References of "Fridgen, Gilbert 50038516"
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See detailThe DLPS: A New Framework for Benchmarking Blockchains
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ross, Philipp; Luckow, André et al

in Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2021)

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT ... [more ▼]

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT is scalability and performance. Hence, quantifying key metrics such as throughput and latency is crucial for designing DLT-based infrastructures, applications, and ecosystems. However, current benchmarking frameworks for blockchains do not cover the whole benchmarking process; impeding transparent comparisons of different DLT networks. In this paper, we present the Distributed Ledger Performance Scan (DLPS), an open-source framework for end-to-end performance characterizations of blockchains, addressing the need to transparently and automatically evaluate the performance of highly customizable configurations. We describe our new framework and argue that it significantly improves existing DLT benchmarking solutions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the DLPS, we also summarize the main results obtained from a series of experiments that we have conducted with it, giving a first comprehensive comparison of essential scalability properties of several commonly used enterprise blockchains. [less ▲]

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See detailHow did the German and other European electricity systems react to the COVID-19 pandemic?
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Schott, Paul; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Applied Energy (2021), 285

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity ... [more ▼]

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity generation via Renewable Energy Sources rose above 55% in the first half of 2020, as compared to 47% for the same period in 2019. Given these altered circumstances, in this paper we analyze how the German and other European electricity systems behaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use data visualization and descriptive statistics to evaluate common figures for electricity systems and markets, comparing developments during the COVID-19 pandemic with those of previous years. Our evaluation reveals noticeable changes in electricity consumption, generation, prices, and imports/exports. However, concerning grid stability and ancillary services, we do not observe any irregularities. Discussing the role of various flexibility options during the COVID-19 pandemic, a relatively higher grid capacity resulting from a decreased electricity consumption, in particular, may have contributed to grid stability. [less ▲]

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See detailEin Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Blockchains und deren Auswirkungen auf den Energieverbrauch
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ulrich Buhl, Hans; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Informatik-Spektrum (2020)

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However ... [more ▼]

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous—not only with regard to its applications, which now go far beyond cryptocurrencies and have reached businesses and the public sector, but also with regard to its technical characteristics and, in particular, its power consumption. This paper summarizes the status quo of the power consumption of various implementations of blockchain technology, with special emphasis on the recent ‘‘Bitcoin Halving’’ and so-called ‘‘zk-rollups’’. We argue that although Bitcoin and other proof-of-work blockchains do indeed consume a lot of power, alternative blockchain solutions with significantly lower power consumption are already available today, and new promising concepts are being tested that could further reduce in particulary the power consumption of large blockchain networks in the near future. From this we conclude that although the criticism of Bitcoin’s power consumption is legitimate, it should not be used to derive an energy problem of blockchain technology in general. In many cases in which processes can be digitized or improved with the help of more energy-efficient blockchain variants, one can even expect net energy savings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe search for the perfect match: Aligning power-trading products to the energy transition
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Michaelis, Anne; Rinck, Maximilian et al

in Energy Policy (2020), 144

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the ... [more ▼]

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the highly assetspecific flexibility potential is typically only known to plant operators themselves and not, e.g., to transmission system operators. Therefore, liberalized electricity markets use prices that set explicit monetary incentives to disclose the relevant private information about the market participants’ assets. In this way, information asymmetries may be reduced. Given the different challenges of an integration of renewables, we argue that the associated new forms of volatile power profiles require new forms of power-trading products. In particular, based on recent advances in technical power measurement and billing, individual and market participant-specific power profiles may be superior to the current trading of average volumes. Against this background, we first outline various evolutionary adjustments of existing power-trading products and their underlying product parameters including (1) strengthening local pricing, (2) finer temporal granularity, (3) smaller minimum volume, and (4) shorter gate-closure time. Second, we open up a new perspective in form of a more disruptive shift towards power-profile trade, where market participants define their trading product using the actual power profile as a new product parameter. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustrial demand-side flexibility: A key element of a just energy transition and industrial development
Heffron, Raphael; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Wagner, Jonathan et al

in Applied Energy (2020)

