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See detailTransforming Unitary States into Federations: Path-Dependent Construction of Political Identities in Belgium and Lebanon
Poirier, Philippe UL; Farhat, Nadim UL; Bourbeau, Philippe et al

in Publius: the Journal of Federalism (2020), pjaa007

The theory of congruence in comparative federalism holds that institutional design will, eventually, reflect societal divisions by transferring central powers to new, autonomous entities. While this model ... [more ▼]

The theory of congruence in comparative federalism holds that institutional design will, eventually, reflect societal divisions by transferring central powers to new, autonomous entities. While this model helps to understand why many divided societies adopt federalism, it cannot explain why only certain unitary states transform into federal ones while others do not. We use a historical institutionalism approach to identify the critical junctures in the trajectory of two prominent plural polities, Belgium and Lebanon. We suggest that the politicization of identities during initial stages of state-building plays a major role in the transformation of a unitary state into a federation—which occurs in the former but not in the latter of our cases. The current contrast in both consociational democracies is explained here as a legacy of the late nineteenth century, which set in motion decisive logics of public governance that direct institutional dynamics until today. [less ▲]

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See detailTransforming Unitary States into Federations: Path-Dependent Construction of Political Identities in Belgium and Lebanon
Farhat, Nadim UL; Vloeberghs, Ward; Bourbeau, Philippe et al

in Publius: the Journal of Federalism (2020), 50(4), 593619

The theory of congruence in comparative federalism holds that institutional design will, eventually, reflect societal divisions by transferring central powers to new, autonomous entities. While this model ... [more ▼]

The theory of congruence in comparative federalism holds that institutional design will, eventually, reflect societal divisions by transferring central powers to new, autonomous entities. While this model helps to understand why many divided societies adopt federalism, it cannot explain why only certain unitary states transform into federal ones while others do not. We use a historical institutionalism approach to identify the critical junctures in the trajectory of two prominent plural polities, Belgium and Lebanon. We suggest that the politicization of identities during initial stages of state-building plays a major role in the transformation of a unitary state into a federation—which occurs in the former but not in the latter of our cases. The current contrast in both consociational democracies is explained here as a legacy of the late nineteenth century, which set in motion decisive logics of public governance that direct institutional dynamics until today. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ideational origins of European democratization: the “French connection” and the case of Belgian liberals
Farhat, Nadim UL; Poirier, Philippe UL

in French Politics (2019), 17(2019), 1-28

Why, in some cases, did old elites promote democratization without the partisan capacity to embrace mass politics and without guarantees about their future participation in the new regime? This article ... [more ▼]

Why, in some cases, did old elites promote democratization without the partisan capacity to embrace mass politics and without guarantees about their future participation in the new regime? This article investigates the case of the Liberals in Belgium who were eager, in the years between 1893–1921, to launch democratization while founding their actions and choices on a selfless approach to politics. In seeking to identify the source of this democratic preference, one factor, largely ignored in the studies on the first wave of democratization, emerges: the diffusion of democratic ideas and practices from France. Constructing and analyzing two original data sets including, respectively, the personal characteristics of Belgian Liberal MPs who were active during the democratic transition period and the speeches of those who addressed topics related to France, this article shows that the democratic ideas as well as the choices expressed by Liberal MPs in the parliament are significantly related to their prior socialization into French democratic norms. This result has broad implications for understanding ideational transfer and diffusion in the first wave of European democratization, opening new avenues for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailDémocratie(s), Parlementarismes(s) et légitimité(s)
Poirier, Philippe UL; Farhat, Nadim UL

Book published by Bruylant (2019)

Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs issus des principaux centres, chaires et réseaux de recherche en études législatives d’Amérique du Nord, d’Europe et du Maghreb. Leurs contributions en anglais et en ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs issus des principaux centres, chaires et réseaux de recherche en études législatives d’Amérique du Nord, d’Europe et du Maghreb. Leurs contributions en anglais et en français visent à comprendre les différentes transformations de la démocratie représentative dans un système concurrentiel des formes démocratiques (participative, délibérative, etc.) et de nouvelles hiérarchisations législatives (l’européanisation, le fédéralisme et le parlementarisme rationalisé). Il s’agit en premier lieu d’analyser les députés et la fabrication contemporaine de la loi, c’est -dire comment ils travaillent dans les commissions, usent de leurs pouvoirs d’interpellation et quels sont leurs rapports aux groupes d’intérêts. Il s’agit en second lieu d’évaluer la nature et les modalités du contrôle parlementaire notamment en s’intéressant aux ressources administratives mises à leurs dispositions et à leurs pouvoirs dans le domaine budgétaire. Il s’agit in fine de comprendre en quoi la composition du corps électoral et la construction de l’opinion politique, le fonctionnement des partis politiques et des groupes parlementaires, le contexte institutionnel fédéral et/ou post-autoritaire déterminent ou non le degré d’autonomie et d’efficacité parlementaire. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Farhat, Nadim UL; Poirier, Philippe UL

in Poirier, Philippe; Farhat, Nadim (Eds.) Démocratie(s), Parlementarismes(s) et légitimité(s) (2019)

