaty, Raviteja UL; Graf-Drasch, Valerie et al

in Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart ... [more ▼]

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart charging allows optimal distribution of load, thus preventing peak loads. Nevertheless, this incorporates certain risks for the EV user, e.g., unavailability of EVs for unplanned events. This might lead to a lack of user acceptance. This paper focuses on specific incentives and nudges, motivating users to adopt smart charging. We conducted an integrative literature review, bringing together literature from different areas. Possible incentives and nudges are monetary incentives, feedback, gamification, or smart charging as a default-setting. We conducted three focus groups with 13 EV users in Luxembourg to get first insights into which of those incentives and nudges they prefer. Preliminary results indicate that incentives and nudges should be individualized. In the future, we would use these first insights to develop a large-scale survey. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

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See detailWith or Without Blockchain? Towards a Decentralized, SSI-based eRoaming Architecture
Höß, Alexandra UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (2022)

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming ... [more ▼]

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming offers a promising solution. Yet, current eRoaming systems are typically centralized, which raises concerns of market power concentration. While the use of blockchain technology can obviate such concerns, it comes with significant privacy challenges. To address these challenges, we explore a combination of blockchain with self-sovereign identity. Specifically, we apply a design science research approach, which helps us to identify requirements, derive a conceptual architecture, and deduce design principles for decentralized eRoaming and beyond. We find that blockchain may best leverage its benefits when it takes a backseat as a public registry for legal entities. Moreover, we find that the use of self-sovereign identities could improve compliance with privacy regulations, but they should not be overused. [less ▲]

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See detailNot yet another digital identity
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Nature Human Behaviour (2021)

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See detailDigital Identities and Verifiable Credentials
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021), 63(5), 603-613

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their ... [more ▼]

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their physical credentials, and sometimes, they can decide to whom their credentials are disclosed. These familiar privileges inspired a new type of digital credential called a verifiable credential (VC). Similar to physical credentials, individuals can store their verifiable credentials in a so-called digital wallet on their mobile phone, on another edge device, or in the cloud, and they can use verifiable credentials for identification, authentication, and authorization. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency of Blockchain Technologies
Papageorgiou, Orestis UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

Report (2021)

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially of the Bitcoin blockchain has recently triggered a lot of discussions and a debate has started on the topic of making Bitcoin a sustainable ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, April)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Retail Banking: Potentiale und Herausforderungen Künstlicher Intelligenz
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Rägo, Vadim et al

Report (2021)

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See detailBlockchain Won’t Kill the Banks: Why Disintermediation Doesn’t Work in International Trade Finance
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Radszuwill, Sven; Schweizer, André et al

in Communications of the Association for Information Systems (2021), 49

In the financial services industry, many people assume blockchain to have significant impacts. From research and practice, we observe two main paradigms of how organizations interact with blockchain ... [more ▼]

In the financial services industry, many people assume blockchain to have significant impacts. From research and practice, we observe two main paradigms of how organizations interact with blockchain. First, organizations use blockchain to optimize existing processes (blockchain-based business process optimization (BPO)). Second, organizations use blockchain to disrupt existing processes, foster disintermediation, and enable disruptive business models (blockchain-based business process disruption (BPD)). However, we lack scientific research that evaluates its de facto potential. We bridge this gap by following a design science research approach to design blockchain-based business process re-engineering (BPRE) for a letter of credit that combines the advantages of BPO and BPD. We conduct three design cycles and develop three artefacts: a BPO, a BPD, and a BPRE approach. Our BPRE approach combines the advantages of partial disintermediation (i.e., increased efficiency and transparency) with the advantages of intermediaries (i.e., process flexibility, liquidity provision, and dispute mediation). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Blockchain Effect: From Inter-Ecosystem to Intra-Ecosystem Competition
Höß, Alexandra UL; Schlatt, Vincent; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2021)

Blockchains enable distributed operation, decentralized control, and token-based representations of tangible and intangible assets. Organizations commonly use blockchain technology to foster collaboration ... [more ▼]

Blockchains enable distributed operation, decentralized control, and token-based representations of tangible and intangible assets. Organizations commonly use blockchain technology to foster collaboration. In this paper, we investigate the use of blockchain to foster competition. We conduct a single-case study of Germany’s mobility-as-a-service community and its efforts to use blockchain as a technical backbone for mobility ecosystems. The community views blockchain as a technology that embodies organizing principles of empowerment and equality. These principles motivated the community to rethink ecosystem structure. In particular, the community began to question the exclusive, non-adversarial position of mobility service aggregators. We find that rethinking this position might shift their competitive focus from the inter- to the intra-ecosystem level and enables the creation of a larger ecosystem. As a second-order effect, the community began to rethink ecosystem governance. Specifically, it began to explore options for effectively distributed decision making while safeguarding efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity Spot Market Design 2030-2050
Novirdoust, Amir Ashour; Bichler, Martin; Bojung, Caroline UL et al

Report (2021)

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce ... [more ▼]