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further ... [more ▼]

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further industrial development and associated economic growth. As countries worldwide transition to a low-carbon economy (in particular, by the development of renewable energy sources), the increasing fluctuation in renewable energy production requires new flexibility options within the electricity system in order to guarantee security of supply. It is advanced in this paper that such a flexibility transition with an active participation of industry in general has unique potential: It will not only promote green industrial development, but also become an engine for inclusive industrial development and growth as well as delivering a just transition to a low-carbon economy. Given the high potential of industrial demand-side flexibility, a first monitoring approach for such a flexibility transition is illustrated, which bases on a flexibility index. Our flexibility index allows for an indication of mis-developments and supports an appropriate implementation of countermeasures together with relevant stakeholders. Hence, it holds various insights for both policy-makers and practice with respect to how industrial demand-side flexibility can ensure advances towards an inclusive, just, and sustainable industrial development. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Citizens’ Political Decision-Making Using Information Visualisation
Graf, Vanessa; Graf-Drasch, Valerie; Tiefenbeck, Verena et al

in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2020, June 17)

Individual decision-making is a complex process. If carried out by individual citizens in the context of politically relevant decisions, serious consequences at all levels of a society might occur. That ... [more ▼]

Individual decision-making is a complex process. If carried out by individual citizens in the context of politically relevant decisions, serious consequences at all levels of a society might occur. That is why these decisions need to be made with care and preferably on a broad set of information to reflect citizens’ true preferences. However, due to limited attention, citizens often consider only salient aspects in their decision-making. To mitigate unwanted consequences following therefrom, citizens are in dire need of decision-support. We address this need by developing an Information Systems (IS) tool. Being based on information visualisation, our tool supports citizens by providing instant feedback. To ensure a meaningful engagement, the IS tool is designed according to gamification principles. A first instantiation in the context of renewable energy acceptance in Germany yields three key findings: First, we find indications that young, urban, and environmentally aware citizens are willing to accept a high percentage of renewable wind energy. Second, we find that the tool influences citizens’ decision-making. Third, we find citizens to update, however not completely turn over their preferred level of renewable wind energy after interaction with the tool. This holds true across different cross-sections of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Energy Consumption of Blockchain Technology: Beyond Myth
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ulrich Buhl, Hans; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2020)

When talking about blockchain technology in academia, business, and society, frequently generalizations are still heared about its – supposedly inherent – enormous energy consumption. This perception ... [more ▼]

When talking about blockchain technology in academia, business, and society, frequently generalizations are still heared about its – supposedly inherent – enormous energy consumption. This perception inevitably raises concerns about the further adoption of blockchain technology, a fact that inhibits rapid uptake of what is widely considered to be a groundbreaking and disruptive innovation. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous, meaning that blanket statements about its energy consumption should be reviewed with care. The article is meant to bring clarity to the topic in a holistic fashion,looking beyond claims regarding the energy consumption of Bitcoin, which have, so far, dominated the discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe token’s secret: the two-faced financial incentive of the token economy
Drasch, Benedict J; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Manner-Romberg, Tobias et al

in Electronic Markets (2020)

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early ... [more ▼]

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early stage, potential participants expect the platform utility to be low and lack an incentive to join (i.e., “chicken and egg” problem). Blockchain-enabled utility tokens hold the promise to overcome this problem. They supposedly provide a suitable financial incentive for their owners to join the platform as soon as possible. In the first half of 2018, investors seemed to believe in the presumption and spent more than US$ 17.6 billion in token sales. To date, we know little about this financial incentive in the context of the token economy. For this purpose, we model the token value development and the associated incentives in a multi-sided blockchain-enabled platform. The resulting findings suggest that blockchain-enabled utility tokens can help to overcome the “chicken and egg” problem. However, these tokens lead to contradictory incentives for platform participants, and can even inhibit platform usage. The contribution of our work is twofold: First, we develop one of the first models for token value development. Second, our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the utility token’s financial incentive. [less ▲]

