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See detailMeasuring Executive Functions and their Relations to Mathematical Skills in Preschool Children: A Meta-Analysis
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2020, July)

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, working memory) are linked to mathematical skills in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, working memory) are linked to mathematical skills in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance in school mathematics is predictive of various competencies later in life. While some researchers argue that tests of executive functions and mathematical skills measure the same underlying construct, others argue that they measure distinct but correlated constructs. Also, evidence on the differentiation of cognitive skills over time exists. Clarifying the relation between executive functions and mathematical skills is, however, challenging, especially because preschoolers cannot fill in commonly used questionnaires that require them to read. As a consequence, researchers have to resort to behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments of executive functions. Objectives/Methodology: With this meta-analysis of 26 studies containing 238 effect sizes, we examined the link between executive functions and early mathematical skills for a total sample of 24,256 preschool children. Specifically, we synthesized the corresponding correlations and sought to clarify which executive function assessments were used for preschool children and how the assessment characteristics may moderate the correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills. Results: Utilizing three-level random-effects meta-analysis, we found a moderate correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschool children, r = 0.35. The type of assessment (behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments) did not moderate this relation. Differentiating between the three executive functions revealed average correlations of r = 0.31 between math and inhibition, r = 0.38 between math and attention shifting, and r = 0.36 between math and updating. These analyses will be supplemented by further moderator analyses. Conclusions: Our findings support the significant link between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschoolers—yet, the average correlations do not suggest that both measures are identical. Results will be discussed against the background of deployed assessments and testing environments. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit motives and children's salivary cortisol reactivity to an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)
Spengler, Benedikt; Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2020), 162

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier ... [more ▼]

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children; TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum et al., 1997) in 89 healthy children (45 female; Mage = 7.74, SDAge = 0.46). We assessed implicit motives by a 6-image Picture Story Exercise (PSE) and cortisol by 6 saliva samples. As hypothesized, the procedure triggered a significant cortisol reaction, F(1.44, 127.05Greenhouse-Geisser) = 8.22, p = .002, η²part = 0.09. Contrary to our hypothesis, children high in nPow showed no significant increase in CR (β = 0.06, p = .60). However, our results were in line with the findings of Wegner, Schüler, and Budde (2014) that a high implicit affiliation motive is associated with an attenuated CR (β = −0.21, p = .05). Perspectives for future research on implicit motives and children's CR to psychosocial stress are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasures of Executive Functions and Mathematical Skills are Distinct Even at a Young Age: A Meta-Analysis with Preschool Children
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2020)

Measures of executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, working memory) are linked to measures of mathematical skills in school students and adults. However, the magnitude of this relation in ... [more ▼]

Measures of executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, working memory) are linked to measures of mathematical skills in school students and adults. However, the magnitude of this relation in preschool children is unclear. Following the literature on the differentiation of cognitive skills over time, some researchers suggest that tests of executive functions and mathematical skills measure the same underlying construct, while others suggest that they measure correlated but distinct constructs. This dispute does not only tap the question of how the constructs can be understood but also the question of cost and test efficiency (i.e., assessments of single vs. multiple constructs). Clarifying the relation between measures of the two constructs can be especially challenging because preschoolers cannot fill in commonly used questionnaires that require them to read. Thus, researchers have to resort to behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments of executive functions. As a result, executive functions may vary in their relation to mathematical skills as a consequence of their measurement. We examined the link between executive functions and early mathematical skills measures, conducting a meta-analysis of 26 studies containing 238 effect sizes for a total sample of 24,256 preschool children. Specifically, we synthesized the corresponding correlations and aimed to clarify which executive function assessments were used for preschool children and how assessment characteristics may moderate the correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills. Three-level random-effects meta-analysis revealed a small to moderate average correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills measures of preschool children, r = 0.35. The type of assessment (behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments) did not moderate this relation. Investigating the three executive functions separately, we found average correlations of r = 0.31 between mathematical skills and inhibition, r = 0.38 between mathematical skills and attention shifting, and r = 0.36 between mathematical skills and updating. These analyses will be supplemented by further moderator and sensitivity analyses. These findings emphasize the significant link between executive functions and mathematical skills measures in preschoolers—hereby, supporting that the measures of both constructs are distinct. In addition, under-researched areas around the assessment of executive functions and mathematical abilities will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe coronavirus (COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents in March and April 2020
Niepel, Christoph UL; Kranz, Dirk; Borgonovi, Francesca et al

in British Journal of Health Psychology (2020)

The study compares empirical results on the coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (causing COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents stratified for age, gender, and race in mid‐March 2020 (N1 = 1,182) and ... [more ▼]

