References of "Evrard, Estelle 50001761"
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See detailLa réintroduction des contrôles frontaliers dans l’Espace Schengen. Réflexions préliminaires pour un agenda de recherche
Evrard, Estelle UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Hamez, Grégory; Defays, Jean-Marc (Eds.) Réalités, perceptions et représentations des frontières de l'Union Européenne (in press)

This articles analyses the potential impact of closed borders or the re-establishing of border checks on the Greater Region - especially in Luxembourg.

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See detailAgenda-setting dynamics in the post-2020 cohesion policy reform: the pathway towards the European cross-border mechanism as possible policy change
Engl, Alice; Evrard, Estelle UL

in Journal of European Integration (2019)

Cross-border areas in Europe are promoted as places of integration, whose cooperation is encouraged by the Interreg programme and the European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) tool. For the ... [more ▼]

Cross-border areas in Europe are promoted as places of integration, whose cooperation is encouraged by the Interreg programme and the European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) tool. For the 2021–2027 Cohesion Pack, the European Commission proposed the European Cross-Border Mechanism (ECBM), a regulation that would allow one member state to apply the law of a neighbouring member state to facilitate cross-border projects. This mechanism represents a paradigm shift, empowering border areas to manage their own integration (functional-horizontal) and institutionalise a policy pathway for resolving border-specific legal or administrative obstacles (institutional-vertical). This paper analyses the dynamics behind the ECBM proposal according to the multiple streams framework (MSF), revealing policy and politics streams’ elements to explain agenda setting in EU policy processes. Methodologically, we apply a document analysis with qualitative content and cross-case analysis elements, and a combined strategy of deductive-inductive codes. This analysis is complemented and validated by expert interviews. [less ▲]

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See detailThomas Vercruysse (dir.), Luxembourg – Ville créative, Capybara Books 2015, 269 p.
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2019), 3

Luxembourg – Ville créative est un ouvrage riche du regard pluridisciplinaire des universitaires et experts en sémiotique, philosophie, littérature, histoire et cinéma. C’est aussi un ouvrage éclectique ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg – Ville créative est un ouvrage riche du regard pluridisciplinaire des universitaires et experts en sémiotique, philosophie, littérature, histoire et cinéma. C’est aussi un ouvrage éclectique puisque le concept de ville créative n’est véritablement opérant que dans le cadre de certaines contributions, pour analyser les conséquences et manifestations de certains développements métropolitains (e.g. développement du quartier du Limpertsberg et, en creux, l’urbanisation du plateau du Kirchberg). Les contributions plus littéraires proposent davantage des regards s’inspirant de la géocritique donnant à montrer comment la (mé)connaissance d’un lieu participe à la construction d’une représentation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EPA Alzette-Belval: A National Tool to Address Spatial Disparities at the Lorraine-Luxembourg Border
Evrard, Estelle UL

Report (2019)

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in ... [more ▼]

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in Luxembourg. The 8 municipalities under scrutiny – the association of municipality “Pays Haut Val d’Alzette”, with 28,000 inhabitants – are marked by deindustrialisation and the attractiveness of Luxembourg’s economy, which overflows its national boundaries. The vast majority of the workforce is driven to Luxembourg, and pressure on public amenities is growing. The EPA is a state-led agency with the capacity to “take back” planning responsibilities from other administrative levels to plan specific areas. This instrument is unique in the French planning system as all levels remain involved in the governance structure and as the EPA brings technical expertise and financial resources to the locality. This case study scrutinises on how the EPA can represent a leverage for greater spatial justice within and beyond the locality, in the context of growing cross-border interdependencies. What does spatial justice mean in a cross-border context? How equitable can a cross-border area be? For a couple of years, a shared awareness of the locality’s needs has reached all levels of governance from the local to the national level. The dedicated instrument, the EPA, is equipped with the regulatory and financial capacity to act. It holds also legitimacy, know-how and expertise. It is well accepted by formal stakeholders in the locality and in the broader regional and cross-border context. The EPA appears as an appropriate tool to ensure development in a coordinated manner, considerate of sustainability, and limited use of agricultural land, thus avoiding urban sprawl and scattered urbanism. Yet, the EPA is challenged to find appropriates means to 1) inform the public of its activities; 2) develop a participatory approach when using the diverging opinions as a resource for implementing its projects. Its action partly overlooks current social inequalities (as they are not part of its direct objectives), while CCPHVA and the municipalities are challenged to face them (e.g. financially). In the long run, its capacity to support the development of public services for the local population in terms of development of residential economy and public infrastructure is highly dependent on 1) CCPHVA’s and the municipalities’ effective room for manoeuvre (politically, institutionally and financially); 2) the collaboration with public stakeholders in Luxembourg when it comes to cross-border public services (i.e. transport, economic attractiveness). [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement territorial + autonomie locale = (in)justice spatiale ?
Blondel, Cyril UL; Evrard, Estelle UL

