References of "El Adib, Brahime"
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See detailCritical field anisotropy in the antiferroelectric switching of PbZrO3 films
Milesi-Brault, Cosme; Godard, Nicolas; Girod, Stephanie et al

in APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS (2021), 118(4),

Antiferroelectrics have been recently sparking interest due to their potential use in energy storage and electrocaloric cooling. Their main distinctive feature is antiferroelectric switching, i.e., the ... [more ▼]

Antiferroelectrics have been recently sparking interest due to their potential use in energy storage and electrocaloric cooling. Their main distinctive feature is antiferroelectric switching, i.e., the possibility to induce a phase transition to a polar phase by an electric field. Here, we investigate the switching behavior of the model antiferroelectric perovskite PbZrO3 using thin films processed by chemical solution deposition in different geometries and orientations. Both out-of-plane and in-plane switching configurations are investigated. The critical field is observed to be highly dependent on the direction of the electric field with respect to the film texture. We show that this behavior is qualitatively consistent with a phase transition to a rhombohedral polar phase. We finally estimate the importance of crystallite orientation and film texturation in the variations observed in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailElucidating the growth mechanism of ZnO films by atomic layer deposition with oxygen gas via isotopic tracking
Nguyen, Tai; Valle, Nathalie; Guillot, Jerome et al

in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C (2021), 9(12), 4307-4315

The growth process of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) accompanied by the presence of oxygen gas pulsing is investigated by means of the isotopic tracking of oxygen O-18 from ... [more ▼]

The growth process of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) accompanied by the presence of oxygen gas pulsing is investigated by means of the isotopic tracking of oxygen O-18 from the water precursor and oxygen O-16 from the gas. In a previous study [T. Nguyen et al., Results Mater., 2020, 6, 100088, DOI: 10.1016/j.rinma.2020.100088], by means of structural, electrical, and optical characterizations, we identified key growth parameters of this unusual ALD process. Unexpectedly, the influence of molecular oxygen on the crystallography, microstructure, and morphology of the hundred-nanometer- to micrometer-thick ZnO films was significant. In this study, we present an unprecedented methodology by combining isotopic tracers with mass spectrometry to elucidate the role of the two different sources of oxygen atoms during the evolution of the growth. Notably, the use of in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) reveals new insights into the reaction mechanism for ZnO thin film growth. On the one hand, the non-negative mass change during the ZnO growth without O-2 gas is attributed to the presence of bare zinc atoms on the surface due to the reaction between monoethyl zinc and hydroxyl groups of the water precursor after the diethyl zinc pulse. On the other hand, the detection of ZnxOyC2H5- ions by Time-of-Flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) and the mass increase during the O-2 pulse suggest a new reaction mechanism for the ZnO thin film growth in the presence of gaseous O-2 where the ethyl ligand of the zinc precursor can react with O-2 to form ethylperoxy radicals. The formations of the ethylperoxy zinc and/or zinc atoms lead to more adsorption of water to form ethylhydroperoxide during the water pulse, inducing the positive mass change. The use of an isotopic substitution allowed us to unambiguously associate the mass gain with the gradual incorporation of gaseous oxygen throughout the growth process and thereby support the chemical reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailWaste- and Cd-Free Inkjet-Printed Zn(O,S) Buffer for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
Chu, van Ben UL; Siopa, Daniel UL; Debot, Alice UL et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2021), 13

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See detailSynthesis, theoretical and experimental characterisation of thin film Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 ternary alloys (x = 0 to 1): Homogeneous intermixing of Sn and Ge
Robert, Erika UL; Gunder, René; De Wild, Jessica UL et al

in Acta Materialia (2018), 151

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin ... [more ▼]

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin film form in order to establish relationships between group IV composition and structural, vibrational and opto-electronic properties. Seven single phase Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 films are prepared from x ¼ 0 to 1, showing a uniform distribution of Ge and Sn laterally and in depth. The films all show a monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice parameters are extracted using Le Bail refinement and show a linear decrease with increasing Ge content. Using density-functional theory with hybrid functionals, we calculate the Raman active phonon frequencies of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2GeS3. For the alloyed compounds, we use a virtual atom approximation. The shift of the main Raman peak from x ¼ 0 to x ¼ 1 can be explained as being half due to the change in atomic masses and half being due to the different bond strength. The bandgaps of the alloys are extracted from photoluminescence measurements and increase linearly from about 0.90 to 1.56 eV with increasing Ge. The net acceptor density of all films is around 1018 cm 3. These analyses have established that the alloy forms a solid solution over the entire composition range meaning that intentional band gap grading should be possible for future absorber layers. The linear variation of the unit cell parameters and the band gap with group IV content allows composition determination by scattering or optical measurements. Further research is required to reduce the doping density by two orders of magnitude in order to improve the current collection within a solar cell device structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDeliberate and Accidental Gas-Phase Alkali Doping of Chalcogenide Semiconductors: Cu(In,Ga)Se2
Colombara, Diego UL; Berner, Ulrich; Ciccioli, Andrea et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Alkali metal doping is essential to achieve highly efficient energy conversion in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells. Doping is normally achieved through solid state reactions, but recent observations of ... [more ▼]

Alkali metal doping is essential to achieve highly efficient energy conversion in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells. Doping is normally achieved through solid state reactions, but recent observations of gas phase alkali transport in the kesterite sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) system (re)open the way to a novel gas-phase doping strategy. However, the current understanding of gas-phase alkali transport is very limited. This work (i) shows that CIGSe device efficiency can be improved from 2% to 8% by gas-phase sodium incorporation alone, (ii) identifies the most likely routes for gas-phase alkali transport based on mass spectrometric studies, (iii) provides thermochemical computations to rationalize the observations and (iv) critically discusses the subject literature with the aim to better understand the chemical basis of the phenomenon. These results suggest that accidental alkali metal doping occurs all the time, that a controlled vapor pressure of alkali metal could be applied during growth to dope the semiconductor, and that it may have to be accounted for during the currently used solid state doping routes. It is concluded that alkali gas-phase transport occurs through a plurality of routes and cannot be attributed to one single source. [less ▲]

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See detailSecondary phase formation during monoclinic Cu2SnS3 growth for solar cell application
De Wild, Jessica UL; Robert, Erika UL; El Adib, Brahime et al

in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 217 (9 UL)