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See detailSimulator-based explanation and debugging of hazard-triggering events in DNN-based safety-critical systems
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (in press)

When Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are used in safety-critical systems, engineers should determine the safety risks associated with failures (i.e., erroneous outputs) observed during testing. For DNNs ... [more ▼]

When Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are used in safety-critical systems, engineers should determine the safety risks associated with failures (i.e., erroneous outputs) observed during testing. For DNNs processing images, engineers visually inspect all failure-inducing images to determine common characteristics among them. Such characteristics correspond to hazard-triggering events (e.g., low illumination) that are essential inputs for safety analysis. Though informative, such activity is expensive and error-prone. To support such safety analysis practices, we propose SEDE, a technique that generates readable descriptions for commonalities in failure-inducing, real-world images and improves the DNN through effective retraining. SEDE leverages the availability of simulators, which are commonly used for cyber-physical systems. It relies on genetic algorithms to drive simulators towards the generation of images that are similar to failure-inducing, real-world images in the test set; it then employs rule learning algorithms to derive expressions that capture commonalities in terms of simulator parameter values. The derived expressions are then used to generate additional images to retrain and improve the DNN. With DNNs performing in-car sensing tasks, SEDE successfully characterized hazard-triggering events leading to a DNN accuracy drop. Also, SEDE enabled retraining leading to significant improvements in DNN accuracy, up to 18 percentage points. [less ▲]

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See detailBlack-box Safety Analysis and Retraining of DNNs based on Feature Extraction and Clustering
Attaoui, Mohammed Oualid UL; Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated superior performance over classical machine learning to support many features in safety-critical systems. Although DNNs are now widely used in such systems (e ... [more ▼]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated superior performance over classical machine learning to support many features in safety-critical systems. Although DNNs are now widely used in such systems (e.g., self driving cars), there is limited progress regarding automated support for functional safety analysis in DNN-based systems. For example, the identification of root causes of errors, to enable both risk analysis and DNN retraining, remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose SAFE, a black-box approach to automatically characterize the root causes of DNN errors. SAFE relies on a transfer learning model pre-trained on ImageNet to extract the features from error-inducing images. It then applies a density-based clustering algorithm to detect arbitrary shaped clusters of images modeling plausible causes of error. Last, clusters are used to effectively retrain and improve the DNN. The black-box nature of SAFE is motivated by our objective not to require changes or even access to the DNN internals to facilitate adoption. Experimental results show the superior ability of SAFE in identifying different root causes of DNN errors based on case studies in the automotive domain. It also yields significant improvements in DNN accuracy after retraining, while saving significant execution time and memory when compared to alternatives. [less ▲]

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See detailHUDD: A tool to debug DNNs for safety analysis
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 2022 IEEE/ACM 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (2022, May)

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD ... [more ▼]

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD stands for Heatmap-based Unsupervised Debugging of DNNs, it automatically clusters error-inducing images whose results are due to common subsets of DNN neurons. The intent is for the generated clusters to group error-inducing images having common characteristics, that is, having a common root cause. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to matrices (i.e., heatmaps) capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. Our empirical evaluation with DNNs from the automotive domain have shown that HUDD automatically identifies all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. A demo video of HUDD is available at https://youtu.be/drjVakP7jdU. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting DNN Safety Analysis and Retraining through Heatmap-based Unsupervised Learning
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba et al

in IEEE Transactions on Reliability (2021), 70(4), 1641-1657

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the ... [more ▼]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the functional safety of DNN-based components. We observe three major challenges with existing practices regarding DNNs in safety-critical systems: (1) scenarios that are underrepresented in the test set may lead to serious safety violation risks, but may, however, remain unnoticed; (2) char- acterizing such high-risk scenarios is critical for safety analysis; (3) retraining DNNs to address these risks is poorly supported when causes of violations are difficult to determine. To address these problems in the context of DNNs analyzing images, we propose HUDD, an approach that automatically supports the identification of root causes for DNN errors. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to heatmaps capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. We evaluated HUDD with DNNs from the automotive domain. HUDD was able to identify all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 162 (34 UL)