in Justice Spatiale - Spatial Justice (2019), 13

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See detailJSSJ rencontre RELOCAL – Mobilisations, sens et usages du concept de justice spatiale dans un projet de recherche européen
Blondel, Cyril UL; Evrard, Estelle UL; Németh, Sarolta et al

in Justice Spatiale - Spatial Justice (2019), 13(Espace public), 1-13

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See detailJSSJ Meets RELOCAL – Mobilizations, Meaning and Uses of the Concept of Spatial Justice in a European Research Project
Blondel, Cyril UL; Evrard, Estelle UL; Németh, Sarolta et al

in Justice Spatiale - Spatial Justice (2019), 13

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See detailTerritorial development + Local autonomy = Spatial (in)justice?
Blondel, Cyril UL; Evrard, Estelle UL

in Justice Spatiale - Spatial Justice (2019), 13

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See detailJustice spatiale - Poser la question du "Grand Luxembourg" en terme éthique
Evrard, Estelle UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailTaking stock of the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): from policy formulation to policy implementation
Evrard, Estelle UL; Engl, Alice

in Medeiros, Eduardo (Ed.) European Territorial Cooperation : Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to the Process and Impacts of Cross-Border and Transnational Cooperation in Europe (2018)

The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) has become a central tool for (sub-) state authorities to organise territorial cooperation in the EU. To take stock of this rapid change, the ... [more ▼]

The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) has become a central tool for (sub-) state authorities to organise territorial cooperation in the EU. To take stock of this rapid change, the present chapter suggests an analytical framework in two steps. Firstly, the EGTC instrument is symptomatic of a turn in how the European territorial cohesion policy relates to (sub-) state territorial cooperation (policy formulation). Before the publication of the EGTC regulation in 2006, the EU support for territorial cooperation was mainly financial (e.g. INTERREG) and regulatory (e.g. consolidation of the single market). No specific legal framework was provided. The contribution investigates this progressive turn in the cohesion policy. Secondly, the EGTC represents a tool for implementing territorial cooperation (policy implementation). The number of EGTCs created over about a decade demonstrates that this instrument fills a gap in the legislative framework of territorial cooperation. Our comparative assessment of the use of the tool reveals a dominant implementation pattern. Most of the existing EGTCs are territorially bound organisations, set-up on adjacent borders by local and regional authorities, a minority being interregional or transregional. Although they mostly have collective action resources and instruments and have identifiable objectives shared by their respective members, they follow a rather traditional pattern of cooperation where each individual member’s core activities primarily relate to a (sub-) state authority and where the EGTC acts primarily as an agent relying on its members. [less ▲]

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See detailL’aménagement du territoire transfrontalier en pratique: Réflexions pour un dialogue entre chercheurs et praticiens de la Grande Région
Bechtold, Joshua; Caesar, Beate; Christmann, Nathalie UL et al

Diverse speeches and writings (2018)

Avec une coopération initiée dans les années 1970, la Grande Région est considérée comme l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus emblématiques au sein de l’Union européenne. L’aménagement du territoire ... [more ▼]

Avec une coopération initiée dans les années 1970, la Grande Région est considérée comme l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus emblématiques au sein de l’Union européenne. L’aménagement du territoire constitue un élément essentiel de ses thématiques de coopération. Cependant, l'importance grandissante de ce champ d'action demeure relativement peu documentée d'un point de vue transfrontalier. Cette thématique reste principalement abordée sous l’angle réglementaire et institutionnel. Le présent policy paper postule qu’au-delà des règlementations, des plans et des schémas, l’aménagement du territoire transfrontalier résulte également d’une pratique visant à anticiper l’organisation d’une société dans un espace donné. Après une présentation sommaire des grandes étapes de la coopération dans le domaine de l’aménagement du territoire transfrontalier au sein de la Grande Région, le présent policy paper présente les résultats d’un exercice de recherche expérimentale réalisé en 2017, essentiellement sous la forme d’un jeu de simulation (« Planspiel »). Les principales conclusions analytiques de cet échange sont ensuite mises en lumière. Pour conclure, le document dresse une liste de recommandations basées sur l’analyse des résultats des travaux de recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Temporary Reintroduction of Border Controls Inside the Schengen Area: Towards a Spatial Perspective
Evrard, Estelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2018)