The study compares empirical results on the coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (causing COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents stratified for age, gender, and race in mid‐March 2020 (N1 = 1,182) and mid‐April 2020 (N2 = 953). While the fatality risk perception has increased from March 2020 to April 2020, our findings suggest that many US adult residents severely underestimated their absolute and relative fatality risk (i.e., differentiated for subgroups defined by pre‐existing medical conditions and age) at both time points compared to current epidemiological figures. These results are worrying because risk perception, as our study indicates, relates to actual or intended health‐protective behaviour that can reduce SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission rates. [less ▲]

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See detailQuid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation?
Emslander, Valentin UL

in Ellwart, Thomas; Peiffer, Henrike (Eds.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum (2019)

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante ... [more ▼]

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante Qualifikationen gelehrt. Um die Qualität entsprechender Lehrveranstaltungen zu sichern, führen Bildungsstätten Lehrveranstaltungsevaluationen (LVE) durch. Positive Ergebnisse bei diesen LVE stellen nicht nur ein Maß für die Qualitätssicherung der Lehre dar, sondern dienen auch als Aushängeschild für die Bildungsstätten und als Feedbackinstrument für die Lehrenden. Es stellt sich jedoch die Frage, ob Lehrende durch die Vergabe zu guter/milder Noten/Bewertungen die Evaluationsergebnisse der eigenen Lehrveranstaltung positiv beeinflussen können und es somit zu einer Verzerrung in den Evaluationsergebnissen kommt. Dies kann die Gültigkeit von LVE und deren Nutzen als aussagekräftiges Feedbackinstrument einschränken. Emslander, V. (2019). Quid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation? [Quid pro quo: Does grading leniency lead to better results in the course evaluation?] In T. Ellwart & H. Peiffer (Hrsg.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum, (01/2019), Download: https://www.uni-trier.de/index.php?id=64878 [less ▲]

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See detailSozialpsychologische Mechanismen im AfD-Wahlprogramm erkennen: Ein Workshop gegen den Rechts-Populismus
Emslander, Valentin UL; Leistikow, Helen; Bolli, Swantje

in Walther, Eva; Isemann, Simon D. (Eds.) Die AfD – psychologisch betrachtet (2019)

Seit ihrer Gründung zieht die Partei Alternative für Deutschland eine immer größere Wählerschaft an. Sie stellt sich selbst als Protestpartei dar, die für die wahren Bedürfnisse der Bürger*innen eintrete ... [more ▼]

Seit ihrer Gründung zieht die Partei Alternative für Deutschland eine immer größere Wählerschaft an. Sie stellt sich selbst als Protestpartei dar, die für die wahren Bedürfnisse der Bürger*innen eintrete und diese gegen das Establishment und Minderheiten verteidige. Doch was steht hinter den rechtspopulistischen Inhalten, die die Partei vermittelt? Welche Strategien verwendet die AfD um Bürger*innen anzuziehen? Und wie kann man sich diesen erwehren und auch andere zum reflektierten Umgang mit den Parteiinhalten bewegen? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wird in diesem Kapitel nach einer kurzen Einleitung zum Thema Populismus ein Workshop vorgestellt, der Menschen für die sozialpsychologischen Mechanismen, die im Wahlprogramm der Alternative für Deutschland wirken, sensibilisieren soll. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (3 UL)
See detailSozialpsychologie und die AfD – Wieviel Psychologie steckt im Wahlprogramm?
Emslander, Valentin UL; Bolli, Swantje; Schellen, Guido

Speeches/Talks (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)
See detailDie Psychologie des Widerstands: Sozialpsychologische Mechanismen im AfD-Wahlprogramm erkennen
Emslander, Valentin UL; Bolli, Swantje; Leistikow, Helen et al

Presentation (2018, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 UL)
See detailSozialpsychologie und die AfD – Wieviel Psychologie steckt im Wahlprogramm?
Emslander, Valentin UL; Bolli, Swantje; Leistikow, Helen et al

Presentation (2018, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailRelationship satisfaction: Establishing measurement and structural invariance across men with gay and straight identity
Emslander, Valentin UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Kranz, Dirk et al

Poster (2017, September)

The Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988) is a widely employed, seven-item measure of relationship satisfaction. However, research on its measurement invariance across people differing in ... [more ▼]

The Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988) is a widely employed, seven-item measure of relationship satisfaction. However, research on its measurement invariance across people differing in their sexual orientation identity has yet to be conducted. Consequently, it is still an open question whether the RAS can be used for comparative research across gay and straight people. This study starts filling this gap in examining RAS' measurement invariance across gay and straight men. To this end, we drew on a sample of 644 German men (half gay/straight), who responded to the German-version RAS (Hassebrauck, 1991), which has been extensively validated and found to be equivalent to its English counterpart. A stepwise multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine configural, metric, and scalar invariance as well as the structural invariance of latent factor variances and means across groups. Configural, metric, and partial scalar measurement invariance (by freeing one item intercept) could be established, indicating that the RAS enables comparative research targeting variances and means. Further, structural invariance testing revealed non-invariant variances but invariant latent means across groups, indicating that gay and straight men's reported relationship satisfaction is equally high albeit differently distributed. [less ▲]

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