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See detailThe insurance effect of renewable distributed energy resources against uncertain electricity price developments
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Halbrügge, Stephanie; Olenberger, Christian et al

in Energy Economics (2020), 91

To combat climate change, many countries all around the world currently foster the development of renewable energy sources (RES). However, in contrast to traditional energy systems that relied on few ... [more ▼]

To combat climate change, many countries all around the world currently foster the development of renewable energy sources (RES). However, in contrast to traditional energy systems that relied on few central power plants, RES are typically highly decentral and spread all over a country. Against this backdrop, the promotion of a decentralization of the energy system by fostering a regional balance of energy demand and supply with a corresponding increase in energy democracy is seen as a promising approach. However, energy democracy driven by an increasing involvement of consumers requires adequate investments of consumers in their own local RES in order to become active players, usually called prosumers. Risk associated with uncertain long-term electricity price developments is generally seen as a barrier to investments. In contrast, we describe that an investment in distributed energy resources (DERs) may actually serve as a consumer's insurance against price risk. Our results set out that the consideration of risk-aversion may actually positively shift an investment decision in renewable DERs. This is due to the prosumer becoming more self-sufficient and less dependent on uncertain price developments. To analyze such an insurance effect, we create a formal decision model considering the prosumer's risk-aversion and derive the prosumer's optimal investment in renewable DERs. However, our results also indicate that under some circumstances the insurance effect disappears: When a prosumer turns into a predominant producer, the prosumer is again exposed to risk in terms of uncertain revenues. Ultimately, our work highlights the importance of a consideration of the insurance effect when assessing an investment in renewable DERs. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Develop a GDPR-Compliant Blockchain Solution for Cross-Organizational Workflow Management: Evidence from the German Asylum Procedure.
Guggenmos, F; Lockl, J; Rieger, Alexander et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020 (2020)

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so ... [more ▼]

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so is regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the reconciliation of blockchain with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is proving to be a significant challenge. We tackled this challenge with the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we explain how we used Action Research to guide the Federal Office in creating a GDPR-compliant blockchain solution for the German asylum procedure. Moreover, we explain the architecture of the Federal Office’s solution and present two design principles for developing GDPR- compliant blockchain solutions for cross- organizational workflow management. [less ▲]

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See detailStrukturierte Analyse von Nachfrageflexibilität im Stromsystem und Ableitung eines generischen Geschäftsmodells für (stromintensive) Unternehmen
Haupt, Leon; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Schoepf, Michael UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft (2020)

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial ... [more ▼]

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial sector plays a central role for a successful energy transition due to the power-intensive processes and the resulting high electricity demand. Industrial demand response may be a cost-effective alternative to other flexibility options. At the same time, companies can reduce electricity procurement costs by providing demand response. Nevertheless, due to a complex decision-making environment and a lack of planning security, only a few companies are currently exploiting the existing potential. To reach the goals of the energy transition, the potential used must still be raised significantly, i.e., companies must align their demand for electricity more closely to the existing supply of electricity. This article supports companies in this transformation process by illustrating dimensions and characteristics of a business model for demand response. Through a literature study and subsequent expert workshops, a generic business model for companies is derived that provides transparency regarding the necessary activities and resources for enabling and implementing demand response. The results were developed using the established Business Model Canvas. This supports companies that have not yet started to use demand response in their business model development and thus reduces barriers to entry. The results presented contribute to an increase in the demand response potential of the industry. [less ▲]

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See detailHarnessing the Full Potential of Industrial Demand-Side Flexibility : an End-to-End Approach Connecting Machines with Markets through Service-Oriented IT Platforms
Roesch, Martin; Bauer, Dennis; Haupt, Leon et al

in Applied Sciences (2019), 9(18),

The growing share of renewable energy generation based on fluctuatingwind and solar energy sources is increasingly challenging in terms of power grid stability. Industrial demand-side response presents a ... [more ▼]