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels (March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area ... [more ▼]

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels (March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area. Although these decisions are temporary and legally framed by the Schengen code, their extent disrupts the free movement within the Schengen Area, in particular in border areas. While lawyers and economists have analyzed the impacts of this situation, the spatial perspective has remained rather neglected. This exploratory contribution aims to address this gap in the literature by outlining the spatial significance of reintroduced controls for border areas inside the Schengen Area. This contribution firstly undertakes a literature review of the different conceptual tools at hand. These are then compared with a set of exploratory empirical materials. The article focuses more precisely on the Greater Region where France and Germany have reintroduced border controls, thus disrupting in particular daily cross-border flows with Luxembourg and Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that the border acts as a filter, disrupting cross-border flows and cooperation. Also, it sheds some light on the important role played by the ideational perception of the border for practitioners and decision-makers. This contribution concludes by suggesting several paths for a future research agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux : Vers une suprarégionalisation transfrontalière ?
Evrard, Estelle UL

Book published by Presses Universitaires de Rennes (2017)

The Greater Region Saar-Lor-Lux : Towards cross-border supraregionalisation ? Border areas are often portrayed as 'laboratories of European integration'. Beyond the discourses and symbols, what does the ... [more ▼]

The Greater Region Saar-Lor-Lux : Towards cross-border supraregionalisation ? Border areas are often portrayed as 'laboratories of European integration'. Beyond the discourses and symbols, what does the concept of cross-border region actually entail? By characterising the region as the construction of an identity, a territoriality and a governance system perpetuated over time, this publication identifies and questions the specificities of these processes in the cross-border context. It distinguishes between inter- and supraregional cooperation thus questioning a border area's capacity to develop an ad hoc cross-border cooperation whose raison d'être consists in strengthening the commitments pertaining to the border area's interests. This study is underpinned by a discourse analysis and a conceptualisation of cross-border territoriality and supraregional institution. In this respect, the significance of the EGTC (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation), a European instrument providing a legal framework for cooperation, is analysed. This issue is explored in depth using the emblematic case of the Greater Region, a border area that launched in 2008 a long-term strategy to develop a 'cross-border polycentric metropolitan region'. Composed of Lorraine (France), Luxembourg, Wallonia (Belgium), Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Germany), the Greater Region constitutes one of the oldest border areas (1971) and presents the highest concentration of cross-border workers in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailWieder-Errichtung von Grenzkontrollen in Europa? Einige Gedanken zur Großregion
Nienaber, Birte UL; Evrard, Estelle UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailBrexit: Mind the gap! Die Bedeutung regionaler Disparitäten auf politische Weichenstellungen
Bissinger, Jutta UL; Evrard, Estelle UL

Article for general public (2017)

Die Ergebnisse des Referendums am 23. Juni 2016 im Vereinigten Königreich (VK) sind ein Beweis dafür, dass regionale Disparitäten und der territoriale Zusammenhalt innerhalb eines Landes politisch ... [more ▼]

Die Ergebnisse des Referendums am 23. Juni 2016 im Vereinigten Königreich (VK) sind ein Beweis dafür, dass regionale Disparitäten und der territoriale Zusammenhalt innerhalb eines Landes politisch relevante Faktoren darstellen [less ▲]

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See detailL'approche territorialisée dans la politique de cohésion 2014-2020: enjeux et perspectives pour les chercheurs et praticiens
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Baudelle, Guy; Charles-Le Bihan, Danielle (Eds.) Les régions et la politique de cohésion de l’Union européenne (2017)

In promoting the use of the place-based approach to set-up territorial development strategies, the European Commission and the OECD operated a U-turn. The place-based approach aims "at tackling persistent ... [more ▼]

In promoting the use of the place-based approach to set-up territorial development strategies, the European Commission and the OECD operated a U-turn. The place-based approach aims "at tackling persistent underutilisation of potential and reducing persistent social exclusion in specific places through external interventions and multilevel governance. It promotes the supply of integrated goods and services tailored to contexts, and it triggers institutional changes" (Barca, 2009: VII). In short, it emphasizes the role of localities in identifying their respective endogenous potential, gathering public, private and civil society actors to launch their respective development strategy. While the capacity of the cohesion policy to reduce spatial inequalities is contested since years (Sapir report, 2004), the place-based approach - brought to the fore in 2009 with the Barca report - contributed to deeply change the 2014-2020 programming period. Before defining the characteristics of the place-based approach, this contribution presents the context that led to the emergence of this approach. It then outlines how this approach was adapted to the specificities of the EU cohesion policy and more broadly, to the specificities of the European context, deeply affected by the economic and financial crisis of 2008. The contribution concludes by discussing the consequences of this approach for policy and research. [less ▲]