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See detailFormation et évolution des mémoires de guerre : Analyse diachronique de figures historiques
Farhat, Nadim UL; Rosoux, Valérie

in Cahiers Mémoire et Politique (2018), Cahier n°6

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See detailLebanese Perceptions of the UNIFIL : views from the South
Cimino, Matthieu; Farhat, Nadim UL

in Aoun, Elena (Ed.) The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon: Multiple Perspectives on a Multinational Peace Operation (2018)

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See detailLe rôle du passé dans les conflits communautaires belges : une analyse à travers la notion de path-dependence
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Liégeois, Michel; Balzacq, Thierry (Eds.) La sécurité internationale après Lisbonne: Nouvelles pratiques dans l’Union européenne (2017)

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See detailLa société plurale est-elle « conflictogène » ? Itinéraire d’un concept structurant de la science politique
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Critique Internationale (2016), 71

Rarement notion aura connu des fortunes aussi diverses. Terminologique d’abord, avec un foisonnement étonnant de termes voulant désigner la même réalité : celle d’un espace politique renfermant plusieurs ... [more ▼]

Rarement notion aura connu des fortunes aussi diverses. Terminologique d’abord, avec un foisonnement étonnant de termes voulant désigner la même réalité : celle d’un espace politique renfermant plusieurs cultures. Après l’appellation descriptive « société plurale », au fil des décennies des catégories plus normatives s’imposent comme « société duale », « société composite », voire « société divisée ». Conceptuelle ensuite, car cette notion est charnière en science politique. Prenant le contre-pied de la dynamique unitaire de l’État-nation et se positionnant à l’opposé de la conception de Talcott Parsons selon laquelle la société est une entité intégrée assurant son fonctionnement par un ensemble de valeurs partagées1 , elle ouvre la voie, tout au long du XXe siècle, à de nouveaux champs de recherches. Ainsi, le constat de l’absence d’un socle de valeurs communes conduit plusieurs auteurs à s’intéresser au fonctionnement élitiste et consensuel de certaines de ces sociétés atteignant un résultat inattendu de stabilité politique. Cette réflexion donne lieu à l’émergence des études sur le consociationalisme. Le constat inverse d’instabilité chronique et de violences affectant de nombreuses sociétés plurales élargit quant à lui l’analyse aux conflits impliquant une dimension ethnique. [less ▲]

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See detailLes attributs du passé et la genèse des mémoires collectives
Farhat, Nadim UL; Cimino, Matthieu

in Grandjean, Geoffrey; Henrard, Gaëlle; Paulus, Julien (Eds.) Mémoires déclinées. Représentations, actions, projections (2016)

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See detailLa relation entre le timing de formation des répertoires du conflit et la variation du degré de violence
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée (2015)

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See detailThe Causal Pattern of Collective Memory in a Community Conflict: “Constant Causes” in the Belgium Case
Farhat, Nadim UL; Rosoux, Valériie; Poirier, Philippe UL

in Nationalism and Ethnic Politics (2014)

Although it has been clearly established that collective memory is a potential source of ethnic conflicts, it remains to clearly formulate the causal pattern under which the past becomes an agent of ... [more ▼]

Although it has been clearly established that collective memory is a potential source of ethnic conflicts, it remains to clearly formulate the causal pattern under which the past becomes an agent of action. Following Arthur Stinthcombe’s differentiation between “historical causes” and “constant causes,” this article analyzes collective memory in the Belgian case as a “constant cause.” In Belgium, the community conflict surrounding the increasing autonomy of Flanders and Wallonia is characterized by discourses featuring various historical representations of linguistic grievances. Analysis suggests that these representations, estimated to be the mainspring of Flemish autonomist claims, are mobilized under a causal pattern of symbolic reactivation and cognitive continuance of past linguistic injustices. [less ▲]

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See detailL’autre contentieux communautaire : le passé belge dans les discours politiques
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Cahiers de Sciences politiques de l'ULG (2014), 28

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See detailLe conflit communautaire belge entre contingence identitaire et déterminisme historique
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Revue Française de Science Politique (2012), 62

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See detailLa gestion du passé et les organisations régionales européennes: les limites de l'historiquement correct
Farhat, Nadim UL

in Les organisations régionales européennes et la gestion des crises et conflits. Portée et limites (2010)

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