The growing share of renewable energy generation based on fluctuatingwind and solar energy sources is increasingly challenging in terms of power grid stability. Industrial demand-side response presents a promising way to balance energy supply and consumption. For this, energy demand is flexibly adapted based on external incentives. Thus, companies can economically benefit and at the same time contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are currently some major obstacles that impede industrial companies fromtaking part in the energymarkets. A broad specification analysis systematically dismantles the existing barriers. On this foundation, a new end-to-end ecosystem of an energy synchronization platform is introduced. It consists of a business-individual company-side platform, where suitable services for energy-oriented manufacturing are offered. In addition, one market-side platform is established as a mediating service broker, which connects the companies to, e.g., third party service providers, energy suppliers, aggregators, and energy markets. The ecosystems aim at preventing vendor lock-in and providing a flexible solution, relying on open standards and offering an integrated solution through an end-to-end energy flexibility data model. In this article, the resulting functionalities are discussed and the remaining deficits outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability's Coming Home : Preliminary Design Principles for the Sustainable Smart District
Keller, Robert; Röhrich, Felix; Schmidt, Lukas et al

in 14. International Business Informatics Conference (2019)

Consumer trends like local consumption, sharing of property, and environmental awareness change our habits and thereby our surroundings. These trends have their origin in our direct environment, in the ... [more ▼]

Consumer trends like local consumption, sharing of property, and environmental awareness change our habits and thereby our surroundings. These trends have their origin in our direct environment, in the districts of our city or community, where we live and socialize. Cities and districts are changing to “smart cities” and “smart districts” as a part of the ongoing digitalization. These changes offer the possibility to entrench the idea of sustainability and build a platform-based ecosystem for a sustainable smart district. This research aims to identify guidelines in form of preliminary design principles (PDPs) for sustainable smart districts. To achieve this, we conduct a structured literature review. On this basis, we derive and develop PDPs with the help of semi-structured interviews and a non-representative sample of the German population. The resulting nine PDPs describe a first insight into the design of sustainable smart districts. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoupling, Information Technology, and the Tradeoff between Organizational Reliability and Organizational Agility
Keller, Robert; Ollig, Philipp; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2019)

Information technology (IT) units within organizations pursue both organizational reliability and agility goals. Reliability ensures the stability and business continuity of organizations, whereas agility ... [more ▼]

Information technology (IT) units within organizations pursue both organizational reliability and agility goals. Reliability ensures the stability and business continuity of organizations, whereas agility helps to detect and exploit market opportunities. In our research, we study projects in 19 organizations and unravel the relationship between agility and reliability. We observe that in certain cases reliability can undermine agility and vice versa. Global rules, routines, and procedures can hinder organizational agility whereas responding creatively for agility can locally undermine global organizational reliability. Further, we find that organizations often use decoupling to deal with this trade-off. Although decoupling enables them to be agile and reliable at the same time, it risks undermining both capabilities in the future, by encouraging the accumulation of technical debt. We find indications of how technical debt limits opportunities to creatively respond and can increase vulnerabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailA Generic Data Model for Describing Flexibility in Power Markets
Schott, Paul; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Strobel, Nina et al

in Energies (2019), 12(10),

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing and automatizing the marketing of flexibility potentials and therefore facilitates a more advanced energy management. This requires a standardized description and modeling of power-related flexibility. The data model in this work has been developed in close collaboration with several partners from different industries in the context of a major German research project. A suitable set of key figures allows for also describing complex production processes that exhibit interdependencies and storage-like properties. The data model can be applied to other areas as well, e.g., power plants, plug-in electric vehicles, or power-related flexibility of households. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain in the \ "o public administration: support \" u support of cooperation in the asylum process
Guggenmos, Florian; Lockl, Jannik; Rieger, Alexander et al

in Informatik-Spektrum (2019)