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See detailEncapsulating the Significance of the EGTC for Territorial Cooperation: A literature review and tentative research agenda
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Medeiros, Eduardo (Ed.) Uncovering the Territorial Dimension of European Union Cohesion Policy - Cohesion, Development, Impact Assessment and Cooperation (2017)

Within less than a decade, the European Grouping for territorial cooperation (EGTC) has become a landmark in the EU regional policy. By the end of 2015, sixty EGTCs were established while 16 were in the ... [more ▼]

Within less than a decade, the European Grouping for territorial cooperation (EGTC) has become a landmark in the EU regional policy. By the end of 2015, sixty EGTCs were established while 16 were in the pipelines. Although non-obligatory, it is conceived as a crucial tool in the implementation of the EU regional policy, in particular to manage European territorial cooperation programmes. The EGTC is a genuinely multifaceted instrument raising crucial research questions for European and border studies. It is first and foremost a legal instrument resulting from the EU legal order developing new standards for cross-border cooperation. In making it possible to involve local, regional and national authorities to manage territorial cooperation initiatives, it scrambles policy networks and gives a new operationalisation to the concept of multi-level governance. Crossing perspectives, disciplines, methods of analyses and research questions is crucial to grasp the multifaceted dimensions of this tool and its significance for European territorial cooperation. This article undertakes a literature review of the existing body of literature with the intention to outline the main characteristics of the existing EGTCs. This helps outlining possible avenues for a future research agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Freeport Luxembourg. Logistique, pure valeur et volatilisation de l’œuvre d’art
Puglia, Ezio UL; Evrard, Estelle UL

in Esprit (Paris, France : 1932) (2016)

In the last decade, especially after the 2008 financial crisis, artwork has become a successful financial asset. Improved logistical techniques and specific legal provisions (as the evergrowing spread of ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, especially after the 2008 financial crisis, artwork has become a successful financial asset. Improved logistical techniques and specific legal provisions (as the evergrowing spread of Free Economic Zones) have fostered this evolution. Created in 2014, Le Freeport Luxembourg is the first free zone in Luxembourg. It follows the exemple of the Geneva and Singapore freeports. Its creation coincides with the attempt to diversify the country’s national economy, and to develop a niche where finance, art, and logistics meet. The empirical analysis comprehends a document analysis, fieldwork (incl. photographs) and three semi-structured interviews with experts working at the Freeport Luxembourg. The contribution investigates how Le Freeport territorializes immaterial flows, thus imposing practices and contributing to establishing Luxembourg as a prominent node of the international art market. The paper demonstrates how this territorialization results into the enclaving of the building and into the dematerialization of artwork and valuables. While other similar freeports are in project around the world (Dubai, Shangai), this case study investigates an emerging trend which exemplifies, and takes to extremes, the functioning of the current logistical organization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): Towards a Supraregional Scale of Governance in the Greater Region SaarLorLux?
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Geopolitics (2016)

All over Europe, EGTCs (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation) are mushrooming. Between 2006, when the EU regulation entered into force, and 2014, 51 EGTCs have been established. Conceived as a ... [more ▼]

All over Europe, EGTCs (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation) are mushrooming. Between 2006, when the EU regulation entered into force, and 2014, 51 EGTCs have been established. Conceived as a legal tool to facilitate cross-border, interregional or transnational cooperation, the EGTC was established after years of lobbying from cross-border organisations. Apart from practical guidelines mostly dedicated to the legal possibilities and limitations of this tool, few academic studies examine the significance of this tool for cross-border governance as such. This paper develops such a perspective, using the case study of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, (Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and Wallonia), where two existing EGTCs are operating. The EGTC INTERREG IV A Greater Region is the only EGTC managing an EU programme; the EGTC Secretariat of the Summit supports the main political organisation in this area. This contribution argues that the EGTC tool can facilitate the emergence of a supraregional scale of governance. This paper examines how this instrument allows the institutionalisation of a cross border entity in terms of its capacity to embody and perpetuate the cross-border region, and to implement its strategy. It then applies this conceptualisation to the specific context of the Greater Region. The empirical analysis shows that although the two EGTCs institutionalise the cooperation, they are rather conceived as administrative and operational tools. The paper concludes with possible explanations of such a mismatch between the potential of this tool and the effective use of it. [less ▲]

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