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce harmful CO2 emissions. The German government plans that even before the year 2050, all electricity generated and consumed in Germany should be greenhouse gas neutral [1]. To successfully integrate renewable energies, a future energy system must be able to handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. One important means to address such electricity production variability is demand-side flexibility. Here, industry plays a major role in responding to variable electricity supply with adequate flexibility. This is where the Kopernikus project SynErgie comes in with more than 80 project partners from academia, industry, governmental, and non-governmental organizations as well as energy suppliers and network operators. The Kopernikus project SynErgie investigates how to best leverage demand-side flexibility in the German industry. The current electricity market design in Germany is not well suited to deal with increasing levels of re- newable energy, and it does not embrace demand-side flexibility. Almost 6 GW of curtailed power in 2019 provide evidence that changes are needed with respect to the rules governing electricity markets. These rules were designed at a time when electricity generation was concentrated on a few large and dispatchable conventional power plants and demand was considered inelastic. The SynErgie Cluster IV investigates how a future-proof electricity market design should be organized. The corresponding Work Package IV.3.1 more specifically deals with analyzing and designing allocation and pricing rules on electricity spot markets. The resulting design must be well suited to accommodate demand-side flexibility and address the intermittent nature of important renewable energy sources. This whitepaper is the result of a fruitful collaboration among the partners involved in SynErgie Cluster IV which include Germany’s leading research organizations and practitioners in the field. The collaboration led to an expert workshop in October 2020 with participation from a number of international energy market experts such as Mette Bjørndal (NHH), Endre Bjørndal (NHH), Peter Cramton (University of Maryland and University of Cologne), and Raphael Heffron (University of Dundee). The whitepaper details the key recommendations from this workshop. In particular, the whitepaper recommends a move to a locational, marginal price-based system together with new bidding formats allowing to better express flexibility. We argue in favor of a one-step introduction of locational, marginal prices instead of repeatedly splitting existing zones. Frequent zone splitting involves recurring political debates as well as short- and long-run instabilities affecting the basis for financial con- tracts, for example. Importantly, the definition of stable prize zones is very challenging with increasing levels of distributed and renewable energy sources. The recommendation is the outcome of an intense debate about advantages and downsides of different policy alternatives. However, such a transition to locational, marginal prices is not without challenges, and it is a call to arms for the research community, policymak- ers, and practitioners to develop concepts on how to best facilitate the transition and ensure a reliable and efficient electricity market of the future. We’d like to thank all the project partners and are grateful for the financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as well as the Project Management Jülich. Hans Ulrich Buhl (Cluster Lead) Martin Bichler (Work Package Lead) [less ▲]

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See detailOptimierung auf der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Schlip, Johannes; Bank, Lukas; Köberlein, Jana et al

Report (2021)

This discussion paper is intended to present the range of optimisers developed in the SynErgie project and to go into more detail on the methodological aspects. In this discussion paper, a distinction is ... [more ▼]

This discussion paper is intended to present the range of optimisers developed in the SynErgie project and to go into more detail on the methodological aspects. In this discussion paper, a distinction is made between optimisers on the company platform and on the market platform. On the company platform, the goal is to ensure optimal operation of the plants, so that in addition to energy, other operational key figures are included in the analysis. These include various optimisers from production planning and control (PPC), which, in addition to energy costs, also track logistical target variables, such as the on-time delivery of products, as key figures. In addition to the production systems, the facilities of the technical building equipment (TGA) are also optimised on the company platform. Furthermore, within the discussion paper, we differentiate between energy-oriented and energy-flexible optimisation. Energy-oriented optimisation, pursues the goal of minimise energy costs, uses information from the energy markets, such as electricity price forecasts. With flexible optimisation, for example, flexibilities are determined or scheduled, which can then be transmitted to the market. The discussion paper also deals with the optimisation services of the optimisation services of the market platform, which determines the optimal marketing opportunity for the determined. The optimiser calculates the optimal time for different markets in order to maximise the proceeds of the maximise the revenue of the flexibility offered or minimise the costs. Should a flexibility provider decide to use a service to take over the marketing of his flexibility measure, information on the flexibility is transmitted between the flexibility is transmitted between the service and the company in order to be able to implement the measure in the company. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergieflexibilitätsdatenmodell der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Duda, Sebastian; Schott, Paul et al

Report (2021)

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially ... [more ▼]

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially) automated information technology processing of a wide variety of flexibility. The aim is to develop a comprehensive data model to map flexibility in a flexibility space and concrete flexibility measures. The aim is not to create a completely realistic representation of a flexibility. The focus is on mapping technically and energetically relevant information in a granularity that enables the communication of flexibility between industrial companies and energy markets. [less ▲]

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See detailRenewable electricity business models in a post feed-in tariff era
Rövekamp, Patrick; Schöpf, Michael; Wagon, Felix et al

in Energy (2021), 216

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to ... [more ▼]

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to the intermittent electricity supply of RES, market distortions, and insufficient flexibility options, exclusive participation in wholesale electricity markets might not be a viable business model for RES that no longer receive a FIT. Thus, it remains unclear which RES business models (RBMs) ensure a viable operation of RES in the post FIT era. To close this research gap, we present a typology encompassing five RBM archetypes: wholesale electricity market (1), physical power purchase agreements (2), nonphysical power purchase agreements (3), self-consumption (4), and on-site power-2-X (5). The typology includes three additional service layers, which may enhance the profitability of RBM archetypes by opening up additional revenue streams: infrastructure services (1), electricity storage services (2), and ancillary services (3). We highlight the need for new approaches to quantify the viability of RBM archetypes and services layers under different regulatory, technological, and market conditions. To prevent the imminent decommissioning of existing RESs, policy makers must shape the next era of the energy transition, weighting the implications of market-based and intervention-based energy policy approaches. [less ▲]

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