Due to Germany's federal structures, IT architects in German authorities are often faced with major challenges. A large number of regionally different process variants must be mapped on heterogeneous IT ... [more ▼]

Due to Germany's federal structures, IT architects in German authorities are often faced with major challenges. A large number of regionally different process variants must be mapped on heterogeneous IT infrastructures. In addition, the exchange of information between authorities is not fully digitized and only partially standardized. One of the technologies that could create added value in this area of ​​conflict is blockchain. Together with the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, the applicability of the technology in the asylum area was examined in a proof-of-concept project. The central finding from the proof-of-concept is that a cross-agency blockchain solution in the asylum process is superior to central solutions in terms of integrity, performance, security and transparency. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding a Blockchain Application that Complies with the EU General Data Protection Regulation
Rieger, Alexander; Guggenmos, Florian; Lockl, Jannik et al

in MIS Quarterly Executive (2019), 18(4), 263--279

Complying with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) poses significant challenges for blockchain projects, including establishing clear responsibilities for compliance, securing lawful bases ... [more ▼]

Complying with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) poses significant challenges for blockchain projects, including establishing clear responsibilities for compliance, securing lawful bases for processing personal data, and observing rights to rectification and erasure. We describe how Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees addressed these challenges and created a GDPR-compliant blockchain solution for cross-organizational workflow coordination. Based on the lessons learned, we provide three recommendations for ensuring blockchain solutions are GDPR-compliant. [less ▲]

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See detailAffordance-Experimentation-Actualization Theory in Artificial Intelligence Research : a Predictive Maintenance Story
Keller, Robert; Stohr, Alexander; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in 40th International Conference on Information Systems (2019)

Artificial intelligence currently counts among the most prominent digital technologies and promises to generate significant business value in the future. Despite a growing body of knowledge, research ... [more ▼]

Artificial intelligence currently counts among the most prominent digital technologies and promises to generate significant business value in the future. Despite a growing body of knowledge, research could further benefit from incorporating technological features, human actors, and organizational goals into the examination of artificial intelligence-enabled systems. This integrative perspective is crucial for effective implementation. Our study intends to fill this gap by introducing affordance-experimentation-actualization theory to artificial intelligence research. In doing so, we conduct a case study on the implementation of predictive maintenance using affordance-experimentation-actualization theory as our theoretical lens. From our study, we find further evidence for the existence of the experimentation phase during which organizations make new technologies ready for effective use. We propose extending the experimentation phase with the activity of ‘conceptual exploration’ in order to make affordance-experimentation-actualization theory applicable to a broader range of technologies and the domain of AI-enabled systems in particular. [less ▲]

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See detailFraming Microgrid Design from a Business and Information Systems Engineering Perspective
Sachs, Thomas; Gründler, Anna; Rusic, Milos et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2019), 61(6), 729--744

Microgrids are decentralized distribution networks that integrate distributed energy resources and balance generation and loads locally. The introduction of microgrids can help overcome challenges of ... [more ▼]

Microgrids are decentralized distribution networks that integrate distributed energy resources and balance generation and loads locally. The introduction of microgrids can help overcome challenges of global energy systems. Despite this potential, in the information systems domain, research on microgrids has been limited. The paper on hand studies the design of microgrids for electric energy. Experts we interview state that technological microgrid solutions have been solidly developed; yet, lack of economic and business consideration is stalling their deployment. We argue that research in business and information systems engineering can provide integrated perspectives bridging from technology to markets. Therefore, from an extensive interdisciplinary literature review, we derive a framework that structures microgrid design and may guide information systems researchers. The framework comprises four layers: energy technology and infrastructure, information and communication infrastructure, application systems, and governance. We evaluate the framework in interviews with 15 experts from industry and 3 from academia. The given feedback and examples allow us to iteratively refine the framework, instantiate it, and point out research directions on microgrids in business and information systems engineering. [less ▲]

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